This article possibly contains original research. (May 2018)
A lifestyle brand is a brand that attempts to embody the values, aspirations, interests, attitudes, or opinions of a group or a culture for marketing purposes. Lifestyle brands seek to inspire, guide, and motivate people, with the goal of making their products contribute to the definition of the consumer's way of life. As such, they are closely associated with the advertising and other promotions used to gain mind share in their target market. They often operate from an ideology, hoping[clarification needed] to attract a relatively high number of people and ultimately become a recognised[who?] social phenomenon.
A lifestyle brand is an ideology created by a brand. An organisation achieves a lifestyle brand by evoking an emotional connection with its customers, creating a consumer desire to be affiliated with a particular group or brand. The consumer will believe that their identity will be reinforced if they publicly associate themselves with a particular lifestyle brand, for example by using a brand on social media.
As individuals have different experiences, choices, and backgrounds (including social class, ethnicity, and culture), an organisation must understand to whom it directs its brand. By constructing a lifestyle brand ideology, an organisation's goal is to become a recognised[who?] social phenomenon.
Lifestyle brands operate from the idea[clarification needed] that each individual has an identity based on their choices, experiences, and background (e.g. ethnicity, social class, subculture, nationality, etc.). Lifestyle brands evoke emotional connections between a consumer and that consumer's desire to affiliate him or herself with a group. Lifestyle brands are one of the possible ways of consumer self-expression: customers believe that their identity will be reinforced or supplemented if they publicly associate themselves with a lifestyle brand or other symbol-intensive brands.
Factors that influence the consumer decision process
Consumers continually face multiple decisions with regard to product choice due to many competing products. Aspects such as a product's attributes have been shown to be involved in the consumer decision process. A number of factors affect a consumer's choice of product brand, which influences their lifestyle. Consumers choose a brand that is acceptable to their self-image that they are trying to portray. Companies have to re-establish and reposition their products to ensure they meet the lifestyle a consumer is trying to obtain. They have an opportunity to refine their target market which would limit competition due to a reduced number in consumers who would be attracted to their specific brand because of the way they might perceive their lifestyle.[clarification needed]
Consumers evaluate product attributes as opposed to a case by case assessment.[clarification needed] There is the need for brands to be understood and how they can be influential with regard to consumer's decision making considerations.[clarification needed] Three processes are intertwined in choice behaviour: psychological, sociological, and economic processes. Within these three processes lifestyle of the consumer also becomes intertwined with consumers tending to choose a brand they feel is congruent with their self-image, their identity – who they feel they are and what they connect with the most.[clarification needed] Vyncke (2002) suggests that a consumer's values, goals, and vision for their life, along with aesthetic style all reflect individual lifestyle.
Consumers use brands to express their identity. The need for self-expression can be related to the need for acceptance within society and the societal view on brands[clarification needed] and how different brands portray income or wealth. Lifestyle brands allow customers to express themselves and portray their identity and lifestyle (Keller, 2008). Lifestyle brands in particular portray a type of meaning that allows a particular reference group to attach themselves based on their lifestyle, values or beliefs (Escalas, & Bettman, 2005).
Perceived brand value
If a consumer loves fashion this will have a positive effect on his/her willingness to pay for a luxury, top-end brand. In order for a lifestyle brand to be successful and dominate market share it needs to enhance customers experiences and provide more than just a product. Consumers are more willing and likely to purchase a brand that establishes itself as to value and satisfaction. Brand value is defined as comparing focal brands with unbranded products that have had the same level or same ways of marketing to consumers, as well as adopting the same product attributes (Yoo and Donthu, 2001).
Luxury brands target those that have an extreme lifestyle. Price is never a factor. Three categories are identified as measuring brand value: brand loyalty, perceived value and brand awareness/association. Consumers associate themselves with luxury fashion brands to portray their lifestyle and separate them from the rest (Vigneron & Johnson, 2004). Social value is an aspect that relates to consumers' desire to obtain luxury brands that they hope will offer them a symbolic part of a group or culture. There are emotional factors that are connected to the consumption of a luxury brand: for example those that bring pleasure or excitement (Choi & Kim 2003; Kim et al., 2010; Vigneron & Johnson, 2004). Consumers who purchase luxury brands tend to have a strong social function within their social class.
- Retail brands
Lifestyle retail branding is the way in which retailers refine their products or services to interest lifestyles in specific market segments (Helman & Chernatony, 1999). Examples of lifestyle retail brands include the now defunct Laura Ashley, GAP and Benetton. These retailers offer a distinct and recognised set of values to consumers. Over time, a number of retailers have come up with their own brand strategies and are now seen as lifestyle retail brands because they are targeting consumers who adopt their brand to align themselves with a lifestyle they want to obtain (Helman & Chernatony, 1999).
It is important for an organisation to understand its brand's role amongst consumers. To achieve this, an organisation must use the following aspects of the lifestyle brand model (Schmitt, 2012).
- Brand categorisation
This is defined as a consumer sorting products or brands into categories, based on their past experiences with that brand (Schmitt, 2012). It is used to avoid confusion, as consumers may be overwhelmed when comparing one product with an extensive range of other brands of the same product (Nenycz-Thiel & Romaniuk, 2016). Categorisation helps consumers evaluate the quality of the product (Catalin & Andreea, 2014). For example, a consumer may choose to purchase an Apple iPhone over a Huawei mobile phone, as they may believe that the iPhone has a better camera quality (Nenycz-Thiel & Romaniuk, 2016).
- Brand affect
This aspect is defined as the effect or influence a brand may have upon an organisation and its consumers (Orzan, Platton, Stefanescu & Orzan, 2016). For example, Whole Foods can affect a consumer by going the extra mile to offer organic foods products that suit that particular consumer's needs (Yi, Batra & Siqing, 2015).
- Brand personality
This is when a brand encompasses a consistent set of traits in which the consumer can relate (Cohen, 2014). For example, Crossfit is a lifestyle brand which encompasses the idea of pushing yourself for your fitness. This idea is consistent on a global level. Through this lifestyle, consumers or participants have the opportunity to feel a part of a group of healthy, motivated fitness fanatics (Qing, Rong & Xiaobing, 2015).
- Brand symbolism
This is defined as the strong symbolism that a brand transmits to its consumers, which is adopted for its social benefits (Kubat & Swaminathan, 2015). It allows consumers to feel as though they can express themselves through a form of identity, whilst being provided with a sense of belonging to a group (Wu, Klink & Guo, 2013). For example, Tiffany & Co. are a jewellery brand which offer affordable and expensive, high-quality jewellery products. When a person sees a consumer wearing its product in public, that person may aim to own a piece of Tiffany & Co. jewellery themselves, with the aim to seek social benefits or fit into a particular group (Athaide & Klink, 2012).
- Brand attachment
Attachment is brought about when people form an emotional connection between themselves and a brand (Malar, Krohmer, Hoyer & Nyffenegger, 2011). For example, Coca-Cola uses advertisements to portray its happy lifestyle to consumers. These advertisements are used to form an emotional connection with the audience. Through the use of the “Open happiness” slogan, consumers may believe that by purchasing and consuming a Coca-Cola drink, they will feel like they are happy and having fun (Malar, Krohmer, Hoyer & Nyffenegger, 2011).
While some lifestyle brands purposely reference existing groups or cultures, others create a disruption within the status quo and propose an innovative viewpoint on the world. The driving force may be the product, the shopping experience, the service, the communication or a combination of these elements. These are often result from visionary goals of the CEO or founder. Early on, Apple's founder Steve Jobs sought to integrate the company's innovations into the industries of music, entertainment, and telecommunications. In 2002, he gifted each 7th- and 8th-grader in the state of Maine with a laptop, in an effort to show that it wasn't "about the technology, it's about what people can do with it." Lee Clow—the chairman of Omnicom Group's TBWA Worldwide and Apple marketing partner—said that Jobs had "a very rigorous view of Apple's tone of voice and the way it talks with people," calling it "very human, very accessible." Burton has built its lifestyle brand by drawing on the snowboarding subculture and Quiksilver has done the same with the surfing community.
Some lifestyle brands align themselves with an ideology. Patagonia proposes an environmentally friendly way of life. Volcom, with the promise "Youth Against Establishment", gives a label and a sense of belonging to those who are "against" the world of adults.
One popular source for lifestyle brands is also national identity. Victoria's Secret purposely evoked the English upper class in its initial branding efforts, while Burberry is recalling the hip London culture[which?].
Social or personal image is also a reference point for some lifestyle brands. In the 1990s, Abercrombie & Fitch successfully resuscitated a 1950s ideal —the white, masculine “beefcake”— during a time of political correctness and rejection of 1950s orthodoxy, creating a lifestyle brand based on a preppy, young, Ivy-League lifestyle. Their retail outlets reflect this lifestyle through their luxurious store environment, attractive store associates (models), and their black and white photographs featuring young people "living the Abercrombie & Fitch lifestyle". In doing so, Abercrombie & Fitch has created an outlet for those who lead, or wish to lead or wish to dream about leading this lifestyle.
Companies like home furnishing associate themselves with the term “lifestyle branding” when they are developing their brand portfolio (“Lexington Offering,” 2009). A furniture company is likely to align new product lines with lifestyle collections that are associated with fashion icons, celebrities and well-known interior designers. For consumers this is reassuring and entices them to purchase home furnishings to be like these iconic influencers. Furniture companies have said that it helps them connect with those consumers who associate other categories with these celebrities. It is their way of tapping into new markets that have not yet been reached (Combs, 2010). Companies that have celebrity names associated with them provides a certain degree of guarantee to the brand (Clow et al., 2011).
A company called Doman Home Furnishings launched a campaign about food and kitchen products to enhance its brand as a lifestyle choice (“Domain Home,” 2004). The campaign used models which had a caption along the lines of ‘a slice of life’. This allowed consumers to gain a good understanding of the brand and the lifestyle that it could offer. Home furnishing companies use lifestyle merchandising to promote brand extension. Furthermore, the brand is communicated to consumers through using a designer who is associated with also creating fashion-apparel products. Therefore, this creates a connection between the fashion and homeware brands for these consumers are already associating with or are familiar with the fashion-apparel products.
One key indication that a brand has become a lifestyle is when it successfully expands beyond its original product. For example, Nike used to be a product-based company, focusing on making running shoes. But over time, the company and its logo has become associated with the athletic subculture. That has allowed Nike to expand into related athletic categories, such as sports equipment and apparel.
Gaiam started out as a yoga company but has had great success in developing a lifestyle brand, which has allowed it to move into other markets as varied as solar power and green building supplies. Nautica started out as a collection of 6 outerwear pieces but built itself into a global lifestyle brand by having collections for men, women, kids, home and accessories.
A company's status as a lifestyle brand isn't achieved by providing a wide range of products but by the benefit and symbolic value that the customer associates with the brand.
- page 16
- Hancock, Joseph (2016). Brand/Story: Cases and Explorations in Fashion Branding. Fairchild Books, Bloomsbury Publishing, Inc.
- Saviolo, Stefania; Marazza, Antonio (2012). Lifestyle Brands - A Guide to Aspirational Marketing. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1137285928.
- Schmitt, 2012
- Kim & Brandon, 2010
- Austin & Matos, 2013
- (Catalin & Andreea, 2014)
- Chernev, A.; Hamilton, R.; Gal D. (2011). "Competing for Consumer Identity: Limits to Self-Expression and the Perils of Lifestyle Branding". Journal of Marketing. 75 (3): 66–82. doi:10.1509/jmkg.75.3.66. S2CID 14179708.
- Catalin & Andreea, 2014
- Ainslie and Rosii, 2005
- Keller, 2008
- Chernev, Hamilton & Gal, 2011
- Cuneo, Alice Z.; Elkin, Tobi; Kim, Hank; Stanley, T.L. (December 15, 2003), "Apple transcends as lifestyle brand." Advertising Age. 74(50):S-2-S-6
- Denizet-Lewis, Benoit (2006-01-24). "The man behind Abercrombie & Fitch". Salon.com. Retrieved Jan 24, 2006.
- Ainslie, A.; Rosii, P. E. (1998). "Similarities in choice behavior across product categories". Marketing Science. 17 (2): 91–106. doi:10.1287/mksc.17.2.91. S2CID 154373463.
- Chernev, A.; Hamilton, R.; Gal, D. (2011). "Competing for Consumer Identity: Limits to Self-Expression and the Perils of Lifestyle Branding". Journal of Marketing. 75 (1): 66–82. doi:10.1509/jmkg.75.3.66. S2CID 14179708.
- Choi, E.; Kim, M. (2003). "Comparison of consumers' apparel purchasing behavior in the Internet retail, shopping mall, and cable TV home shopping". Clothing Culture Study. 11 (6): 808–825.
- Clow, K. E.; James, K. E.; Sisk, S. E.; Cole, S. H. (2011). "Source credibility, visual strategy and the model in print advertisements". Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness. 5 (3): 24–31.
- Combs, H. E. (2010, March 1). Licensing: Big names still in demand.
- Domain Home Fashions Launches Internet Lifestyle Marketing Campaign | Furniture World Magazine. (2004).
- Escalas, J. E.; Bettman, J. R. (2005). "Self Construal,Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning". Journal of Consumer Research. 32 (3): 378–389. doi:10.1086/497549. S2CID 8246081.
- Furniture Today. (2009, April 13). Lexington offering dealer incentives for market orders. Retrieved from http://www.furnituretoday.com/article/480757-lexington-offering-dealer-incentives-for-market-orders
- Helman, D.; Chernatony, L. (1999). "Exploring the Development of Lifestyle Retail Brands". Service Industries Journal. 19 (2): 49–68. doi:10.1080/02642069900000018.
- Keller, K. L. (2008). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring and managing brand equity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Lee, Y. (2010). "The effect of distribution channel diversification of foreign luxury fashion brand on consumers' brand value and loyalty in Korean market". Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 17 (4): 286–293. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2010.02.006.
- Munteanu, C. C.; Pagalea, A. (2013). "Brands as a means of consumer self-expression and desired personal lifestyle". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 109 (1): 103–107. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.427.
- Vigneron, F.; Johnson, L. W. (2004). "Measuring perceptions of brand luxury". Journal of Brand Management. 11 (6): 484–503. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540194. S2CID 167517463.
- Vyncke, P (2002). "Life-style segmentation: from attitudes interests and opinions to aesthetics style, life vision and media preferences". European Journal of Communication. 17 (4): 445–463. doi:10.1177/02673231020170040301. S2CID 146207852.
- Yoo, B.; Donthu, N. (2001). "Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale". Journal of Business Research. 52 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00098-3.
- Athaide, G. A.; Klink, R. R. (2012). "Creating Global Brand Names: The Use of Sound Symbolism". Journal of Global Marketing. 25 (4): 202–212. doi:10.1080/08911762.2012.744123. S2CID 153505171.
- Austin, C. G.; Matos, G. (2013). "Lifestyle Brands: The Elephant in the Room". Advances in Consumer Research. 41: 653–41655.
- Catalin, M. C.; Andreea, P. (2014). "Brands as a Mean of Consumer Self-expression and Desired Personal Lifestyle". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 109: 103–107. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.427.
- Cohen, R. J. (2014). "Brand Personification: Introduction and Overview". Psychology & Marketing. 31 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1002/mar.20671.
- Kim, E.; Brandon, L. (2010). "Modeling brand equity for lifestyle brand extensions: A strategic approach into generation Y vs. baby boomers". Journal of Global Marketing Science. 20 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1080/12297119.2010.9707342. S2CID 167534674.
- Kubat, U.; Swaminathan, V. (2015). "Full Length Article: Crossing the cultural divide through bilingual advertising: The moderating role of brand cultural symbolism". International Journal of Research in Marketing. 32: 354–362. doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.04.003.
- Malär, L.; Krohmer, H.; Hoyer, W. D.; Nyffenegger, B. (2011). "Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative Importance of the Actual and the Ideal Self". Journal of Marketing. 75 (4): 35–52. doi:10.1509/jmkg.75.4.35. S2CID 168033342.
- Nenycz-Thiel, M.; Romaniuk, J. (2016). "Understanding premium private labels: A consumer categorization approach". Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 29: 2922–2930. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.10.008.
- Orzan, G.; Platon, O.; Stefanescu, C. D.; Orzan, M. (2016). "Conceptual model regarding the influence of social media marketing communication on brand trust, brand affect and brand loyalty". Economic Computation & Economic Cybernetics Studies & Research. 50 (1): 141–156.
- Qing, Y.; Rong, C.; Xiaobing, X. (2015). "Consistency between consumer personality and brand personality influences brand attachment". Social Behavior & Personality. 43 (9): 1419–1427. doi:10.2224/sbp.2015.43.9.1419.
- Schmitt, B (2012). "The consumer psychology of brands". Journal of Consumer Psychology. 22 (1): 7–17. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.09.005.
- Wu, L.; Klink, R. R.; Guo, J. (2013). "Creating Gender Brand Personality with Brand Names: The Effects of Phonetic Symbolism". Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. 21 (3): 319–330. doi:10.2753/MTP1069-6679210306. S2CID 143648566.
- Yi, X.; Batra, R.; Siqing, P. (2015). "An Extended Model of Preference Formation Between Global and Local Brands: The Roles of Identity Expressiveness, Trust, and Affect". Journal of International Marketing. 23 (1): 50–71. doi:10.1509/jim.14.0009. S2CID 154349897.