Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man
|Lieutenant Governor of The Isle of Man|
Coat of Arms of The Isle of Man
|Residence||Government House, Isle of Man|
|Term length||At His/Her Majesty's pleasure|
|First holder||Henry Hope|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Isle of Man
The Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man (Manx: Fo-chiannoort Vannin or Lhiass-chiannoort Vannin) is the British sovereign's official personal representative in the Isle of Man. He has the power to grant royal assent and is styled "His Excellency".
In recent times the Governor has been either a retired diplomat or a senior military officer. No Manx-born person has ever been appointed Lieutenant Governor, although Manx-born First Deemsters (ex officio Deputy Governors) have taken on the role temporarily during an interregnum between Governors, and during periods when the Lieutenant Governor is off-Island.
In the past, the Lieutenant Governor wielded judicial, fiscal and executive power on the Island, and around 1900 had more power than any other Governor in the British Empire. However, he lost his role as Head of the Judiciary in 1921, as Head of Government in 1961, as President of the Legislative Council in 1980 and finally as President of Tynwald in 1990. Today the role of Lieutenant Governor is essentially ceremonial, although certain powers under Isle of Man legislation do still fall to the Governor or Governor-in-Council (a decision on the advice, and with the approval of, the Council of Ministers).
Proposed change to title
In October 2005 Tynwald sought to change the title of the Lieutenant Governor to Crown Commissioner. This proposal was sent to the British Department of Constitutional Affairs for submission to the Lord of Mann Elizabeth II for approval. However, in April 2006, after much public disapproval, Tynwald rejected their own proposal and withdrew their request for Royal Assent. Thus the Lieutenant Governor has remained as previously titled.
Before 2010 the Lieutenant Governor was appointed by the Crown on the advice of a panel led by the Government of the United Kingdom. In July 2010 the Government of the Isle of Man announced that the next Lieutenant Governor would be appointed on advice of an entirely local panel, comprising the Chief Minister, President of Tynwald and the First Deemster. The new procedure was used for the first time a few months later to choose Sir Paul Haddacks' successor.
On 16 November 2010 the Isle of Man Government announced the appointment by the Crown of former UK diplomat Adam Wood as the next Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man. His term was scheduled to start on 4 April 2011; he was officially sworn into office on 7 April 2011 at Castle Rushen in Castletown.
A question was often posed as to what was the proper title of the Chief Executive of the island, and whether there were any words in the Commissions of the Lieutenant Governors which suspended their functions during the presence in the island of the Lord of Mann or a Governor of the Isle of Man.
Such a question was considered in 1877 by the eminent Manx advocate Sir James Gell, who referred to a search he undertook at the Rolls Office, the results of which are included in a list of 83 appointments of Governors between 1595 and 1863. Not all appointments during that period are listed in this article as it was difficult to trace appointments prior to 1639, about which time the practice began of keeping a distinct book for the enrolment of commissions. In addition, after that date certain commissions were also omitted to be enrolled. For instance no record of the appointment of John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl as Governor in 1793 could be traced.
Historically the designations Governor, Lieutenant (that is the King's/Queen's or Lord of Mann's Lieutenant) and Captain were synonymous. Only one reference to Deputy Lieutenant is made, that of Governor Horton's appointment in 1725.
In some commissions expressions designating the office, such as Governor; Captain General and Commander-in-Chief; Chief Governor and Commander-in-Chief; Chief Governor; and Governor-in-Chief and Captain General; may well imply the conferring of powers, civil and military, though the designation given may possibly affect the rank of the person appointed, as between himself and others holding similar or analogous appointments.
If the sovereign intended not to bestow the full powers of a Governor on a specific person, then the limitations had to be expressed on the face of the commission. However no record of such an amendment exists, and although any legal power exercised could not be questioned as to its legality by any subject, a Governor as between himself and the Crown, would be controlled as to the exercise of his powers by his instructions and would therefore be accountable for any injudicious use of them.
Sir James Gell twice held the office of Governor of the Isle of Man: first during the illness of Lord Henniker, Sir James being appointed Deputy and presiding at Tynwald; and second during the interregnum between the death of Lord Henniker and the appointment of Lord Raglan.
Whilst Sir James was appointed Deputy Governor on the first occasion, he was appointed Acting Governor in the second instance, an important distinction. The Dukes of Atholl were the last supreme Governors of the Isle of Man, until the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765, also known as the Act of Revestment. All Governors since then had been Lieutenant Governors, but Sir James' appointment as Acting Governor was on a par with the position of the Duke of Atholl, and he had the right to appoint a Lieutenant Governor had he so wished. So his office as Acting Governor carried with it greater authority than that of Lieutenant Governor; this fact Sir James himself pointed out to the Home Office.
The term Lieutenant Governor was not used before the Act of Revestment in 1765; the term Deputy Governor was used instead. The appointments of Peter Legh (1596), Ratcliffe Gerrard (1639), Roger Nowell (1660), William Sacheverell (1692), Thomas Huddlestone (1700) and Alexander Horne (1713) as Deputy Governors can therefore be seen as temporary appointments during a vacancy.
Lieutenant Governors and Deputy Governors could exercise the powers of a Governor of the Isle of Man in one respect: they could appoint Deputies. In the cases of Charles Stanley (1702) and Bishop Isaac Barrow (1774) this prerogative was specifically granted; however over time it became common custom amongst successive Lieutenant Governors. This would allow Governors to appoint deputies for specific periods or purposes, such as during the Governor's absence on specified occasions, or during his illness when not absent (the list below illustrates this and shows the great number of appointments made by Governors of Deputies during their absence). For instance the various appointments of Deemsters McYlrea and Taubman can be seen as examples of appointments for executing judicial functions.
Before the Act of Revestment, Deputies were expressly appointed to act during absence, except in one case: that of Bishop Isaac Barrow in 1664. In this case the Deputy Governor, Roger Nowell, acted whilst Governor Barrow was in the Island, sometimes along with him and sometimes solely. This was an exceptional case; it was probably not intended that the Bishop have more to do with temporal affairs than was absolutely necessary.
Since Revestment, the appointments of Lieutenant Governors Henry Hope (1773), Richard Dawson (1775 and 1777), Alexander Shaw (1790), Lord Henry Murray (1804) and Cornelius Smelt (1805) were also expressly held during the absence of the Governors. The appointments of Lieutenant Governors John Ready (1832), Charles Hope (1845) and Francis Pigott Stainsby Conant (1860), say nothing as to the presence of a Governor-in-Chief, and these three persons were therefore appointed to be "merely" Lieutenant Governors. It may be the case with the appointment of Colonel Ready that it was not intended for him to take the office of Governor-in-Chief, and therefore no allusion was made in the commissions of the Lieutenant Governors to their office. However, it appears that without any words expressly suspending the functions of a Lieutenant Governor, they would as a matter of course be suspended.
List of Governors
|Date of appointment||Name of Governor||Designation of office||By whom appointed||Remarks|
|1||1595, Aug 1||Sir Thomas Garret (or Gerrard)||Captain||Queen Elizabeth I||Appointment pending the dispute as to the succession to the Island in the House of Stanley|
|2||1596, July 3||Peter Legh||Captain and Governor||Lord Keeper and other offices of state for Queen Elizabeth||To act during the absence from the Island of Thomas Garret|
|3||1639, March 30||Ratcliffe Gerrard||Deputy Governor||Lord of Mann (Lord Strange afterwards 7th Earl of Derby)||To act during the absence from the Island by Sir Charles Gerrard, Governor|
|4||1639, July 20||Sir Ffoulks Hunckers||Captain and Governor||Lord of Mann; 7th Earl of Derby||In place of Sir Charles Gerrard|
|5||1640, June 20||John Greenhaigh||In place of Sir Ffoulks Hunckers|
|6||1652, Nov 12||Captain John Sharples||Deputy Governor||Commissioners of Lord Fairfax, to whom the Isle of Man had been granted during the term of the Commonwealth of England||To be Deputy Governor as to the Civil Magistracie thereof. [This appointment confers limited powers and excluded military authority]|
|7||1660, July 16||Roger Nowell||Governor, Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann (Charles, Earl of Derby)||Appointment following the restoration of the monarchy|
|8||1660, July 16||Richard Stevenson||Deputy Governor||Charles, Earl of Derby||To sit during the absence of Governor Roger Nowell|
|9||1662, Dec 11||Major Henry Nowell||Deputy Governor||Governor Roger Nowell||To act during the absence of the Governor|
|10||1663, Sep 18||Major Henry Nowell||Deputy Governor||7th Earl of Derby||To act during pleasure, in place of Major Thomas Stanley|
|11||1664, May 31||Right Reverend Isaac Barrow (Bishop of Sodor and Man)||Governor||Lord of Mann (Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby)||To hold and exercise the said Office by himself, or by Henry Nowell, his Deputy or some other sufficient person who he should think fit [This was looked upon as an exceptional appointment, for the Deputy Nowell acted sometimes alone, and sometimes along with the Governor - Mills Statute p.137]|
|12||1673, July 28||Henry Nowell||William, Earl of Derby (by his Guardian, Duke of Ormonde)|||
|13||1677, April 10||Henry Stanley||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|
|14||1678, April 13||Robert Heywood|
|15||1690-1. Mar 16||Roger Kenyon|
|16||1692, April 6||William Sacheverell||Deputy Governor||William, Earl of Derby||To take on him the whole government, during pleasure [probably Governorship vacant]|
|17||1692, Oct 10||Richard Stevenson (Water Bailiff) and John Rowe (Clerk of the Rolls)||Deputy Governors||Deputy Governor Sacheverell||The appointment is stated on the face of it to be made by order of the Right Honourable the Lord of this Isle [This is quite remarkable. Deputies appointed by a Deputy, but apparently made by special authority]|
|18||1693, May 9||William Sacheverell||Governor||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|||
|19||1695, June 15||Colonel Nicholas Sankey||Governor||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|||
|20||1696, July 28||John Rowe, Major Peter Heywood and Deemster John Parr||Deputy Governors||Governor Sankey||To act jointly|
|21||1700, Oct 30||Captain Thomas Huddlestone||Deputy Governor||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)||To take upon him the whole government during pleasure. [This was probably a temporary appointment during a vacancy of Governorship]|
|22||1700-01, Mar 10||Captain James Cranstoun||Deputy Governor||Lord of Mann (William Stanley, 9th Earl of Derby)|||
|23||1702, Nov 21||The Hon. Charles Zedenno Stanley||Chief Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||To exercise office by himself, or his sufficient Deputy or Deputies, during pleasure|
|24||1702, Dec 3||Robert Mawdesley||Deputy Governor(s)||Governor Stanley||During pleasure|
|25||1702-03, Oct[clarification needed] 30||Deemster John Parr||Governor Stanley||During absence of Deputy Governor Mawdesley|
|26||1703, July 12||John Rowe and Christopher Parker (Receiver General)||Governor Stanley||To act during the absence of Deputy Governor Mawdesley, on the departure of Deputy Governor Parr, who had been called by the Lord of England on weighty business|
|27||1703, Nov 25||Robert Mawdesley||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||Confirmation of Mawdesley's previous appointment as Deputy Governor by Governor Stanley. [This confirmation seems to have amounted to an appointment as Governor, which he styled himself afterwards]|
|28||1712, July 17||Deemster John Parr||Governor Mawdesley||To act during the Governor's absence in England|
|29||1713, May 20||Deemster John Parr||Governor Mawdesley||To act during Governor's absence from the Isle of Man|
|30||1713, July 18||The Hon. Charles Zedenno Stanley & Captain Alexander Horne||Chief Governor & Deputy Governor||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)||The Deputy to act in the absence of the Governor|
|31||1713, Oct 17||John Rowe & William Sedden (Water Bailiff)||Deputy Governors||Governor Stanley||To act jointly during the absence of Governor and Deputy Governor Horne|
|32||1714, Oct 13||Deputy Governor Horne||To act during the absence of Deputy Governor Horne in England. (This is an appointment of Deputies by a Deputy.)|
|33||1718, Jun 25||Deputy Governor Horne||To act during Deputy Governor Horne's absence from the Isle of Man. [See above]|
|34||1718, Jul 9||Captain Alexander Horne||Governor & Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)|||
|35||1719, Jun 27||John Rowe & William Sedden (Water Bailiff)||Deputy Governor(s)||Governor Horne||To serve during Governor Horne's absence|
|36||1719, Jul 1|
|37||1721, Jun 25|
|38||1723, Apr 23||John Sanforth (Water Bailiff)|
|39||1723, Apr 29||Deemster Daniel McYlrea||To act jointly with Deputy Governor Sanforth during Governor Horne's absence|
|40||1723, May 22||John Sanforth (Water Bailiff), Deemster Daniel McYlrea & John Rowe||If one be sick or absent, the other two to act jointly. (This was probably a temporary appointment during vacancy in Governorship.)|
|41||1723, Oct 3||John Lloyd||Governor or Lieutenant||Lord of Mann (James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby)|||
|42||1724-5, Feb 27||John Rowe, Nicholas Christian & John Sanforth (Water Bailiff)||Deputy Governors||This was probably a temporary appointment during a vacancy in Governorship.|
|43||1725, Sep 14||Thomas Horton||Deputy Lieutenant Governor|||
|44||1726, May 12||James Horton, John Brownell & Major General John Woods||Deputy Governors||Governor Horton||To act during Governor's absence from the Isle of Man. If one be sick the other two to act jointly|
|45||1727, Jul 9|
|46||1727, Jul 13|
|47||1728, Jul 12|
|48||1728-9, Mar 5||To act during Governor's absence from the Isle of Man.|
|49||1731, Jun 25||James Horton & Deemster Charles Moore|
|50||1732, Jun 30|
|51||1733, Jun 30||James Horton, William Stonier & Deemster Charles Moore||To act during Governor's absence from the Isle of Man. If one be sick the other two to act jointly|
|52||1734, Apr 29||To act during Governor's absence from Isle of Man. If one be sick or absent, other two to act jointly|
|53||1734, Jul 30|||
|54||1734, Dec 26||William Stonier, Deemster Charles Moore||To act during absence of Governor|
|55||1735, Oct 8||Deemsters Charles Moore & Daniel McYlrea||To act during Governor's absence|
|56||1735-36, Mar 9.||James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl||Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|57||1736-37||Deemsters Charles Moore & Daniel McYlrea||Deputy Governors||Governor Murray||To act during Governor's absence from Island|
|58||1744, Apr 7||Deemsters John Taubman & Daniel McYlrea||Deputy Governors||Governor Murray||To act during Governor's absence from Island. Each empowered to act during incapacity by sickness or other impediment of the other|
|59||1744, Jun 1||Patrick Lindesay||Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|60||1746, May 27||Deemsters John Taubman & Daniel McYlrea||Deputy Governors||Governor Lindesay||The Commission states that the Governor, by his present indisposition, is disabled from attending the Courts on the next Circuit (that is, of the Sheading or Common Law Courts). The Deputies to act during the Governor's illness. [This is a case where Deputies were appointed whilst the Governor was in the Island]|
|61||1749, July 14||Deemsters John Taubman & Daniel McYlrea||Deputy Governors||Governor Lindesay||The Commission states that the Governor by his present indisposition in unable to execute his post and office. The Deputies to act during his illness. [Case similar to that preceding, Deputies appointed whilst Governor on the Island] |
|62||1751, May 2||Basil Cochrane||Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|63||1760, May 17||Deemster John Taubman & Daniel McYlrea (Receiver General)||Deputy Governors||Governor Cochrane||To act during Governor's absence from the Isle of Man. Each empowered to act in case of sickness or other impediment of the other|
|64||1761, Mar 26|
|65||1761, Jun 2||The Governor being ex officio be jointly Chancellors with respect to the causes to be heard.|
|66||1761, Jul 8||To act during the Governor's absence from the Island. Each empowered to act in case of sickness or incapacity of others|
|67||1761, Jul 22||John Wood||Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lord of Mann James, 2nd Duke of Atholl|||
|68||1763, Oct 1||Daniel McYlrea (Receiver General)||Deputy Governor||Governor Wood||The Commission states that the Governor by his present indisposition is rendered incapable of presiding at the Sheading Courts which are to be held at Peel.|
|69||1764, May 18||Daniel McYlrea (Receiver General)||Deputy Governor||Governor Wood|||
|70||1764, Dec 16||John Wood||Governor and Commander-in-Chief||Lady of Mann (Charlotte Murray, Duchess of Atholl with the concurrence of her husband)||This is a re-appointment following the accession to the throne of King George III]|
|71||1765, Jun 21||John Wood||Governor-in-Chief and Captain General||King George III||This is a re-appointment following the Revestment|
|72||1773, Aug 6||Henry Hope||Lieutenant Governor||To act in the absence of Governor Wood and to perform the duties of Governor *First appointment of Lieutenant Governor|
|73||1775, Jul 13||Richard Dawson||Lieutenant Governor|||
|74||1777, May 31||Major General Edward Smith||Governor-in-Chief & Captain General||Appointed following the death of Governor Wood|
|75||1777, May 31||Richard Dawson||Lieutenant Governor|||
|76||1790, Nov 26||Alexander Shaw||Lieutenant Governor|||
|76a||1793, Feb 14||John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl||Governor-in-Chief & Captain General|||
|77||1804, Aug 4||Lord Henry Murray||Lieutenant Governor||John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl||The Commission states: "Whereas the Honourable Alexander Shaw, last Lieutenant Governor of this Isle, hath resigned the said office of Lieutenant Governor, and no other person hath yet been appointed by His Majesty to fill the same: And whereas I find it necessary to remove forthwith from the said Isle to attend public business in Great Britain." The Lieutenant Governor is appointed to act during the absence of the Governor-in-Chief or until His Majesty's pleasure be known. [This is the only appointment of a Lieutenant Governor made by a Governor of the Isle of Man since the Revestment]|
|78||1805, Jun 8||Cornelius Smelt||King George III||Appointment in like terms as Lieutenant Governor Dawsons's appointment in 1777 (No. 75)|
|79||1832, Dec 1||Major General John Ready||King William IV||The appointment is simply to be Lieutenant Governor during pleasure|
|80||1837, Nov 21||Major General John Ready||Queen Victoria||New appointment following the accession of Queen Victoria|
|81||1845, Aug 8||Charles Hope|||
|82||1860, Sep 13||Mark Hildesley Quayle, Clerk of the Rolls||To act as Deputy Governor to exercise all functions and powers of such office until a Lieutenant Governor shall have been appointed|
|83||1860, Oct 20||Francis Pigott Stainsby Conant||Similar appointment as Lieutenant Governors Ready and Hope (Nos. 79 & 81)|
|84||1863, Jan 28||Mark Hildesley Quayle, Clerk of the Rolls||To act as Deputy Governor to exercise all functions and powers of such office until a Lieutenant Governor shall have been appointed|
|85||1863, Jan 29||Sir Henry Loch, 1st Baron Loch||To act as Lieutenant Governor during pleasure|
|86||1882, Apr 24||Sir Spencer Walpole|
|87||1893||Sir Joseph West Ridgeway|
|88||1895||John Henniker-Major, 5th Baron Henniker|
|89||1902, Jul||Sir James Gell, Clerk of the Rolls||Deputy Governor||King Edward VII||To act as such during the indisposition of Lieutenant Governor Henniker. Appointed Deputy Governor in the first place|
|90||1902, Oct||Acting Governor||Following the death of Lieutenant Governor Henniker. (Office therefore as Acting Governor carried with it greater authority than that of Lieutenant Governor.)|
|91||1902||George Fitzroy Henry Somerset, 3rd Baron Raglan||Lieutenant Governor|
|92||1919||Sir William Fry||King George V|
|93||1928||Sir Claude Hill|
|94||1932||Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler|
|95||1937||William Spencer Leveson-Gower, 4th Earl Granville||King George VI|
|96||1945||Air Vice Marshal Sir Geoffrey Rhodes Bromet||King George VI|
|97||1952||Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas||Queen Elizabeth II|
|98||1959||Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey|
|99||1966||Sir Peter Hyla Gawne Stallard|
|100||1974||Sir John Warburton Paul|
|101||1980||Rear Admiral Sir Nigel Cecil|
|102||1985||Major General Sir Laurence New|
|103||1990||Air Marshal Sir Laurence Jones|
|104||1995||Sir Timothy Daunt|
|105||2000||Air Marshal Ian David Macfadyen|
|106||2005, Sep||Deemster Michael Kerruish||Deputy Governor||Acting during the interregnum|
|107||2005, Oct||Deemster Michael Kerruish||Deputy Governor|
|108||2005||Vice Admiral Sir Paul Kenneth Haddacks||Lieutenant Governor|
|109||2011||Adam Wood||Lieutenant Governor|
|110||2016||Sir Richard Gozney||Lieutenant Governor|
- Ramsey Courier. Tuesday, 14.03.1905 Page: 3
- Court Information Isle of Man Government
- Isle of Man Constitution Act 1961
- Governor Title could be changed Archived 2012-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Isle of Man Today, 25 October 2005
- "Recruitment of Lieutenant Governor becomes responsibility of Isle of Man". Isle of Man Government website Infocentre. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Appointment of Lieutenant Governor". Isle of Man Government website Infocentre. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- New Lieutenant Governor sworn-in Archived 2011-08-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- Isle of Man Times. Saturday, September 12, 1885; Page: 19
- World Statesmen