|• Chairman||Mikhail Karpovich|
|• Total||50 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||158 m (518 ft)|
|• Total||99 976|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (FET)|
|Area code(s)||+375 154|
The name Lida is derived from the name of the River Lidzeya. Its origin is associated with the Lithuanian name Lyda - Lydimas, meaning to fuse, to cast (denoting forest clearing). Names in other languages are spelled as Polish: Lida and Yiddish: לידע.
There are passing mentions of Lida in chronicles from 1180. Until the early 14th century, the settlement at Lida was a wooden fortress in Lithuania proper. In 1323, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas built a brick fortress there. The generally considered founding year of Lida is 1380. The fortress withstood Crusader attacks from Prussia in 1392 and 1394 but was burned to the ground in 1710. Following the death of Gediminas, when Lithuania was divided into principalities, Lida became the capital of one of them, the seat of Algirdas.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lida was in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the second half of the 14th century, after the Christianization of Lithuania, the Catholic parish was established in the former Lithuanian pagan lands, and a church, whose ruins still exist, was built by Jogaila. In the 15th century, the town became a centre of production by craftsmen and trade. Lida was connected with Vilnius, Navahrudak and Minsk. The town had a market square and four streets: Wielenska, Zamkowa, Kamieńska and Krivaya. The 17th century was a difficult time for Lida, which was caught by the forces of Russia and Sweden. A depression resulted, and people moved out of Lida.
In 1588, Lida became the seat of Lida District in Vilnius Voivodeship. Magdeburg Rights were granted to the town in 1590 and confirmed in 1776 by the Polish Sejm. They let Lida hold two annual fairs of little import to the local economy. The population was between 2000 and 5000 people.
By 1786, only 514 inhabitants were left in Lida, whicc, after the Russian Empire after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, was annexed by the Russian Empire as a powiat centre of the Slonim Governorate (1795).
The town was mostly destroyed during the French occupation in 1812. In 1817, the population was 1366 people. In 1842, it became the centre of Vilna Governorate. In 1863 and 1873, two beer factories were built in Lida. In 1884, the railway from Vilnius to Lunenets was finished. In 1907, the railway from Molodechno to Mosty was opened. In 1897, the town had 8626 people.
After two-year school opened, a parish school with adepartment for girls opened and a Jewish school. In 1899, a hospital opened which consisted of 25 beds. In 1901, a cast-iron plant began to operate. In 1903, a sawmill started operating.
At the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, two brick plants were built. In 1904, there were 1000 houses, of which 275 were brick, 14 small enterprises, four hospitals with beds for 115 patients and six elementary schools for 700 pupils. In 1904, the Russian Social Democratic Party was formed near Minsk. During the revolutions of 1905 to 1907, workers' uprisings took place, complete with political slogans. In 1914, there were almost 40 factories.
Polish troops, under General Józef Adam Lasocki, reached the outskirts of Lida in early March 1919. On April 15, they resumed their advance, and on April 17 they captured Lida, a screening operation to the taking of Vilnius.
On 17 July 1920, the Red Army returned, but it was forced to retreat in August after their defeat at Warsaw.
On 30 September 1920, Polish and Russian troops fought in and around Lida during the Battle of the Niemen River, as the Soviet 21st Rifle Division tried to assault Polish positions but was repulsed by the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Division. The Poles took about 10,000 prisoners from the Soviet 3rd Army.
By the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, Lida was ceded by the Soviets to Lithuania, but the treaty was not recognized by Poland. In accordance with 1921 Riga Peace Treaty, the town was awarded to Poland and was a powiat centre in the Nowogródek Voivodeship.
In 1927 were 24 factories in Lida, whose production grew rapidly in 1928. A new rubber goods factory started, employing almost 800 people. Lida was also an important garrison of the Polish Army, with one infantry division and the 5th Corps of the Polish Air Force stationed there.
From June 1941 to July 1944, it was occupied by German troops, who killed almost 25,149 people. On September 18, 1943, the Jewish Community of Lida was rounded up and taken to Majdanek, where they were murdered. Only about 200 Lida Jews survived the Holocaust. In September 1944, Lida became part of Grodno Region.
Jews first settled in Lida in the middle of the 16th century, and permission to construct a synagogue was granted by King Stefan Batory in 1579. The temple was decimated and rebuilt with the permission of King Wladyslaw Vasa in 1630. By 1817, the Jewish Community numbered 567, nearly three quarters of the total population of the city. Lida had a particularly-sightly brick synagogue. Old photographs can be found.
During the First World War, the Germans captured Lida on 26 September 1915, and both Jews and Gentiles were forced into labour. Soon after the German Occupation ceased in winter 1918, Bolsheviks entered the city and created a strong sense of the Revolution. In 17 April 1919, Polish soldiers entered Lida and committed a pogrom, killing 39 Jews. Lida was captured by the Red Army in 17 July 1920 but was retaken by Polish troops in 29 September 1920. After the Peace of Riga, it was passed to Poland and became powiat (county) centre in Nowogródek Voivodeship.
The interwar period was a short period of economic growth for the Jewish community. All aspects flourished, and there were 12 fully functioning synagogues. In 1931, the Jewish population grew to 6,335, and at the dawn of the Holocaust, refugees increased the number to nearly 8,500. In the fall of 1939, the Red Army moved in and annexed Lida to the Baranavichy Voblast of Byelorussian SSR, part of the Soviet Union in 19 September 1939. Once again, the Jews were oppressed, and all cultural aspects of the community were diminished. The Soviets imprisoned surrounding Jews in Lida.
On 27 June 1941, the Germans severely damaged the city, and by December, a ghetto was created on the suburbs of Lida in which several families ended up crowding into a single home. On May 7, 1942, the ghetto was sealed, and the next day, nearly 6,000 were taken to a military firing range, where they were shot and piled in ready-made grave pits. About 1,500 educated Jews remained in the ghetto, and the population was added to by incoming refugees.
A few groups secretly escaped the city and hid in the forests until the city was liberated in 9 July 1944, but the rest of the community was murdered on September 18, 1943. It was passed to the new Grodno Voblast in 1944.
Monuments and attractions
- Lida Castle was built by the order of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas for protection against assaults by the Teutonic Knights. The stone foundations were laid in 1323. Parts of the trapezium-shaped fortress were added on up through the 15th century. In the mid-17th century, an army of 30,000 was sent by Prince Nikita Khovansky of Moscow to destroy it, and in the Great Northern War (1700–1721), Swedes came and blew up the castle's towers, permanently diminishing its military purpose. It has since been restored, and tourists come to view its crimson walls.
- The Roman Catholic Church of the Exaltation of the Cross, a fine example of local late Baroque architecture.
- The Church of St. Joseph in Lida was built in 1794 to 1825. Built in the Late Classicism Style, the round stone church has an attractive dome and front. In 1842, it was destroyed by a fire but was soon rebuilt. It is now an Orthodox Church.
- The Catholic Church in Lida was given a new sanctuary in April 2007. The refreshingly-white interior complements the tan exterior.
- In spring 2001, the Jewishs of Belarus worked closely with the residents of Lida to erect a memorial commemorating the thousands of Lida Jews that perished in the Holocaust. In autumn 2003 was an unveiling ceremony, involving 400 people. Now, visitors and residents alike can take a visit to this memorial, which properly honors all innocent victims of World War II.
- Altitude: 158 m (518 ft)
- Winter temperatures: around 1 °C
- Spring temperatures: around 10 °C
- Summer temperatures: around 17 °C
- Autumn temperatures: around 7 °C
- Stormy weather
- David ben Aryeh Leib of Lida (ca. 1650-1696), Ashkenazi rabbi
- Yitzchak Yaacov Reines rabbi of Lida and founder of Mizrakhi Jewish religious Zionist movement
- Konstanty Gorski (1859–1924), Polish composer and violinist
- Andrzej Januszajtis (1928-), Polish physicist and Professor
- Stefan E. Warschawski (1904–1989), mathematician
- Pola Raksa (1941–), Polish movie star
- Aleksander Zyw (1905–1995), artist born here
Twin towns — Sister cities
Lida is twinned with:
- "World Gazetteer". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Zinkevičius, Zigmas (2007). Senosios Lietuvos valstybės vardynas. Vilnius: Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute. p. 43. ISBN 5-420-01606-0.
- "Battle Of Warsaw". Hetmanusa.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2013-03-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Lida". Shtetlinks.jewishgen.org. 1917-09-21. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- lidazayiflama.us Archived 2011-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lida, Belarus Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lida.|
- History of Lida
- Attractions of Lida
- Castle of Lida
- Jurkau kutoczak — Юркаў куточак — Yury's Corner. Замак Гедыміна ў Лідзе
- Lida News
- Lida, Belarus at JewishGen