Light rail in Canberra
Logo of the construction consortium
|Locale||Canberra, Australian Capital Territory|
|Transit type||Light rail|
|Number of lines||1|
|Number of stations||13|
|Chief executive||Glenn Stockton|
|Began operation||20 April 2019|
|Operator(s)||Canberra Metro Operations (CMET)|
|Number of vehicles||14 Urbos 3 trams|
|Train length||32.96 m (108.1 ft)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Top speed||70 km/h (43 mph)|
The Canberra light rail network is a light rail system to serve the city of Canberra, Australia. The initial 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) line links the northern town centre of Gungahlin to the city centre (Civic) and has 13 stops. Services commenced on 20 April 2019. An extension of the line south to the Woden Town Centre is currently being planned.
Walter Burley Griffin's master plan for Canberra proposed the construction of a tram network. The network did not eventuate and the city has been exclusively served by buses since 1926 when the Canberra City Omnibus Service was introduced.
While railways across Canberra, including one to Belconnen were seriously considered until the mid-1960s, little discussion of a metropolitan tramway occurred until the 1990s. Prior to 1989, the ACT had been directly administered by the Federal Government thus any large public infrastructure expenditure in Canberra was subject to national scrutiny.
A light rail connection for Gungahlin was proposed as far back as 1992, when a syndicate of private land developers MBA Land and Consolidated Builders (together known as Canberra Land) incorporated rail into an urban village plan. The Gungahlin proposal followed a 1991 Murdoch University report, Towards a More Sustainable Canberra, which suggested the city was too car-oriented and should implement a light rail system along the Y-Plan. In 1993 a report by Maunsell-Denis Johnston and Associates found that a dedicated inter-town busway was a more viable transport option for Canberra than light rail.
In 1994 the ACT Government commissioned a study into light rail, based on the findings of an independent report that light rail would be viable in Canberra by 1998. In its detailed report consultants Booz Allen Hamilton recommended a route from Belconnen to Barton via the City and Kings Avenue Bridge be operating by 1998; Woden to Barton by 2000; Tuggeranong to Woden by 2002 and Gungahlin to City by 2004. Routes to Canberra Airport and Queanbeyan received a lower priority. By January 1995 the then ACT Liberal Opposition Leader, Kate Carnell, announced her party's opposition to the light rail proposal citing "suspect" patronage figures and questioned the report's projected population for Canberra-Queanbeyan of 474,000 by 2016. Projections in 2017 for the Canberra-Queanbeyan population, forecast the metropolitan area reaching 474,000 between 2020 and 2023, four to seven years later than the 1995 projections. In 1995 the ACT Liberal Party came to power and plans for a light rail network in Canberra were dropped.
In February 1998, the ACT Government announced its support for the Federation Line, a proposed 7-kilometre (4.3 mi) line from the National Museum of Australia via Civic to the Australian War Memorial. The line was proposed to use heritage trams.
In September 2001, to try and garner support for the project, Melbourne tram W249 and Sydney tram R2001 were placed on display outside the Australian War Memorial, the latter operating on a 50-metre section of track and being powered by a diesel generator. In a further display in September 2003, W249 operated on an 80-metre section of track on Parkes Way.
The construction of the light rail line was part of a deal struck between the Labor Party and The Greens following the 2012 Australian Capital Territory Election, at which Labor required Greens support to form government. In the 2013/14 ACT budget, $5 million was allocated for early design work. In September 2014, the business case was approved by the government.
The project, known as Capital Metro during planning, was developed by the Capital Metro Agency. Responsibility for the project transferred to a new organisation, Transport Canberra, from 1 July 2016. The new organisation combined the Capital Metro Agency with the city's bus operator, ACTION. The line is being delivered under a public private partnership. Expressions of interest were received from the following consortia:
- ACTivate: Downer Group, Plenary Group, Bombardier and Keolis Downer
- Canberra Metro: Pacific Partnerships, Mitsubishi Corporation, John Holland, CAF, Deutsche Bahn, Aberdeen Asset Management, Leighton Contractors, and Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi
- CANGO: Macquarie Capital Group, Obrascon Huarte Lain, SMRT International, UGL Rail and Siemens
- Connecting Canberra: Capella Capital, Transdev, Alstom and Acciona Infrastructure
In March 2015, the government announced that ACTivate and Canberra Metro had been selected to move on to the Request for Proposal stage of the procurement process. The bidders submitted their final proposals for the Gungahlin to the city route on 4 September and had an additional four weeks to submit their proposals for a potential expansion of the project, from the city to Russell. The Canberra Metro consortium was announced as the preferred tenderer in February 2016 and the contract was finalised in May. Under the contract, Canberra Metro will operate and maintain the line for 20 years, after which ownership will pass to the ACT Government.
Design and construction costs are budgeted at $707 million. The Federal Government is contributing $67 million to the project. Commencement of construction was marked by a sod-turning in the northern suburb of Mitchell at the site of the depot on 12 July 2016. Major construction of the route itself began towards the end of the year. 
The opposition Liberal Party opposed the project. In April 2015, the party announced it would cancel any contracts for the light rail if it won the 2016 ACT election. A year out from the poll, the light rail project was already predicted to be the election's major issue. The election saw the Labor government returned, with the party claiming the result as an endorsement of the project. As predicted, the light rail project was the major issue of the campaign.
Testing of the line began in June 2018. A section in Gungahlin was electrified and one of the trams made trial runs. All 14 trams have arrived in Canberra and it was hoped to have the project completed by the end of 2018.
The light rail opened on 20 April 2019.
The 12-kilometre (7.5 mi) line has its northern terminus at Hibberson Street in Gungahlin, and follows Flemington Road, the Federal Highway and Northbourne Avenue to the southern terminus between Alinga and Rudd Streets in the City Centre. It is double track for its full length. Emergency crossovers are located to the north of the Dickson Interchange stop, as well as the north of the Nullarbor Avenue stop. There are to be 13 stops. The main bus interchanges are located at Gungahlin Place, Dickson Interchange and Alinga Street.
|Gungahlin Place||Gungahlin||Dual (Island & Side)|||
|Manning Clark North||Gungahlin||Island|||
|Mapleton Avenue||Franklin / Harrison||Island|||
|Nullarbor Avenue||Franklin / Harrison||Island|||
|Well Station Drive||Franklin / Harrison||Island|||
|EPIC and Racecourse||Lyneham||Side|||
|Phillip Avenue||Lyneham / Watson||Island|||
|Swinden Street||Lyneham / Downer||Side (staggered)|||
|Dickson Interchange||Lyneham / Dickson||Side|||
|Macarthur Avenue||Lyneham / Dickson||Side|||
|Ipima Street||Turner / Braddon||Side|||
|Elouera Street||Turner / Braddon||Side|||
The service is operated by Canberra Metro Operations (CMET), in association with Deutsche Bahn Engineering and Consulting, under a 20 year contract. CMET is a joint venture between John Holland and Pacific Partnerships, both of whom are part of the Canberra Metro consortium.
The contract specifies the following minimum service levels for hours of operation and service frequency:
|Day||First service||Last service|
|Monday to Thursday||06:00||23:30|
|Friday and Saturday||06:00||01:00 the following day|
|The last services from Gungahlin depart half an hour earlier.|
The first service from the city on Sunday departs half an hour later.
|To the city||To Gungahlin|
|Monday to Friday||06:00-07:00||15 minutes||15 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||07:00-07:30||6 minutes||10 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||07:30-09:00||6 minutes||6 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||09:00-16:00||10 minutes||10 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||16:00-17:30||6 minutes||6 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||17:30-18:00||10 minutes||6 minutes|
|Monday to Friday||After 18:00||15 minutes||15 minutes|
|Saturday||06:00-01:00||15 minutes||15 minutes|
|Sunday||08:00-23:00||15 minutes||15 minutes|
CAF built 14 Urbos 3 trams to operate the network. It will also provide twenty years of maintenance for the fleet. The trams are 32.96 metres long and consist of five modules. There are four doors on each side of the vehicle, two single leaf and two double leaf doors. The first tram was delivered in December 2017. The vehicles feature a red and grey livery, with white reflective stripe in the middle. The depot is located in Mitchell.
The consortia participating in the procurement process for the initial line were asked to develop plans for an expanded route from the City Centre to the Defence headquarters in Russell via London Circuit and Constitution Avenue. This additional 3.2-kilometre (2 mi) section was estimated to boost the patronage of the line as a whole by more than 30%. The proposal highlighted the desire of the Federal Government's National Capital Authority to use wire-free technology to power the trams in areas of the city under the authority's management. The ACT Government decided not to proceed with the expanded route, but committed to releasing a plan for a second stage of the light rail network prior to the October 2016 territory election. It was considering extending the line not only to Russell but to the broader parliamentary triangle, possibly including Canberra Airport and the Australian National University.
In July 2016, the government released a shortlist of four potential routes that could form the second stage of the light rail network. The routes were:
- City to Canberra Airport via Constitution Avenue & Parkes Way
- City to Belconnen Town Centre via Barry Drive past Calvary Hospital & the University of Canberra
- City to the Parliamentary Triangle via either Commonwealth Avenue or Kings Avenue
- City to Mawson via Woden.
In September 2016, the government selected a truncated version of the Mawson route that ends at Woden as its preferred second stage project. The route is around 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) long. Tenders to design various aspects of the project were called in November. At that stage the only firm decisions the government had made about the route were that it would run from Alinga Street to the Woden Town Centre and use the Commonwealth Avenue Bridge to cross Lake Burley Griffin. More concrete plans were released in May 2017. South of Lake Burley Griffin, the route will predominantly travel via Adelaide Avenue and Yarra Glen. Design options for several sections of the route that had yet to be locked in were presented to the public for comment. An option that would have extended the route to the Canberra Hospital was dropped in December 2017. There were two options for the section between Lake Burley Griffin and Adelaide Avenue: a deviation to Barton with proposed stops at Old Parliament House, Brisbane Avenue and Sydney Avenue; or a more direct route via the Capital Circle. The longer route via Barton was selected as the preferred route in April 2018.
Construction of stage 2 is planned to begin shortly after the completion of the first stage. The Federal Government will be invited to make a contribution to the project as part of the government's City Deals program.
As part of the plans for stage two, there will also be an application for funding of an additional stage one stop, to be located at Morrisset Rd in Mitchell, between the depot and Well Station Drive.
Twenty-five year vision
|Gungahlin to City||The first stage of the network|
|Parliamentary Triangle||Connecting City to Russell, City to the Parliamentary Zone and Russell to the Parliamentary Zone. High priority corridor.|
|Woden to City||Running via Adelaide Avenue. High priority corridor.|
|Tuggeranong to Woden (Athllon Corridor)||Running either via the Athllon Drive Corridor or the existing rapid bus alignment along Erindale Drive|
|Eastern connections (Fyshwick and Canberra Airport)||Additions to the Parliamentary Triangle routes, from Russell to Canberra Airport and the Parliamentary Zone to Fyshwick. High priority corridor.|
|Belconnen to City||Running via Southern Cross Drive and Barry Drive|
|Molonglo to City||Woden to City via Hindmarsh Drive, John Gorton Drive and Parkes Way|
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