Lifestyle disease

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Lifestyle diseases (also sometimes called diseases of longevity or diseases of civilization interchangeably) are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life. This is commonly caused by alcohol, drug and smoking abuse as well as lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating. Diseases that impact on our lifestyle are heart disease, stroke, obesity and type II diabetes.[1] The diseases that appear to the increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer. They can include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, osteoporosis, stroke, depression, and obesity. In the U.K the death rate is four times higher from respiratory disease caused by an unhealthy lifestyle[2]

Some commenters maintain a distinction between diseases of longevity and diseases of civilization. Certain diseases, such as diabetes, dental caries or asthma appear at greater rates in young populations living in the "western" way; their increased incidence is not related to age, so the terms cannot accurately be used interchangeably for all diseases.[3]

Causes of the disease[edit]

Diet and lifestyle are major factors thought to influence susceptibility to many diseases. Drug abuse, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking, as well as a lack of or too much exercise may also increase the risk of developing certain diseases, especially later in life.[4][5][6] Between 1995 and 2005 813,000 Australians were hospitalised due to alcohol [7]

In many Western countries, people began to consume more meat, dairy products, vegetable oils, tobacco, sugary foods, coca cola, and alcoholic beverages during the latter half of the 20th century. People also developed sedentary lifestyles and greater rates of obesity. In 2014 11.2 million Australians were overweight or obese [8] Rates of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer and lung cancer started increasing after this dietary change. People in developing countries, whose diets still depend largely on low-sugar starchy foods with little meat or fat have lower rates of these cancers.[9] Causes are not just from smoking and alcohol abuse. Adults can develop lifestyle diseases through behavioural factors that impact on them. These can be unemployment, unsafe life, poor social environment, working conditions, stress and home life can change a person’s lifestyle to increase their risk of developing one of these diseases.[10]

Death Statistic in Australia[edit]

In 2013 there were 147,678 deaths within Australia mostly from lifestyle diseases including smoking of tobacco, alcohol use and other drugs, violence and unhealthy weight have impacted on Australians death rate. The leading cause of death within Australian males is heart disease with 11,016 deaths, then lung cancer killed 4,995 and chronic pulmonary disease effected 3,572. These were the top three major male killers. All these conditions were mainly caused by smoking; alcohol abuse or unhealthy lifestyle.[11] In 2013 coronary heart disease was Australian females leading cause of death effecting 8,750 women mainly as a result of their lifestyle. Dementia and Alzheimer disease effected 7,277 females and thirdly cerebrovascular disease killed 6,368 females. These top three causes of deaths can be prevented through lifestyle changes within the Australian female and male population.[12]

Table Shows that ages of people dying and the top five disease at which they are dying from.[12]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Age 45-64 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Cancer

Breast

Cancer

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

External

Suicide

Age 65-74 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Cancer

Colorectal

Cancer

Age 75-84 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Respiratory

COPD

Age 85-94 Circulatory

Coronary

Heart

Disease

Other

Dementia

&

Alzheimer

Disease

Circulatory

Cerebrova

Scular

Disease

Respiratory

COPD

Respiratory

Influenza

&

Pneumonia

Death Statistics in the United States of America[edit]

In 1900, the top three causes of death in the United States were pneumonia/influenza, tuberculosis, and diarrhea/enteritis. Communicable diseases accounted for about 60 percent of all deaths. In 1900, heart disease and cancer were ranked number four and eight respectively. Since the 1940s, the majority of deaths in the United States have resulted from heart disease, cancer, and other degenerative diseases. And, by the late 1990s, degenerative diseases accounted for more than 60 percent of all deaths.[13]

It should be noted, however, that lifestyle diseases have their onset later in an individual's life and need a longer lifespan in order to become the cause of death.[14] This suggests that the life expectancy at birth of 49.24 years in 1900[15] was too short for degenerative diseases to occur, compared to a life expectancy at birth of 77.8 years in 2004. Also, survivorship to the age of 50 was 58.5% in 1900, and 93.7% in 2007.[16]

Prevention[edit]

Prevention is remedies or activities that aim to reduce the likelihood of a disease or disorder affecting people. Lifestyle diseases are preventable for children if parents set them on the correct path, as our early life decisions and influences can impact us later on in life.[10] Lifestyle diseases can be prevented through reduction in smoking of tobacco [17] the Australian Government has started this by introducing plain packaging for all tobacco products and increasing the prices of tobacco production.[18] Overweight and obesity can be prevented through a well balanced lifestyle through healthy eating and exercise. Prevention can come about by a person undertaking 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily or by doing 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise a week.[19] Examples of moderate exercise includes a brisk walk, swim, bike ride or it can also be everyday life activities like mowing the lawn or house cleaning.[20] All causes of lifestyle disease can be prevented through giving up smoking and other drugs, reducing ones intake of alcohol, processed meats (like bacon and suasages), red meats (like pork, beef and lamb), fatty foods and by engaging in daily exercise.

See also this[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lifestyle disease". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  2. ^ "‘Lifestyle diseases’ lead to higher mortality rates". Mental Health Practice 16 (6): 5–5. doi:10.7748/mhp2013.03.16.6.5.p10726. 
  3. ^ Pollan, Michael. In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto. Penguin Press HC, The. ISBN 978-1-59420-145-5. 
  4. ^ Vaillant GE, Mukamal K. Successful Aging. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Jun 1;158(6):839-847." PMID 11384887 Full Text Online
  5. ^ Gary E. Fraser, David J. Shavlik. Ten Years of Life: Is It a Matter of Choice? Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1645-1652. PMID 11434797 Full Text Online
  6. ^ Steyn K; Fourie J; Bradshaw D. The impact of chronic diseases of lifestyle and their major risk factors on mortality in South Africa. S Afr Med J, 1992 Oct, 82:4, 227-31. PMID 1411817
  7. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Smoking, risky drinking and obesity". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  8. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - Key findings". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  9. ^ Key TJ, Allen NE, Spencer EA. The effect of diet on risk of cancer. The Lancet. 2002 Sep 14;360(9336):861-8. Review. PMID 12243933
  10. ^ a b Vallgårda, Signild (2011-11-01). "Why the concept ‘‘lifestyle diseases’’ should be avoided". Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 39 (7): 773–775. doi:10.1177/1403494811421978. ISSN 1403-4948. PMID 21948978. 
  11. ^ "Health status (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  12. ^ a b "Leading causes of death (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  13. ^ National Center for Health Statistics, National Office of Vital Statistics, 1947 for the year 1900 (page 67), for the year 1938 (page 55).
  14. ^ Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce A. (2002). The Quest for Immortality: Science at the Frontiers of Aging. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 191. ISBN 0393323277. 
  15. ^ Life expectancy by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11 
  16. ^ Survivorship by age, race, and sex, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, FastStats, 2007, retrieved 2009-06-11 
  17. ^ "Preventing and treating ill health (AIHW)". www.aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  18. ^ Ageing, Australian Government Department of Health and. "Tobacco product regulation and disclosure". health.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  19. ^ "Lifestyle factors (AIHW)". aihw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  20. ^ "WHO | What is Moderate-intensity and Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity?". www.who.int. Retrieved 2016-05-12.