Lieutenant general (Australia)
The LTGEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
|Service branch||Australian Army|
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|Next lower rank||Major general|
Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'Lef-tenant General') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general. It is also considered a three-star rank.
The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Capability Development.
Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force.
Current Australian lieutenant generals
Australian Army lieutenant generals
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Although not an Australian, Field Marshal William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, was a popular general with the Australians. He commanded the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, and when he was promoted to the rank of field marshal in the British Army in 1925, he was awarded the honorary rank of field marshal in the Australian Army.
The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.
- CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army
From 1 January 1909 to 18 Feb 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. From August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.
- Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)
In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1965 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), with command authority over the ADF, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.
- Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)
In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General (later General) John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).
- Chief of Capability Development Group (since 2003)
A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003.
- Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)
In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS), was created.
- Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (since 2013)
In September 2013, a fifth three-star position, Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (COSB), was created.
There are two other three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy (CN) and Chief of Air Force (CAF). There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.
The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:
|Birdwood, WilliamWilliam Birdwood||GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, CIE, DSO||FM||1911–1914||1914–1917||1917–1918[c]||1917–1925[c]||1925–1930|
|Chauvel, HarryHarry Chauvel||GCMG, KCB||GEN||1915-1915||1917–1929||1923–1930||1929–1930|
|Monash, JohnJohn Monash||GCMG, KCB, VD||GEN||1916–1918||1918–1919||1918[c]||1919–1929|
|White, BrudenellBrudenell White||KCB, KCMG, KCVO, DSO||GEN||1917–1918||1918–1923||1920–1923
|Hobbs, TalbotTalbot Hobbs||KCB, KCMG, VD||LTGEN||1917–1918||1918–1927||1918–1919[c]|
|Legge, James GordonJames Gordon Legge||CB, CMG||LTGEN||1915–1924||1924||1914–1915
|McCay, James WhitesideJames Whiteside McCay||KCMG, KBE, CB, VD||LTGEN||1915–1926||1926|
|Blamey, ThomasThomas Blamey||GBE, KCB, CMG, DSO, ED||FM||1931-1925||1939–1941||1942–1945||1941–1950||1950–1951|
|Lavarack, JohnJohn Lavarack||KCMG, KCVO, KBE, CB, DSO||LTGEN||1935–1938
|Squires, ErnestErnest Squires||CB, DSO, MC||LTGEN||1935–1938||1938–1940||1939–1940|
|Sturdee, VernonVernon Sturdee||KBE, CB, DSO||LTGEN||1939–1940||1940–1950||1940–1942
|Whitham, JohnJohn Whitham||CMG, DSO||LTGEN||1937–1940||1940–1946|
|Smart, EdwardEdward Smart||DSO, MC||LTGEN||1939–1940||1940–1946|
|Mackay, IvenIven Mackay||KBE, CMG, DSO & Two Bars, VD||LTGEN||1937–1941||1941–1946|
|Morshead, LeslieLeslie Morshead||KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO, ED||LTGEN||1940–1942||1942–1946|
|Bennett, GordonGordon Bennett||CB, CMG, DSO, VD||LTGEN||1930–1942||1942–1944|
|Herring, EdmundEdmund Herring||KCMG, KBE, DSO, MC, KStJ, ED, KC||LTGEN||1941–1942||1942–1951|
|Jess, CarlCarl Jess||CB, CMG, CBE, DSO||LTGEN||1935–1942||1942–1946|
|Northcott, JohnJohn Northcott||KCMG, KCVO, CB, KStJ||LTGEN||1939–1942||1942–1946||1940
|Rowell, SydneySydney Rowell||KBE, CB||LTGEN||1941–1942||1942–1954||1950–1954|
|Wynter, HenryHenry Wynter||CB, CMG, DSO||LTGEN||1939–1940||1940–1945|
|Berryman, FrankFrank Berryman||KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO||LTGEN||1942–1944||1944–1954|
|Savige, StanleyStanley Savige||KBE, CB, DSO, MC, ED||LTGEN||1942–1944||1944–1946|
|Robertson, HoraceHorace Robertson||KBE, DSO||LTGEN||1942–1946||1946–1954|
|Boase, AllanAllan Boase||CBE||LTGEN||1942–1949||1949–1951|
|Clowes, CyrilCyril Clowes||CBE, DSO, MC||LTGEN||1942–1949||1949|
|Bridgeford, WilliamWilliam Bridgeford||KBE, CB, MC||LTGEN||1942–1951||1951–1953|
|Wells, HenryHenry Wells||KBE, CB, DSO||LTGEN||1946–1951||1951–1958||1954–1958||1958–1959[d]|
|Secombe, VictorVictor Secombe||CB, CBE||LTGEN||1949–1951||1951–1954|
|Bierwirth, RudolphRudolph Bierwirth||CBE||LTGEN||1952–1953||1953–1956|
|Woodward, EricEric Woodward||KCMG, KCVO, CB, CBE, DSO||LTGEN||1951–1953||1953–1957|
|Nimmo, Robert HaroldRobert Harold Nimmo||CBE||LTGEN||1946–1954||1954|
|Garrett, RagnarRagnar Garrett||KBE, CB||LTGEN||1951–1954||1954–1960||1958–1960|
|Pollard, RegReg Pollard||KCVO, KBE, CB, DSO||LTGEN||1954–1959||1959–1963||1960–1963|
|Edgar, HectorHector Edgar||195?–||19??–|
|Wilton, JohnJohn Wilton||KBE, CB, DSO||GEN||1957–1963||1963–1966||1963–1966||1966–1970[d]|
|Daly, Thomas JosephThomas Joseph Daly||KBE, CB, DSO||LTGEN||1959–||1966–1971||1966–1971|
|Brogan, MervynMervyn Brogan||KBE, CB||LTGEN||19xx–1971||1971–1973||1971–1973|
|Hassett, FrankFrank Hassett||AC, KBE, CB, DSO, LVO||GEN||1963–1973||1973–1975||1973–1975||1975–1977[d][g]|
|MacDonald, ArthurArthur MacDonald||KBE, CB||GEN||19xx–1975||1975–1977||1975–1977||1977–1979[g]|
|Dunstan, DonaldDonald Dunstan||AC, KBE, CB||LTGEN||19xx-1977||1977–1982||1977–1982|
|Bennett, PhillipPhillip Bennett||AC, KBE, DSO||GEN||19xx-1982||1982–1984||1982–1984||1984–1987[g][h]|
|Gration, PeterPeter Gration||AC, OBE||GEN||19xx-1984||1984–1987||1984–1987||1987–1993[h]|
|O'Donnell, LawrenceLawrence O'Donnell||AC||LTGEN||19xx-1987||1987–1990||1987–1990|
|Coates, JohnJohn Coates||AC, MBE||LTGEN||19xx-1990||1990–1992||1990–1992|
|Grey, JohnJohn Grey||AC||LTGEN||19xx-1992||1992–1995||1992–1995|
|Baker, JohnJohn Baker||AC, DSM||GEN||1987–1992||1992–1995||1992–1995[e]||1995–1998[h]|
|Sanderson, JohnJohn Sanderson||AC||LTGEN||1989–1992||1992–1998||1995–1997
|Hickling, FrankFrank Hickling||AO, CSC||LTGEN||19xx-1998||1998–2000||1998–2000|
|Cosgrove, PeterPeter Cosgrove||AK, MC||GEN||1999–2000||2000–2002||2000–2002||2002–2005[h]|
|Mueller, DesmondDesmond Mueller||AO||LTGEN||1994–2000||2000–2002||2000–2002[e]|
|Leahy, PeterPeter Leahy||AC||LTGEN||19xx-2002||2002–2008||2002–2008|
|Hurley, DavidDavid Hurley||AC, DSC||GEN||2001–2003||2003–2011||2003–2007[i]
|Gillespie, KenKen Gillespie||AC, DSC, CSM||LTGEN||2004–2005||2005–2011||2008–2011||2005–2008[e]|
|Evans, MarkMark Evans||AO, DSC||LTGEN||2002–2008||2008–2011||2008–2011[f]|
|Power, AshAsh Power||AO, CSC||LTGEN||2005–2011||2011–2014||2011–2014[f]|
|Morrison, DavidDavid Morrison||AO||LTGEN||2005–2011||2011–2015||2011–2015|
|Campbell, AngusAngus Campbell||DSC, AM||LTGEN||2010–2013||2013–present||2015–present|
|Caligari, JohnJohn Caligari||AO, DSC||LTGEN||2009||2014–2015||2014–2015[c]|
- Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia
- Australian Army officer rank insignia
- List of Australian Army generals
References and notes
- Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
- The third and fourth three-star positions possibly available to an Australian lieutenant general are the CCDG and the Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF).
- Commander of the Australian Corps
- Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (CCOSC), now known as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF).
- Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF)
- Chief of Joint Operations (CJOPS)
- Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS), now known as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF)
- Chief of the Defence Force (CDF)
- Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG)
- "Chapter 4: Badges and Emblems" (PDF). Army Dress Manual. Canberra: Australian Army. 6 June 2014. p. 48.
- James, Robert Rhodes (2009) . "Birdwood, William Riddell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31898. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Hill, Alec (1978), Chauvel of the Light Horse: A Biography of General Sir Harry Chauvel, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-84146-5, OCLC 5003626
- Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "Monash, Sir John (1865–1931)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
- Grey, Jeffrey (1990). White, Sir Cyril Brudenell Bingham (1876–1940)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 460–463. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- Hill, A. J. (1983). Hobbs, Sir Joseph John Talbot (1864–1938). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 315–317. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1986). Legge, James Gordon (1863–1947)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 10. Melbourne University Press. pp. 63–65.
- Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "McCay, Sir James Whiteside (1864–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- Horner, David (1978). Crisis of Command: Australian Generalship and the Japanese Threat, 1941–1943. Canberra: Australian National University Press. ISBN 0-7081-1345-1.
- "The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces". Melbourne: Australian Army. 1950. OCLC 220688670.
- Lodge, A. B. (1990). Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 41–42.
- Burness, Peter (1990). Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 476–477.
- Browne, Geoff. Herring, Sir Edmund Francis (Ned) (1892–1982). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 17. Melbourne University Press. pp. 520–523.
- Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1983). Jess, Sir Carl Herman (1884–1948)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. p. 485–487.
- Hill, A. J. "Rowell, Sir Sydney Fairbairn (1894–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Perry, Warren (2002). Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. pp. 599–600.
- Dicker, George (1993). Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 208–209.
- Denholm, David (1993). Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 446–447.
- Grey, Jeffrey (1993). Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 255–257.
- Andrews, E. M. (2002). Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. p. 521.
- Greville, P. J (2002). Secombe, Victor Clarence (1897–1962). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Woodward, Sir Eric Winslow (1899–1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
- James, Neil; Londey, Peter (2005). Nimmo, Robert Harold (1893–1966)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Supplementary volume. Melbourne University Press. pp. 303–304.
- Grey, Jeffrey (1996). Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 14. Melbourne University Press. p. 252.
- Clark, Chris. "Pollard, Sir Reginald George (1903–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Horner, David. "Wilton, Sir John Gordon Noel (1910–1981)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Farquharson, John (9 January 2004). "Daly, Sir Thomas Joseph (Tom) (1913–2004)". Obituaries Australia. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "Who's who in Australian Military History: General Francis George (Frank) Hassett, AC, KBE, CB, DSO". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
- "Previous Chiefs". Chief of the Defence Force. Australia: Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "In Memoriam: Lieutenant General Sir Donald Beaumont Dunstan, AC, KBE, CB (1923–2011)". Australian Army Journal. VIII (3): 187–189. 2011. ISSN 1448-2843.
- "Peter Courtney Gration". Who's Who in Australia Online. Crown Content. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Lieutenant General Henry John Coates". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Lieutenant General John Cedric Grey". Who's Who in Australia Online. Connect Web. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Short biography (and service record) of General John Stuart Baker AC, DSM". MECC 200/07 (Press release). Department of Defence, Australian Government. 10 July 2007.
- "Lieutenant General John Murray Sanderson, AC". Australian War Museum.
- Singh, Shivani (2010). Who's Who in Australia 2010. Melbourne, Australia: Crown Content. ISBN 1-74095-172-7.
- "Biographies of Peter and Lynne Cosgrove". Governor-General of Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "LTGEN Desmond Mueller". Biography (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 May 2000.
- "Lieutenant General Professor Peter Francis Leahy". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "General David Hurley, AC, DSC". Biography. Department of Defence, Australian Government.
- "Biography: LTGEN Ken Gillespie". Department of Defence, Australian Government. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Lt-Gen. (Rtd) Mark Evans". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Chief of Army – Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO". Australian Army.
- "Major General Angus Campbell promoted to Lieutenant General". Defence News. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 19 September 2013.
- "Lieutenant General John Graham Caligari". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
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