Summit of the Licancabur volcano
|Elevation||5,920 m (19,420 ft)|
|Prominence||1,320 metres (4,330 ft)|
|Location||Chile / Bolivia|
|Age of rock||Holocene|
|First ascent||Inca, pre-Columbian|
Licancabur is a highly symmetrical stratovolcano on the southernmost part of the border between Chile and Bolivia. It is located just southwest of Laguna Verde in Bolivia. The volcano dominates the landscape of the Salar de Atacama area. The lower two thirds of the northeastern slope of the volcano belong to Bolivia, 5,400 m (17,717 ft) from the foot at 4,360 m (14,304 ft), while the rest and biggest part, including the higher third of the northeastern slope, the crater and summit, belong to Chile.
The summit and the crater are located entirely in Chile, slightly over 1 km (3,281 ft) to the southwest of the international borders. It is about 400 m (1,312 ft) wide and contains Licancabur Lake, a 70 m (230 ft) by 90 m (295 ft) crater lake which is ice-covered most of the year. This is one of the highest lakes in the world, and despite air temperatures which can drop to -30 °C, it harbors planktonic fauna.
Licancabur's most recent volcanic activity produced extensive lava flows which extend 6 km down the northwest and southwest flanks, with older lava flows reaching 15 km (9 mi) and pyroclastic flow deposits as far as 12 km (7 mi) from the peak. Archaeological evidence at the summit provides proof of pre-Columbian ascents and suggests the importance of crater lakes in Inca culture. This also supports the absence of major eruptions over the past 500–1,000 years.
The word Licancabur is the Castilianization of a Kunza name used by the Atacameño Likan-antay people to refer to the volcano: lican (people) and cabur (mountain), thus meaning "Mountain of the People".
Panorama of Licancabur volcano.
Licancabur, on the left, is much younger than its smaller neighbour Juriques.
- List of volcanoes in Bolivia
- List of volcanoes in Chile
- List of andean peaks with known pre-columbian ascents
- Purico Complex
- Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
- Licancabur in Acme Mapper
- Lago Licancabur in Google Maps
- "Licancabur". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
- De Silva, Shanaka L.; Francis, Peter (1991). Volcanoes of the Central Andes. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 81–82. ISBN 3-540-53706-6.
- Biggar, John (2005). Andes: a Guide for Climbers (3rd ed.). Castle Douglas: Andes. pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7.
- "Spatterings of Stars and Snow". Picture of the Week. European Southern Observatory. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- "Alien Atacama". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Iconic, Conical Licancabur Watches Over Chajnantor". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- NASA Licancabur Expedition: Exploring the Highest Lakes on Earth
- Gonzalez-Ferran, Oscar (1994). Volcanes de Chile (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Santiago, Chile: Instituto geografico militar. ISBN 956-202-054-1.
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