Lieutenant general (Australia)

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For other countries which use this rank, see Lieutenant general.
Lieutenant general
Australian-Army-LT GEN-Shoulder.png
The LTGEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
Allegiance  Australia
Service branch  Australian Army
Abbreviation Lieutenant General
Rank Three-star
NATO rank OF-8
Non-NATO rank O-9
Formation 1917
Next higher rank General
Next lower rank Major general
Equivalent ranks

Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'Lef-tenant General') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general. It is also considered a three-star rank.

The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Capability Development.

Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.

The insignia for a lieutenant general is the Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.[1][a]

Current Australian lieutenant generals[edit]

As of May 2015 there is currently only one lieutenant general in the Australian Defence Force:[b]

Australian Army lieutenant generals[edit]

Although not an Australian, Field Marshal William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, was a popular general with the Australians. He commanded the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, and when he was promoted to the rank of field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was awarded the honorary rank of field marshal in the Australian Army.

The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.

CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army

From 1 January 1909 to 18 Feb 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. From August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.

Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)

In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1965 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), with command authority over the ADF, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)

In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General (later General) John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).

Chief of Capability Development Group (since 2003)

A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003.

Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)

In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS), was created.

Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (since 2013)

In September 2013, a fifth three-star position, Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (COSB), was created.

Equivalents

There are two other three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy (CN) and Chief of Air Force (CAF). There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.

List[edit]

The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:

Name Post-
nominals
Highest
rank
MAJGEN LTGEN CGS /
CA /
Cmmdr,
Aust. Corps
[c]
CCOSC[d]/
VCDF[e]/
CCDG[b]/
CJOPS[f]/
etc.
GEN
[d][g][h]
FM
Birdwood, WilliamWilliam Birdwood[2] GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, CIE, DSO FM 1911–1914 1914–1917 1917–1918[c] 1917–1925[c] 1925–1930
Chauvel, HarryHarry Chauvel[3] GCMG, KCB GEN 1915-1915 1917–1929 1923–1930 1929–1930
Monash, JohnJohn Monash[4] GCMG, KCB, VD GEN 1916–1918 1918–1919 1918[c] 1919–1929
White, BrudenellBrudenell White[5] KCB, KCMG, KCVO, DSO GEN 1917–1918 1918–1923 1920–1923
1940
1940
Hobbs, TalbotTalbot Hobbs[6] KCB, KCMG, VD LTGEN 1917–1918 1918–1927 1918–1919[c]
Legge, James GordonJames Gordon Legge[7] CB, CMG LTGEN 1915–1924 1924 1914–1915
1917–1920
McCay, James WhitesideJames Whiteside McCay[8] KCMG, KBE, CB, VD LTGEN 1915–1926 1926
Blamey, ThomasThomas Blamey[9] GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED FM 1931-1925 1939–1941 1942–1945 1941–1950 1950–1951
Lavarack, JohnJohn Lavarack[10] KCMG, KCVO, KBE, CB, DSO LTGEN 1935–1938
1938–1941
1938
1941–1946
1935–1939
Squires, ErnestErnest Squires[11] CB, DSO, MC LTGEN 1935–1938 1938–1940 1939–1940
Sturdee, VernonVernon Sturdee[10] KBE, CB, DSO LTGEN 1939–1940 1940–1950 1940–1942
1946–1950
Whitham, JohnJohn Whitham[12] CMG, DSO LTGEN 1937–1940 1940–1946
Smart, EdwardEdward Smart[10] DSO, MC LTGEN 1939–1940 1940–1946
Mackay, IvenIven Mackay[10] KBE, CMG, DSO & Two Bars, VD LTGEN 1937–1941 1941–1946
Morshead, LeslieLeslie Morshead[10] KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO, ED LTGEN 1940–1942 1942–1946
Bennett, GordonGordon Bennett CB, CMG, DSO, VD LTGEN 1930–1942 1942–1944
Herring, EdmundEdmund Herring[13] KCMG, KBE, DSO, MC, KStJ, ED, KC LTGEN 1941–1942 1942–1951
Jess, CarlCarl Jess[14] CB, CMG, CBE, DSO LTGEN 1935–1942 1942–1946
Northcott, JohnJohn Northcott[10] KCMG, KCVO, CB, KStJ LTGEN 1939–1942 1942–1946 1940
1942–1945
Rowell, SydneySydney Rowell[15] KBE, CB LTGEN 1941–1942 1942–1954 1950–1954
Wynter, HenryHenry Wynter[16] CB, CMG, DSO LTGEN 1939–1940 1940–1945
Berryman, FrankFrank Berryman[10] KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO LTGEN 1942–1944 1944–1954
Savige, StanleyStanley Savige[10] KBE, CB, DSO, MC, ED LTGEN 1942–1944 1944–1946
Robertson, HoraceHorace Robertson[10] KBE, DSO LTGEN 1942–1946 1946–1954
Boase, AllanAllan Boase[17] CBE LTGEN 1942–1949 1949–1951
Clowes, CyrilCyril Clowes[18] CBE, DSO, MC LTGEN 1942–1949 1949
Bridgeford, WilliamWilliam Bridgeford[19] KBE, CB, MC LTGEN 1942–1951 1951–1953
Wells, HenryHenry Wells[20] KBE, CB, DSO LTGEN 1946–1951 1951–1958 1954–1958 1958–1959[d]
Secombe, VictorVictor Secombe[21] CB, CBE LTGEN 1949–1951 1951–1954
Bierwirth, RudolphRudolph Bierwirth CBE LTGEN 1952–1953 1953–1956
Woodward, EricEric Woodward[22] KCMG, KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO LTGEN 1951–1953 1953–1957
Nimmo, Robert HaroldRobert Harold Nimmo[23] CBE LTGEN 1946–1954 1954
Garrett, RagnarRagnar Garrett[24] KBE, CB LTGEN 1951–1954 1954–1960 1958–1960
Pollard, RegReg Pollard[25] KCVO, KBE, CB, DSO LTGEN 1954–1959 1959–1963 1960–1963
Edgar, HectorHector Edgar[26] 195?– 19??–
Wilton, JohnJohn Wilton[27] KBE, CB, DSO GEN 1957–1963 1963–1966 1963–1966 1966–1970[d]
Daly, Thomas JosephThomas Joseph Daly[28] KBE, CB, DSO LTGEN 1959– 1966–1971 1966–1971
Brogan, MervynMervyn Brogan KBE, CB LTGEN 19xx–1971 1971–1973 1971–1973
Hassett, FrankFrank Hassett[29] AC, KBE, CB, DSO, LVO GEN 1963–1973 1973–1975 1973–1975 1975–1977[d][g]
MacDonald, ArthurArthur MacDonald[30] KBE, CB GEN 19xx–1975 1975–1977 1975–1977 1977–1979[g]
Dunstan, DonaldDonald Dunstan[31] AC, KBE, CB LTGEN 19xx-1977 1977–1982 1977–1982
Bennett, PhillipPhillip Bennett AC, KBE, DSO GEN 19xx-1982 1982–1984 1982–1984 1984–1987[g][h]
Gration, PeterPeter Gration[32] AC, OBE GEN 19xx-1984 1984–1987 1984–1987 1987–1993[h]
O'Donnell, LawrenceLawrence O'Donnell AC LTGEN 19xx-1987 1987–1990 1987–1990
Coates, JohnJohn Coates[33] AC, MBE LTGEN 19xx-1990 1990–1992 1990–1992
Grey, JohnJohn Grey[34] AC LTGEN 19xx-1992 1992–1995 1992–1995
Baker, JohnJohn Baker[35] AC, DSM GEN 1987–1992 1992–1995 1992–1995[e] 1995–1998[h]
Sanderson, JohnJohn Sanderson[36] AC LTGEN 1989–1992 1992–1998 1995–1997
1997–1998
1993–1995[f]
Hickling, FrankFrank Hickling[37] AO, CSC LTGEN 19xx-1998 1998–2000 1998–2000
Cosgrove, PeterPeter Cosgrove[38] AK, MC GEN 1999–2000 2000–2002 2000–2002 2002–2005[h]
Mueller, DesmondDesmond Mueller[39] AO LTGEN 1994–2000 2000–2002 2000–2002[e]
Leahy, PeterPeter Leahy[40] AC LTGEN 19xx-2002 2002–2008 2002–2008
Hurley, DavidDavid Hurley[41] AC, DSC GEN 2001–2003 2003–2011 2003–2007[i]
2007–2008[f]
2008–2011[e]
2011–2014[h]
Gillespie, KenKen Gillespie[42] AC, DSC, CSM LTGEN 2004–2005 2005–2011 2008–2011 2005–2008[e]
Evans, MarkMark Evans[43] AO, DSC LTGEN 2002–2008 2008–2011 2008–2011[f]
Power, AshAsh Power AO, CSC LTGEN 2005–2011 2011–2014 2011–2014[f]
Morrison, DavidDavid Morrison[44] AO LTGEN 2005–2011 2011–2015 2011–2015
Campbell, AngusAngus Campbell[45] DSC, AM LTGEN 2010–2013 2013–present 2015–present
Caligari, JohnJohn Caligari[46] AO, DSC LTGEN 2009 2014–2015 2014–2015[c]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
  2. ^ The third and fourth three-star positions possibly available to an Australian lieutenant general are the CCDG and the Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF).
  3. ^ Commander of the Australian Corps
  4. ^ Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (CCOSC), now known as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF).
  5. ^ Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF)
  6. ^ Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS)
  7. ^ Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), now known as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF)
  8. ^ Chief of the Defence Force (CDF)
  9. ^ Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chapter 4: Badges and Emblems" (PDF). Army Dress Manual. Canberra: Australian Army. 6 June 2014. p. 48. 
  2. ^ James, Robert Rhodes (2009) [2004]. "Birdwood, William Riddell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31898.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ Hill, Alec (1978), Chauvel of the Light Horse: A Biography of General Sir Harry Chauvel, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-84146-5, OCLC 5003626 
  4. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "Monash, Sir John (1865–1931)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 12 March 2011. 
  5. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1990). White, Sir Cyril Brudenell Bingham (1876–1940)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 460–463. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Hill, A. J. (1983). Hobbs, Sir Joseph John Talbot (1864–1938). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 315–317. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1986). Legge, James Gordon (1863–1947)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 10. Melbourne University Press. pp. 63–65. 
  8. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "McCay, Sir James Whiteside (1864–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  9. ^ Horner, David (1978). Crisis of Command: Australian Generalship and the Japanese Threat, 1941–1943. Canberra: Australian National University Press. ISBN 0-7081-1345-1. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces". Melbourne: Australian Army. 1950. OCLC 220688670. 
  11. ^ Lodge, A. B. (1990). Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 41–42. 
  12. ^ Burness, Peter (1990). Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 476–477. 
  13. ^ Browne, Geoff. Herring, Sir Edmund Francis (Ned) (1892–1982). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 17. Melbourne University Press. pp. 520–523. 
  14. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1983). Jess, Sir Carl Herman (1884–1948)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. p. 485–487. 
  15. ^ Hill, A. J. "Rowell, Sir Sydney Fairbairn (1894–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  16. ^ Perry, Warren (2002). Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. pp. 599–600. 
  17. ^ Dicker, George (1993). Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 208–209. 
  18. ^ Denholm, David (1993). Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 446–447. 
  19. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1993). Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 255–257. 
  20. ^ Andrews, E. M. (2002). Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. p. 521. 
  21. ^ Greville, P. J (2002). Secombe, Victor Clarence (1897–1962). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  22. ^ "Woodward, Sir Eric Winslow (1899–1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  23. ^ James, Neil; Londey, Peter (2005). Nimmo, Robert Harold (1893–1966)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Supplementary volume. Melbourne University Press. pp. 303–304. 
  24. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1996). Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 14. Melbourne University Press. p. 252. 
  25. ^ Clark, Chris. "Pollard, Sir Reginald George (1903–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  26. ^ "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009. 
  27. ^ Horner, David. "Wilton, Sir John Gordon Noel (1910–1981)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  28. ^ Farquharson, John (9 January 2004). "Daly, Sir Thomas Joseph (Tom) (1913–2004)". Obituaries Australia. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  29. ^ "Who's who in Australian Military History: General Francis George (Frank) Hassett, AC, KBE, CB, DSO". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  30. ^ "Previous Chiefs". Chief of the Defence Force. Australia: Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  31. ^ "In Memoriam: Lieutenant General Sir Donald Beaumont Dunstan, AC, KBE, CB (1923–2011)". Australian Army Journal. VIII (3): 187–189. 2011. ISSN 1448-2843. 
  32. ^ "Peter Courtney Gration". Who's Who in Australia Online. Crown Content. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  33. ^ "Lieutenant General Henry John Coates". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  34. ^ "Lieutenant General John Cedric Grey". Who's Who in Australia Online. Connect Web. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  35. ^ "Short biography (and service record) of General John Stuart Baker AC, DSM". MECC 200/07 (Press release). Department of Defence, Australian Government. 10 July 2007. 
  36. ^ "Lieutenant General John Murray Sanderson, AC". Australian War Museum. 
  37. ^ Singh, Shivani (2010). Who's Who in Australia 2010. Melbourne, Australia: Crown Content. ISBN 1-74095-172-7. 
  38. ^ "Biographies of Peter and Lynne Cosgrove". Governor-General of Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  39. ^ "LTGEN Desmond Mueller". Biography (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 May 2000. 
  40. ^ "Lieutenant General Professor Peter Francis Leahy". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  41. ^ "General David Hurley, AC, DSC". Biography. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 
  42. ^ "Biography: LTGEN Ken Gillespie". Department of Defence, Australian Government. Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  43. ^ "Lt-Gen. (Rtd) Mark Evans". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  44. ^ "Chief of Army – Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO". Australian Army. 
  45. ^ "Major General Angus Campbell promoted to Lieutenant General". Defence News. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 19 September 2013. 
  46. ^ "Lieutenant General John Graham Caligari". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2015.