Light rail in North America
Light rail is a commonly used mode of public transit in North America. The term light rail was coined in 1972 by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA; the precursor to the U.S. Federal Transit Administration) to describe new streetcar transformations which were taking place in Europe and the United States. The Germans used the term Stadtbahn, which is the predecessor to North American light rail, to describe the concept, and many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, which is city rail. However, in its reports, UMTA finally adopted the term light rail instead.
- 1 History of streetcars and light rail
- 2 Diesel light rail
- 3 Ridership on light rail in North America
- 4 Light rail in Canada
- 5 Light rail in Mexico
- 6 Light rail in the United States
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History of streetcars and light rail
From the mid-19th century onwards, horse-drawn trams or horsecars were used in cities around the world. In the late 1880s electrically powered street railways became technically feasible following the invention of a trolley pole system of collecting current by American inventor Frank J. Sprague who installed the first successful system at Richmond, Virginia. They became popular because roads were then poorly surfaced, and before the invention of the internal combustion engine and the advent of motor-buses, they were the only practical means of public transport around cities.
The streetcar systems constructed in the 19th and early 20th centuries typically only ran in single-car setups. Some rail lines experimented with multiple unit configurations, where streetcars were joined together to make short trains. When lines were built over longer distances (typically with a single track) before good roads were common, they were generally called interurban streetcars or radial railways in North America.
After World War II, seven major North American cities (Boston, Newark, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and Toronto) continued to operate large streetcar systems. Some of these cities called their modernized systems light rail in an attempt to differentiate it from their existing streetcars particularly cities that continued to operate both the old and new systems. Cleveland, Ohio, maintained an interurban system (e.g. the Blue and Green Lines) that is equivalent to what is now "light rail", which opened before World War I, and which is still in operation to this day.
In North America, many of these original streetcar systems were decommissioned in the 1950s and onward as the popularity of the automobile increased. Although some traditional trolley or tram systems still exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has primarily German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure.
The renaissance of light rail in North American began in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, Alberta adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years later by Calgary, Alberta and San Diego, California.
Historically, the rail gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many early systems. However, most light rail systems are now standard gauge. An important advantage of standard gauge is that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives. Additionally, more manufacturers are able to produce standard gauge vehicles, reducing costs for rolling stock acquisition. Another factor favoring standard gauge is that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular, and there is generally insufficient space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout.
Diesel light rail
A few recently opened systems in North America use diesel-powered trains, including the Trillium Line in Ottawa (opened in 2001), the River Line in New Jersey (opened in 2004), and the Sprinter in northern San Diego County, California (opened in 2008). Diesel operations are chosen in corridors where lower ridership is expected (and thus do not justify the expense of the electric power infrastructure) or which have an "interurban" nature with stations spaced relatively far apart (electric power provides greater acceleration, making it essential for operations with closely spaced stations). Operations with diesel-powered trains can be an interim measure until ridership growth and the availability of funding allow the system to be upgraded to electric power operations.
Ridership on light rail in North America
The following table lists the twelve light rail systems in North America with the highest riderships in 2014 (note: no 2014 figures are available for Calgary's CTrain):
|Country||Light rail system||Annual Ridership
|1||Toronto||CAN||Toronto streetcar system||91,588,200|
|2||Guadalajara||MEX||Guadalajara light rail system||89,245,000|
|4||Boston||USA||Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority||69,378,484|
|5||Los Angeles||USA||L.A. Metro Rail||63,890,065|
|6||San Francisco||USA||Muni Metro||56,712,900|
|7||San Diego||USA||San Diego Trolley||39,749,578|
|8||Portland, OR||USA||MAX Light Rail||38,286,600|
|9||Edmonton||CAN||Edmonton Light Rail Transit||34,751,400|
|11||Dallas||USA||Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART)||29,884,322|
|12||Mexico City||MEX||Xochimilco Light Rail||29,370,000|
- Annual ridership figure for Calgary is from the year-end 2013 APTA report – annual ridership figures for Calgary were not available in the 2014 APTA report.
Toronto has the highest annual ridership of any light rail (in the case of Toronto, actually streetcar) system in North America, followed by Mexico's Guadalajara, with Canada's Calgary having the third highest annual ridership. Of the light rail systems in the United States, Boston has the fourth highest annual ridership in North America, followed by Los Angeles with the fifth highest.
In general, ridership on light rail systems in Mexico and Canada tends to be higher than the corresponding ridership on light rail systems in the United States, especially on a boardings per mile basis where the Mexican systems (Guadalajara light rail system and Xochimilco Light Rail) rank first and second, and three Canadian systems (Calgary's CTrain, Edmonton Light Rail Transit and Toronto's streetcars) rank third, fifth and seventh. On a boardings per mile basis, the most ridden light rail systems in the United States are again Boston's MBTA ranked fourth, followed by San Francisco's Muni Metro ranked sixth.
Light rail in Canada
|Stations||Lines||Year Last Expansion||Type|
|Calgary||CTrain||1981||59.9 km (37.2 mi)||45||2||2014||Light rail|
|Edmonton||Edmonton Light Rail Transit||1978||24.3 km (15.1 mi)||18||2||2015||Light rail|
|Ottawa||O-Train||2001||8 km (5.0 mi)||5||1||n/a||Light rail|
|Toronto[a]||Toronto streetcar system||1861||82 km (51 mi)||708||11||2016||Streetcar|
In general, Canadian cities have rates of public transit use which are two to three times as high as comparably sized U.S. cities. Census data for 2006 show that 11.0% of Canadians use public transit to commute to work, compared to 4.8% of Americans. This means that transportation planners must allow for higher passenger volumes on Canadian transit systems than American ones.
As a result of lower government funding, Canadian cities have to recover a much higher share of their costs out of operating revenues. This lack of funding may explain why there is resistance to the high capital costs of rail systems and there are only a few light rail systems in Canada.
Calgary Transit claims that the Calgary CTrain network, which started operation in 1981, has the highest ridership of any modern light rail transit system in North America, carrying over over 320,000 passengers per weekday. This is higher than the Toronto streetcar system that began operation in 1861 and is also higher than the Boston Light Rail system, which is the busiest light rail transit system in the United States. At present, there are 45 stations in operation along the 58.7-kilometer (36.5 mi) CTrain light rail system. There are four legs in the system radiating directionally out into the suburbs from the downtown core that are connected by shared tracks along a downtown transit mall. They have been organized into two CTrain lines (identified as the Red Line and the Blue Line on network maps). The legs, as built in chronological order, are the South (1981), the Northeast (1985), the Northwest (1987), and the West (2012). Route 201 (Red Line) connects the South and Northwest lines; Route 202 (Blue Line) connects the Northeast and West lines. The two routes share most of the downtown line on the 7th Avenue South transit mall; the exception is the Downtown West – Kerby station, which serves only Route 202. The planned Route 203 - Green line will add about 40 kilometres (25 mi) and 28 stations to the system by connecting a North leg to a Southeast leg, probably in a tunnel underneath the existing downtown transit mall. Construction on it is expected to start in 2017.
In late 2015 Calgary Transit started running four-car trains to alleviate congestion as the system exceed 300,000 passengers per weekday. The longer trains can carry 800 passengers per train compared to 600 on three-car trains, a 33% increase. This upgrade required rebuilding or relocating all 45 station platforms to accommodate the longer trains, and buying 63 new vehicles to add another car to each train. Trains will be lengthened as more vehicles are delivered from the manufacturer.
Edmonton was the first city in North America to build a modern (second generation) light rail system. The route (today called the Capital Line) first started construction in 1974, and opened its first segment on April 22, 1978, in time for the 1978 Commonwealth Games. The Edmonton Transit System built much of its initial light rail system underground, which meant that it could not afford to lay as much track to the suburbs at the time of its opening. The system has grown incrementally since its opening, and as of 2010[update] had grown to a 21-kilometer (13 mi) long light rail line serving a total of 15 stations. The system is successful by North American standards, with an average weekday ridership of 93,600 passengers in 2010. The City of Edmonton has focused on LRT expansion plans in recent years. The new Metro Line, a branch of the existing Capital Line, opened in September 2015. The separate Valley Line, currently under construction with its first 13.1-kilometre (8.1 mi) phase due to open in 2020, will use low-floor vehicles.
In 2001, to supplement its BRT system, Ottawa opened a diesel light rail pilot project, (the O-Train), which was relatively inexpensive to construct (C$21 million), due to its single-track route along a neglected freight-rail right of way and its use of diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles to avoid the cost of building overhead lines along the tracks. The current Trillium Line is only 8-kilometer (5.0 mi) long, serving just 5 stations. O-Train has had some success in attracting ridership to the system (approximately 14,000 per weekday), due to its connection of a south end big box shopping mall (South Keys), through Carleton University to the east-west busway (Ottawa Transitway) near the downtown core of the city.
In late 2009, Ottawa introduced plans for a new east-west line, including a tunnel through Downtown Ottawa, featuring 3 subway stations. Construction of this new line, dubbed the Confederation Line, started in late 2013. As of 2015, the name O-Train includes both the existing diesel-powered Trillium Line as well as the electrically powered Confederation Line under construction.
Most of the 11 routes of the Toronto streetcar system operate in mixed traffic, but three of them (509 Harbourfront, 510 Spadina and 512 St. Clair) as well as a 3 km portion of the 501 Queen in the median of The Queensway have similarity to light rail in that there is a high degree of separation from road traffic by using reserved lanes with some track in tunnels.
Light rail in Mexico
|Stations||Lines||Year Last Expansion||Type|
|Guadalajara||Guadalajara light rail system||1989||25.0 km (15.5 mi)||29||2||1994||Light rail|
|Mexico City[a]||Xochimilco Light Rail||1986||12.8 km (8.0 mi)||18||1||1995||Light rail|
There are two light rail systems in Mexico: Guadalajara's, and Mexico City's Xochimilco Light Rail line (known locally as el Tren Ligero). A third system, Monterrey's Metrorrey also has some characteristics of a light rail system (especially in its use of high-floor light rail vehicles), but runs in a fully grade separated, exclusive right-of-way with high passenger volumes, which are generally the criteria assigned to "metro" or heavy rail systems; thus Metrorrey is considered to be a full metro system by at least the UITP transport organization and so is not included here.
Both of Mexico's light rail systems have among the highest riderships of any North American light rail system. Guadalajara's light rail system, despite being only about 15.5-miles long, transported an average of approximately 268,500 passengers per day in the Fourth Quarter (Q4) of 2013, translating into over 18,000 daily boardings per mile, which is the highest per mile boarding rate of any North American light rail system. The Xochimilco Light Rail line is close behind, seeing almost 11,400 boardings per mile in Q4 2013, the second highest rate of boardings per mile of any North American system.
Light rail in the United States
The United States has a number of light rail systems in its mid-sized to large cities. As of October 2016[update], there are 26 modern light rail systems, 11 modern streetcar systems, and approximately 10 heritage streetcar systems (plus the San Francisco cable car system, and Morgantown's light rail-like Personal Rapid Transit system) offering regular year-round transit service, for a total of over 45 operational light rail-type systems in the United States. The United States has a much larger number of "true" light rail systems (i.e. not including streetcar and heritage streetcar systems), by far, compared to any other country in the world (the next largest are Germany with 10 light rail systems, and Japan with 7).
Seven of these systems are vestigial "legacy" first-generation streetcar systems that were spared the fate of the other streetcar systems that were closed in the United States during the 1950s-1970s due to their having some grade separation from other traffic (e.g. subway tunnels) and relatively high ridership. Of these seven surviving streetcar systems, two of these (Muni Metro in San Francisco and Pittsburgh Light Rail) have seen their service substantial revamped and modernized since the 1960s (e.g. by the construction of new subway sections), whereas the other five (Boston, Cleveland, Newark, New Orleans, and Philadelphia) have seen less drastic expansions or modernizations since their earlier eras.
The remaining examples are all second-generation light rail (and streetcar) systems, with the oldest being San Diego's which was opened in 1981. In the 1980s, this system was followed by new light rail installations in Buffalo, Portland, Sacramento, and San Jose, and by a heritage streetcar line in Dallas. Many new systems followed in the 1990s, and approximately 20 more new light rail and streetcar systems have followed since 2000.
Table of United States light rail systems
- This city also has a metro/rapid transit system, in addition to its light rail/streetcar system – see the List of metro systems.
- While the MBTA Green Line is light rail, the MBTA Blue, Orange, and Red Lines of the system are rapid transit/subways.
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- See Green Line Extension
- This was not a service "extension" per se, but a line renovation.
- The Ashmont-Mattapan Line is run with historic PCC streetcar rolling stock, but is considered by the MBTA to be a regular light rail line rather than a "heritage streetcar" line.
- While the Blue and Green Lines are light rail, Cleveland's other transit line, the Red Line, is rapid transit.
- For light-rail portion (Blue, Expo, Gold and Green Lines) of L.A. Metro only. The Red and Purple Lines of L.A. Metro are rapid transit/subway systems and are not included here.
- Muni Metro: 33 stations (9 underground; 24 surface), with an additional 87 streetcar-like surface stops.
- It is debatable whether this system truly qualifies as "light rail" (or as a true "transit" system either), but it is included in the table anyway for completeness.
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- List of Canadian urban rail systems
- American Public Transit Association
- Table of Light Rail Transit Agencies in the United States (from APTA)
- Federal Transit Administration (U.S.)
- Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the U.S. National Research Council
- Commuter Rail, Light Rail & Rail Transit News
- Light Rail & Transit News – current news concerning light rail development and issues
- Light Rail Central photos & news
- A movie of Armour's electric trolley, circa 1897 from Library of Congress