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Temporal range: Tremadocian–Frasnian
Terataspis grandis e.JPG
Terataspis grandis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Trilobita
Order: Lichida
Moore, 1959
Superfamilies [1]

Lichida is an order of typically spiny trilobite that lived from the Tremadocian to the Devonian period.[2] These trilobites usually have 8–13 thoracic segments.[1] Their exoskeletons often have a grainy texture or have tubercles. Some species are extraordinarily spiny, having spiny thoracic segments that are as long or longer than the entire body, from cephalon (head) to pygidium (tail). The sections of the pygidia are leaf-like in shape and also typically end in spines.


  1. ^ a b S. M. Gon III (January 1, 2008). "Pictorial guide to the order Lichida". Retrieved October 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ H. B. Whittington (2002). "Lichidae (Trilobita): morphology and classification". Journal of Paleontology 76 (2): 306–320. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2002)076<0306:LTMAC>2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 1307144. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Data related to Lichida at Wikispecies