Liga 1 (Indonesia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Liga 1
Logo of BRI Liga 1 starting 2021.png
Organising bodyPT Liga Indonesia Baru
Founded2008; 14 years ago (2008) (as Indonesia Super League)
2017; 5 years ago (2017) (as Liga 1)
First season2008–09
CountryIndonesia
ConfederationAFC
Number of teams18
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toLiga 2
Domestic cup(s)Piala Indonesia
International cup(s)AFC Champions League
AFC Cup
Current championsBali United (2nd title)
(2021–22)
Most championshipsPersipura (3 titles)
TV partners
List of broadcasters
Terrestrial only
Indosiar and O Channel
Pay TV
Nex Parabola
IndiHome
Streaming
Vidio Free (FTA, worldwide)
Vidio Premier (pay, Indonesia only)

UseeTV
Maxstream
(Telkomsel customers only)
WebsiteOfficial website
Current: 2022–23 Liga 1

Liga 1 (English: League One, BRI Liga 1 for sponsorship reasons with Bank Rakyat Indonesia)[1] is the men's top professional football division of the Indonesian football league system. Administered by the PT Liga Indonesia Baru (English: New Indonesian League, LLC), Liga 1 is contested by 18 clubs and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Liga 2.

Top-flight professional league in Indonesia started from the 1994–95 season onwards. Prior to the 2008 reforms, the national competitions used a tournament format. The Indonesia Super League started in 2008 to introduce full professionalism in Indonesian football.

Thirty-seven teams have competed in the top-tier league of Indonesian professional football since the start of the modern era in 2008. Eight teams have been crowned champions, with Persipura Jayapura winning the league three times (2009, 2011, 2013).

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

In 1994, PSSI merged teams from Perserikatan, which was a popular league for amateur clubs representing regional football associations, and Galatama, which was a less popular league made up of semi-professional teams, to form Liga Indonesia, integrating the fanaticism in Perserikatan and the professionalism of Galatama with the aim of improving the quality of Indonesian football. This effort ushered in a tiered system in the Indonesian competitive football scene.[2] The group stage format, which was used in Perserikatan, was combined with a full competition system followed by the semi-final and final rounds like Galatama.[3]

Foundation[edit]

The modern competition era started in 2008 with the 2008-09 Indonesia Super League. The first season began with 18 clubs. The first Indonesia Super League goal was scored by Ernest Jeremiah of Persipura in a 2–2 draw against Sriwijaya F.C.[4] The 18 inaugural members of the new Indonesia Super League were Persipura, Persiwa, Persib, Persik, Sriwijaya, Persela, Persija, PSM, Pelita Jaya, Arema, Persijap, Persiba, PKT Bontang, Persitara, PSMS, Deltras, Persita, and PSIS. Originally, Persiter and Persmin were qualified to register but they failed the verification requirements to be inaugural members of the Indonesia Super League.[5][6][7]

Dualism[edit]

As the football scene in Indonesia is heavily politicised with rival factions upending each other, conflict was the norm prior to 2017. The worst conflict occurred in 2011.[8] After the inauguration of the new PSSI board in 2011, a member of the PSSI Executive Committee and chairman of the PSSI Competition Committee, Sihar Sitorus, appointed PT Liga Prima Indonesia Sportindo as the new league operator replacing PT Liga Indonesia because the latter failed to provide an accountability report to PSSI.[9][10] Sitorus, one of many politicians in PSSI, announced the Indonesian Premier League as the new top-level competition in Indonesia.[11] Upon the emergence of Liga Primer Indonesia (LPI), PSSI did not recognize the validity of ISL. ISL regulars PSM, Persema, and Persibo, who had boycotted the ISL operators due to referee and management decisions, gladly defected to join LPI along with splinters of the existing ISL teams. However, the 2011 LPI season was stopped mid-season, due to the continued schism within PSSI;[12] a new league, Indonesian Premier League (Liga Prima Indonesia, IPL), replaced it in late 2011 for the 2011-12 season.[13]

Before the schism of PSSI, Sitorus triggered more controversy when he said the new competition would be divided into two regions and there would be an addition of six clubs in the top division, which angered many association members. Thus, the 14 teams that were supposed to be the Indonesian Premier League contestants chose to support the Indonesia Super League that continued to roll under the support of the pro-IPL faction, despite being labeled as an illegal competition. The official PSSI, supported by FIFA and AFC, did not recognize the ISL for two seasons. In the meantime, the Indonesian Premier League became the top-tier league from 2011 to 2013 with 17 teams.[13]

In a PSSI extraordinary meeting on 17 March 2013, association members slammed Sitorus and decided that the Indonesia Super League would once again emerge as the top-level competition, following the disbandment of the Indonesian Premier League.[14] Sihar and five other PSSI board members were suspended from the sport for their roles in the split (locally referred to as dualisme, "dualism" in English) that disrupted Indonesian football.

The new PSSI board also decided that the best seven teams of the 2013 Indonesian Premier League, following verification, would join the unified league. Semen Padang, Persiba Bantul, Persijap, and PSM passed verification, while Perseman, Persepar, and Pro Duta did not, meaning the 2014 season was contested with 22 teams.[15][16][17][18]

Government intervention and FIFA suspension[edit]

The impact of split haunted Indonesian football years after the reconsolidation. On 18 April 2015, Minister of Youth and Sports Affairs Imam Nahrawi officially banned the activities of PSSI after PSSI refused to recognize the recommendations from the Indonesian Professional Sports Agency (BOPI), an agency under the ministry, that Arema Cronus and Persebaya should not pass the ISL verification because there were still other clubs using the same name. Previously, Nachrawi had sent three letters of reprimand. However, PSSI refused to answer his call until a predetermined deadline.[19] As a result, PSSI officially stopped all competitions in the 2015 season after the PSSI Executive Committee meeting on 2 May 2015 called the government intervention as a force majeure.[20][12]

The government intervention also led FIFA to punish Indonesia with a one-year suspension of all association football activities as the world body considered overbearing state involvement in footballing matters as a violation against PSSI.[21] During the suspension, some tournaments were made to fill the vacuum, starting with the 2015 Indonesia President's Cup, in which Persib came out as champions,[22] until the Bhayangkara Cup closed the series of unrecognized tournaments.[23]

On 13 May 2016, FIFA officially ended the suspension, following the revocation of the Indonesian ministerial decision on 10 May 2016.[24] A long-term tournament with full competition format, Indonesia Soccer Championship, emerged shortly thereafter.[25][26][27] The 2016 season saw Persipura take the title.[28]

Current name[edit]

In 2017, the top-flight football competition was rebranded under a new official name, Liga 1. The name changes also applied to Premier Division (became Liga 2) and Liga Nusantara (became Liga 3).[2] The operator of the competition was also changed from PT Liga Indonesia (LI) to PT Liga Indonesia Baru (LIB).[29] Bhayangkara was the first champion of the league under the new name.[30] True to the controversial nature of Indonesian football, the crowning triggered flak from fans.[31] Bhayangkara, a team managed by the Indonesian Police that had no fanbase, won the title due to head-to-head advantage against Bali United, a team with rapidly growing support due to its modern professional management, after both teams had the same points at the end of the season. Bali United finally won the title in 2019.[32][33]

Competition format[edit]

Competition[edit]

There are 18 clubs in Liga 1. During the course of a season all teams play each other twice (a double round-robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents', for 34 games. Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, and none for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points first, then head-to-head records, goal difference, goals scored, fair play, and drawing of lots.[34] The Indonesia Super League had 22 teams in 2014 due to the merging of the two professional leagues in Indonesia.[35]

Promotion and relegation[edit]

A system of promotion and relegation exists between Liga 1 and Liga 2. The bottom three teams in Liga 1 are relegated to Liga 2,[34] and the winning semi-finalists of Liga 2 are directly promoted to Liga 1, with an additional team to be promoted after a third-place play-off involving the losing semi-finalists of Liga 2.

Clubs[edit]

Thirty-seven clubs have played in the top-flight Indonesian football league from the start of the modern era in 2008 as Indonesia Super League, up to and including the 2021–22 season.

Champions[edit]

Season Champions Runners-up
2008–09 Persipura Persiwa
2009–10 Arema Persipura
2010–11 Persipura Arema
2011–12 Sriwijaya Persipura
2013 Persipura Arema
2014 Persib Persipura
2015 Season abandonded due to FIFA suspension of Indonesia
2017 Bhayangkara Bali United
2018 Persija PSM
2019 Bali United Persebaya
2020 Season abandoned due to COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia
2021–22 Bali United Persib

Most successful clubs[edit]

Club Winners Runners-up Winning seasons Runner-up seasons
Persipura 3 3 2008–09, 2010–11, 2013 2009–10, 2011–12, 2014
Bali United 2 1 2019, 2021–22 2017
Arema 1 2 2009–10 2010–11, 2013
Persib 1 1 2014 2021–22
Sriwijaya 1 0 2011–12
Bhayangkara 1 0 2017
Persija 1 0 2018
Persebaya 0 1 2019
Persiwa 0 1 2008–09
PSM 0 1 2018

2022–23 season[edit]

The following 18 clubs will compete in the Liga 1 during the 2022–23 season.

Club Position
in 2021–22
First season in
top division
First season in
Liga 1
Seasons
in top
division
Seasons
in Liga 1
First season of
current spell in
top division
National
titles
Last
title
Arema 4th 1994–95 2008–09 24 12 2005 2 2009–10
Bali United 1st 1994–95 2009–10 18 11 2009–10 2 2021–22
Barito Putera 15th 1994–95 2013 17 8 2013 0
Bhayangkara 3rd 2014 2014 7 7 2014 1 2017
Borneo Samarinda 6th 2015 2015 6 6 2015 0
Dewa United 3rd in Liga 2 2022–23 2022–23 1 1 2022–23 0
Madura United 9th 1994–95 2008–09 24 12 2007–08 3 1993–94
(Galatama)
Persebaya 5th 1994–95 2009–10 17 5 2018 6 2004
Persib 2nd 1994–95 2008–09 25 12 1994–95 7 2014
Persija 8th 1994–95 2008–09 25 12 1994–95 11 2018
Persik 11th 2003 2008–09 10 5 2020 2 2006
Persikabo 1973 10th 2011–12 2011–12 9 9 2011–12 0
Persis 1st in Liga 2 2007–08 2022–23 2 1 2022–23 7 1943
Persita 12th 1994–95 2008–09 17 5 2020 0
PSIS 7th 1994–95 2008–09 17 5 2018 2 1998–99
PSM 14th 1994–95 2008–09 24 10 2011–12 (IPL) 6 1999–2000
PSS 13th 2001 2019 10 3 2019 0
RANS Nusantara 2nd in Liga 2 2022–23 2022–23 1 1 2022–23 0
  • Remark : Top division means the highest level of Indonesian football which includes the Liga Indonesia Premier Division before 2008 and the Indonesian Premier League during the dualism era.
  • Persipura, Persela, and Persiraja were relegated to the Liga 2 for the 2022 season, while Persis, RANS Nusantara, and Dewa United as winners, runners-up, and third place play-off winners respectively, were promoted from the 2021 season.

Maps[edit]

Former clubs[edit]

The following clubs competed in the Liga 1 for at least one season, but are not competing in the 2022–23 season.

Club Current
league
Position
in 2021–22
First season in
top division
First season in
Liga 1
Most recent
season in
Liga 1
Seasons
in top
division
Seasons
in Liga 1
National
titles
Last
title
Badak Lampung Liga 3 Eliminated in
first round
of Liga 2
2014 2014 2019 5 5 0
Bontang Liga 3 TBD 1994–95 2008–09 2010–11 18 3 0
Deltras Liga 2 Eliminated in
national round
of Liga 3
1994–95 2008–09 2011–12 16 3 0
Gresik United Liga 2 Eliminated in
national round
of Liga 3
1994–95 2011–12 2017 15 5 1 2002
Kalteng Putra Liga 2 Eliminated in
first round
2013 (IPL) 2019 2019 2 1 0
Mitra Kukar Liga 3 Eliminated in
first round
of Liga 2
1994–95 2011–12 2018 10 6 3 1987–88
(Galatama)
Persela Liga 2 17th in Liga 1 2004 2008–09 2021–22 16 12 0
Persema Liga 3 Eliminated in
provincial round
1994–95 2009–10 2009–10 14 1 0
Persepam Liga 3 Eliminated in
provincial round
2013 2013 2014 2 2 0
Persiba Liga 2 Eliminated in
second round
1994–95 2008–09 2017 16 8 0
Persiba Bantul Liga 3 Eliminated in
provincial round
2011–12 (IPL) 2014 2014 3 1 0
Persidafon Liga 3 Did not enter 2011–12 2011–12 2012–13 2 2 0
Persijap Liga 2 Eliminated in
first round
2001 2008–09 2014 10 4 0
Persipura Liga 2 16th in Liga 1 1994–95 2008–09 2021–22 25 12 4 2013
Persiraja Liga 2 18th in Liga 1 1994–95 2020 2021–22 12 2 1 1980
Persitara Liga 3 Eliminated in
provincial round
2006 2008–09 2009–10 4 2 0
Persiwa Liga 3 Did not enter 2006 2008–09 2012–13 7 5 0
PSAP Liga 3 TBD 2011–12 2011–12 2011–12 1 1 0
PSMS Liga 2 Eliminated in
second round
1994–95 2008–09 2018 15 3 6 1985
(Perserikatan)
PSPS Liga 2 Eliminated in
first round
1999–2000 2009–10 2012–13 10 4 0
Semen Padang Liga 2 Eliminated in
first round
1994–95 2010–11 2019 20 5 1 2011–12
(IPL)
Sriwijaya Liga 2 Eliminated in
second round
1994–95 2008–09 2018 19 9 2 2011–12
  • Remark : Top division means the highest level of Indonesian football which includes the Liga Indonesia Premier Division before 2008 and the Indonesian Premier League during the dualism era.

All-time Liga 1 table[edit]

The All-time Liga 1 table is an overall record of all match results, points, and goals of every team that has played in Liga 1 since its inception in 2008. The table is accurate as of the end of the 2021–22 season. Because the 2014 season used a two-region format, as per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws. This all-time table also include the abandoned 2015 and 2020 season.

Pos Team S Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
1 Persipura 12 333 177 89 67 604 331 +273 617[i] 3 3 1
2 Persib 12 333 157 85 91 532 381 +151 556 1 1 1 3
3 Arema[a] 12 332 159 76 97 535 377 +158 550[ii] 1 2 1 1
4 Persija 12 324 137 91 96 476 359 +117 502 1 1 1
5 Bali United[b] 11 291 134 61 96 442 357 +85 463 2 1
6 Madura United[c] 12 332 122 86 124 466 441 +25 449[iii] 1
7 Persela 12 331 109 83 139 449 484 −35 410 1
8 Sriwijaya 9 255 112 55 88 404 359 +45 391 1
9 PSM 9 229 91 63 75 311 293 +18 336 1 1
10 Bhayangkara[d] 7 167 85 43 39 260 175 +85 295[iv] 1 2 1
11 Persiba 8 219 75 52 92 289 314 −25 277 1
12 Persikabo 1973[e] 9 229 72 61 96 301 347 −46 277
13 Barito Putera 8 196 69 52 75 268 279 –11 259
14 Persiwa 5 164 74 23 67 250 242 +8 245 1 1
15 Mitra Kukar 6 164 70 26 68 255 262 −7 236 1
16 Borneo Samarinda[f] 6 141 57 39 45 206 172 +34 210
17 Persebaya 5 138 56 36 36 219 189 +30 204 1
18 Semen Padang 5 124 42 38 44 149 151 –2 164 1
19 PSIS 5 139 42 36 61 132 183 −51 162
20 Persik 5 125 41 33 51 158 179 −21 156 1
21 Badak Lampung[g] 5 124 36 31 57 128 182 −54 139
22 PSPS 4 130 39 20 71 147 245 −98 134[v]
23 Persijap 4 116 34 26 56 121 190 −69 128
24 Gresik United 5 125 32 27 66 129 253 −124 120[vi]
25 Persita 5 125 28 35 62 122 205 −83 119
26 PSMS 3 102 26 26 50 134 186 −52 104
27 Bontang[h] 3 96 24 24 48 129 185 −56 96
28 Deltras 3 96 25 18 53 98 155 −57 93
29 PSS 3 71 22 22 17 87 94 –7 88
30 Persidafon 2 68 21 13 34 96 126 −30 76
31 Persepam 2 54 18 12 24 70 86 −16 66
32 Persitara 2 68 16 16 36 77 107 −30 64
33 Persema 1 34 13 6 15 43 52 −9 45
34 Kalteng Putra 1 34 8 7 19 33 54 −21 31
35 PSAP 1 34 6 9 19 33 66 −33 27
36 Persiraja 2 37 3 9 25 19 69 –50 18
37 Persiba Bantul 1 20 2 3 15 17 53 −36 9
38 Dewa United 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 Persis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 RANS Nusantara 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Notes:

  1. ^ Include stats as Arema Indonesia and Arema Cronus.
  2. ^ Include stats as Persisam, Persisam Putra Samarinda, and Putra Samarinda.
  3. ^ Include stats as Pelita Jaya, Pelita Bandung Raya, and Persipasi Bandung Raya.
  4. ^ Include stats as Persebaya ISL.
  5. ^ Include stats as Persiram, PS TNI, PS TIRA, and TIRA-Persikabo.
  6. ^ Include stats as Pusamania Borneo and Borneo.
  7. ^ Include stats as Perseru.
  8. ^ Include stats as PKT Bontang.

Point deductions:

  1. ^ Persipura were deducted 3 points in 2021–22 season.
  2. ^ Arema were deducted 3 points in 2013 season.
  3. ^ Madura United were deducted 3 points in 2017 season.
  4. ^ Bhayangkara were deducted 3 points in 2014 season.
  5. ^ PSPS Riau were deducted 3 points in 2010−11 season.
  6. ^ Gresik United were deducted 3 points in 2017 season.

League or status at 2022–23:

2022–23 Liga 1 teams
2022–23 Liga 2 teams
2022–23 Liga 3 teams
Defunct teams

Players[edit]

Foreign players[edit]

Foreign players policy has changed multiple times since the league inception.

  • 2008–2013: 5 foreign players including 2 Asian quota.[36]
  • 2014: 4 foreign players including 1 Asian quota and only 3 can be on the field at a time.[37]
  • 2015: 3 foreign players. All 3 players can be on the field.[38]
  • 2017: 4 foreign players including 1 Asian quota and 1 marquee player quota. All 4 players can be on the field.[39]
  • 2018–present: 4 foreign players including 1 Asian quota. All 4 players can be on the field.[40]

Awards[edit]

Top scorers[edit]

Season Player Nationality Club Goals Games Rate
2008–09 Boaz Solossa  Indonesia Persipura 28 31 0.90
Cristian Gonzáles[a]  Uruguay Persik/Persib 28 1.00
2009–10 Aldo Barreto  Paraguay Bontang 19 32 0.59
2010–11 Boaz Solossa  Indonesia Persipura 22 27 0.81
2011–12 Alberto Gonçalves[a]  Brazil Persipura 25 34 0.74
2013 Boaz Solossa  Indonesia Persipura 25 32 0.78
2014 Emmanuel Kenmogne  Cameroon Persebaya ISL 25 25 1.00
2017 Sylvano Comvalius  Netherlands Bali United 37 34 1.09
2018 Aleksandar Rakić  Serbia PS TIRA 21 34 0.62
2019 Marko Šimić  Croatia Persija 28 32 0.88
2021–22 Ilija Spasojević  Indonesia Bali United 23 34 0.68

Notes:

  1. ^ a b Had not been naturalized as an Indonesian citizen that time.

Best players[edit]

Season Player Position Nationality Club
2008–09 Boaz Solossa Forward  Indonesia Persipura
2009–10 Kurnia Meiga Goalkeeper  Indonesia Arema
2010–11 Boaz Solossa Forward  Indonesia Persipura
2011–12 Keith Gumbs Forward  Saint Kitts and Nevis Sriwijaya
2013 Boaz Solossa Forward  Indonesia Persipura
2014 Ferdinand Sinaga Forward  Indonesia Persib
2017 Paulo Sérgio Midfielder  Portugal Bhayangkara
2018 Rohit Chand Midfielder    Nepal Persija
2019 Renan Silva Midfielder  Brazil Borneo
2021–22 Taisei Marukawa Midfielder  Japan Persebaya

Best coaches[edit]

Season Coach Nationality Club
2013 Jacksen F. Tiago  Brazil Persipura
2018 Stefano Cugurra  Brazil Persija
2019 Stefano Cugurra  Brazil Bali United
2021–22 Aji Santoso  Indonesia Persebaya

Best goals[edit]

Season Player Nationality Club Playing against Date
2017 Septian David  Indonesia Mitra Kukar Persiba 10 November 2017
2019 David da Silva  Brazil Persebaya Arema 12 December 2019
2021–22 Carlos Fortes  Portugal Arema Persija 5 February 2022

Sponsorship[edit]

Period Sponsor(s) Name
2008–2012 Djarum Djarum Indonesia Super League[41]
2013–2014 No sponsor Indonesia Super League
2015 QNB Group QNB League[42]
2017 Go-Jek and Traveloka Go-Jek Traveloka Liga 1[43]
2018 Go-Jek Go-Jek Liga 1[44]
2019–2020 Shopee Shopee Liga 1[45][46]
2021– Bank Rakyat Indonesia BRI Liga 1[1]

Media coverage[edit]

Current[edit]

Broadcaster Coverage Year Summary
Indonesia Emtek Pay TV 2019, 2021–present Matches available for Nex Parabola customers.[47]
Free-to-air (FTA) 2018–present Up to six matches per week, live on Indosiar. Most big matches only available via analogue/digital terrestrial antenna.[48]
Up to three matches per week, live on O Channel.
Streaming Live on Vidio Premier (pay) and Free (FTA). Up to five live matches per week (including big matches) must require a subscription (live coverage only available for Indonesia viewers) and non-Vidio Premier live matches (excluding big matches) available for free, with free highlights and free full coverage of 306 matches available in Indonesia and other countries via on demand (through all three Indosiar, O Channel, and Liga 1 official Vidio channels).
Indonesia Telkom Indonesia All 306 matches live, available for IndiHome and Telkomsel customers.[49]
Pay TV

Former[edit]

Year Broadcaster
Free-to-air (FTA) Pay TV Streaming
2008–2013[50] Indonesia ANTV
2014 Indonesia Kompas TV (first round only), RCTI, MNCTV, and GTV Indonesia K-Vision, First Media, and Big TV Indonesia Domikado (second round to final in 2014)
2015[51][52][53] Indonesia RCTI, MNCTV, GTV, and NET. Indonesia First Media, Big TV, and Matrix Garuda
2017[54][55] Indonesia tvOne Indonesia Orange TV Malaysia iflix and SportsFlix
2018[56][57]
Indonesia Matrix Garuda
2019[58]
2020–2022[59] Indonesia K-Vision, MNC Vision, and MNC Play Indonesia Vision+

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "BRI Diperkenalkan sebagai Sponsor Utama Baru Liga 1 pada 12 Agustus 2021". bola.com (in Indonesian). 5 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  2. ^ a b "BRI Liga 1". PSSI – Football Association of Indonesia (in Indonesian).
  3. ^ "Sejarah Kompetisi Sepakbola di Indonesia: Dari Masa Pra-Kemerdekaan Hingga (Menuju) Liga Profesional". FourFourTwo (in Indonesian). 29 September 2016. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016.
  4. ^ "Mengejutkan, Boaz Selalu Cetak Gol Pertama Kompetisi Sejak Era ISL". superball.bolasport.com (in Indonesian).
  5. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (10 July 2008). "ISL, Premier League Rasa Indonesia". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian).
  6. ^ "Persiter dan Persmin Pasti Mundur dari Liga Super | Goal.com". www.goal.com. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  7. ^ "PKT dan PSIS Terpilih Sebagai Tim Pengganti | Goal.com". www.goal.com. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  8. ^ Ruslan, Heri, ed. (19 March 2012). "Inilah Kronologi Lengkap Perseteruan PSSI dan KPSI". republika.co.id.
  9. ^ "Ketika Federasi, Kompetisi, dan Timnas Remuk Dihantam Dualisme". kumparan.com.
  10. ^ "Mengapa Banyak Dualisme Di Klub Sepakbola Indonesia?". goal.com.
  11. ^ Yosia, Ario (3 April 2020). "Flashback Liga Indonesia: Noda Hitam Dualisme Kompetisi 2010-2012, Jangan Sampai Terulang Lagi!". bola.com.
  12. ^ a b Adiyaksa, Muhammad (16 October 2020). "Kisah 4 Kali Matinya Kompetisi di Indonesia, Bagaimana Nasib Shopee Liga 1 2020?". Bola.com (in Indonesian).
  13. ^ a b "IPL, ISL dan Dampak Dualisme Sepakbola Nasional oleh Mugiwara Anamisme – Kompasiana.com". www.kompasiana.com (in Indonesian).
  14. ^ Afroni, Donny (17 March 2013). "Liga tetap bernama Indonesia Super League". goal.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  15. ^ "ISL dan IPL Akhirnya Bersatu". Koran Kaltim (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  16. ^ "Inilah 22 Klub yang Lolos Verifikasi". bolaindo.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  17. ^ "25 Klub Verifikasi Dinyatakan Tak Bisa Lengkapi Lima Aspek Lisensi Profesional". goal.com. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  18. ^ "Sembilan Klub Tak Bisa Penuhi Aspek Finansial". goal.com. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  19. ^ Kardi, Dika Dania (18 April 2015). "Kronologi Keputusan Final Pembekuan PSSI". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian).
  20. ^ "Force Majeur, PSSI Hentikan Semua Kompetisi". PSSI – Football Association of Indonesia (in Indonesian).
  21. ^ Salusi, Novitasari Dewi. "PSSI Disanksi FIFA". sport.detik.com.
  22. ^ Kuswandi, Rio (20 October 2015). "Persib Juara Piala Presiden 2015, Bandung Berpesta". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Kompas. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  23. ^ "Mengenang Perjalanan Arema FC Meraih Trofi Juara Bhayangkara Cup 2016". indosport.com. 3 April 2020.
  24. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (13 May 2016). "FIFA Resmi Cabut Sanksi terhadap Indonesia". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian).
  25. ^ "PT Liga Indonesia & Klub Sepakat Lepas Nama Indonesia Super League | Goal.com". www.goal.com (in Indonesian). 16 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018.
  26. ^ "Menpora Restui PT Liga Gelar Indonesia Super Competition". Liputan6.com (in Indonesian). 21 January 2016.
  27. ^ "Dipastikan Bergulir, Indonesia Soccer Championship Berganti Nama". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 18 April 2016.
  28. ^ "Persipura Juarai TSC 2016". kompas.com (in Indonesian). 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  29. ^ "PSSI Tunjuk PT Liga Indonesia Baru Jadi Operator Kompetisi 2017". bola.com.
  30. ^ "Akhir Drama Liga 1, Bhayangkara FC Juara". liputan6.com (in Indonesian).
  31. ^ "3 Kontroversi yang Mengiringi Persaingan Juara Liga 1 2017". bola.com.
  32. ^ "Kisah Sukses Bali United Juara Liga 1 2019: Buah Manis Memperkuat Pertahanan pada Awal Musim". bola.com.
  33. ^ "Setahun Lalu, Bali United Juara Liga 1 2019 Tapi Dipermalukan Madura United". bola.com.
  34. ^ a b "REGULASI LIGA 1 2022/2023" (PDF). ligaindonesiabaru.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2022.
  35. ^ "Liga Super Indonesia (ISL) dari Masa ke Masa". viva.co.id.
  36. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (8 November 2013). "Resmi, Kuota Pemain Asing di ISL Berkurang – Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com.
  37. ^ "Klub LSI maksimal turunkan tiga pemain asing". bolanews.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
  38. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (3 November 2014). "Musim Depan, Klub ISL Hanya Boleh Pakai 3 Pemain Asing". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian).
  39. ^ "PT LIB Pastikan Klub Hanya Boleh Pakai Satu Marquee Player". bola.net (in Indonesian). 5 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  40. ^ Yosia, Ario (15 February 2018). "Ini Regulasi Pemain Asing Liga 1 2018". liputan6.com.
  41. ^ "ISL 2014 Kemungkinan Tanpa Sponsor Rokok". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  42. ^ "Liga & BVSport Gandeng QNB Group". ligaindonesia.co.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  43. ^ "Jadi Sponsor Liga 1, Gojek-Traveloka Sumbang Rp 180 Miliar". liputan6.com.
  44. ^ "Ini Penyebab Berubahnya Titel Sponsor Liga 1 2018". liga-indonesia.id. Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  45. ^ "Inilah Sponsor Resmi Liga 1 2019". bola.kompas.com. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  46. ^ "Ini Logo Dan Sponsor Utama Liga 1 2019 | Goal.com". www.goal.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  47. ^ "Dominasi Siaran Sepak Bola, Nex Parabola Tayangkan BRI Liga 1 hingga Liga Inggris". bola.com.
  48. ^ "Emtek Kembali Jadi Official Broadcaster Liga 1 2020". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  49. ^ "IndiHome Interactive TV on Instagram: "Kabar gembira untuk kita semua! Akhirnya yang ditunggu-tunggu datang! ⁣. ⁣Liga 1 2020 sekarang sudah dapat disaksikan di UseeSports dan…"". Instagram (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  50. ^ "PT. LI (ISL)" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  51. ^ "Inilah Saluran Yang Menyiarkan Langsung ISL 2015". ligaindonesia.co.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  52. ^ "MNC Group dan NET TV Pegang Hak Siar ISL 2015" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  53. ^ "Inilah Pemegang Hak Siar Indonesia Super League 2015". goal.com.
  54. ^ "PSSI Resmi Tunjuk Pemegang Hak Siar Liga 1". CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  55. ^ "IFLIX LAUNCHES LIVE FOOTBALL STREAMING IN INDONESIA WITH TVONE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Live di Tiga Stasiun TV, Ini Pemegang Hak Siar Liga 1 2018". Jawapos.com. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  57. ^ "RESMI! SportsFix TV Kembali Siarkan Liga 1 Indonesia". Football Tribe Indonesia (in Indonesian). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  58. ^ Wirawan, Randy. "Resmi! Ini Stasiun TV Pemegang Hak Siar Liga 1 Indonesia 2019". Bolalob – Situsnya Anak Futsal!. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  59. ^ "PSSI Apresiasi MNC Group Majukan Sepak Bola Indonesia". PSSI – Football Association of Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 21 February 2020.

External links[edit]