Lightning (connector)

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Lightning
Lightning connector.svg
Top down view of a Lightning cable, showing the 8-pin connector
Type Data and power connector
Designer Apple Inc.
Produced 2012–present
Superseded 30-pin dock connector
Pins 8
Pin out
Receptacle view
Pin 1 GND Ground
Pin 2 L0p Lane 0 positive
Pin 3 L0n Lane 0 negative
Pin 4 ID0 Identification/control 0
Pin 5 PWR Power (charger or battery)
Pin 6 L1n Lane 1 negative
Pin 7 L1p Lane 1 positive
Pin 8 ID1 Identification/control 1
Lane 0 and 1 may swap in IC of device connector (lanes don't swap if accessory identification chip connect to ID0 pin)

Lightning is a proprietary computer bus and power connector created by Apple Inc. Introduced on September 12, 2012 (2012-09-12), to replace its predecessor, the 30-pin dock connector, the Lightning connector is used to connect Apple mobile devices like iPhones, iPads, and iPods to host computers, external monitors, cameras, USB battery chargers, and other peripherals. Using 8 pins instead of 30, Lightning is significantly more compact than the 30-pin dock connector and can be inserted with either side facing up. However, unless used with an adapter, it is incompatible with cables and peripherals designed for its predecessor.

History[edit]

The Lightning connector was introduced on September 12, 2012 (2012-09-12), as a replacement for the 30-pin dock connector, to be used for all new hardware that was announced at the same event.[1] The first compatible devices were the iPhone 5, the iPod Touch (5th generation), and the iPod Nano (7th generation).[2] The iPad (4th generation) and the iPad Mini (1st generation) were added as Lightning devices in October 2012.[3][4]

On November 25, 2012, Apple acquired the "Lightning" trademark in Europe from Harley-Davidson. Apple was given a partial transfer of the Lightning trademark, suggesting that Harley-Davidson likely retained the rights to use the name for motorcycle-related products.[5][6] Apple is the sole proprietor of the trademark and copyrights for the designs and specifications of the lightning cable.[citation needed]

The iPad Pro, released in 2015, features the first Lightning connector supporting USB 3.0.[7] However, the included cable only supports USB 2.0 as it lacks the necessary extra pins, so any USB 3.0-supporting Lightning devices would be bought separately.[7]

Technology[edit]

Apple Lightning to USB Cable (MD818)
Lightning cable connected to iPad mini
Lightning cable with iPhone 6S
Lightning connector

Lightning is an 8-pin connector which carries a digital signal. Unlike the Apple 30 pin connector it replaces (and USB Type A or B connectors), the Lightning connector can be inserted either face up or face down. Apple offers various adapters which allow the Lightning connector to be used with other interfaces, such as 30-pin, USB, HDMI, VGA, and SD cards. The Lightning to 30-pin adapter supports only a limited subset of the available 30-pin signals: USB data, USB charging, and analog audio output (via the DAC inside of the adapter[8]).

Official Lightning connectors contain an authentication chip that was intended to make it difficult for third-party manufacturers to produce compatible accessories without being approved by Apple;[9] however, the chip has been cracked.[10]

The pin out is detailed in the info box. However, each pin on the reverse side of the connector is connected to its directly opposite twin on the other side. Part of the processor's job is to route the power and data signals correctly whichever way up the connector is inserted.[10]

The plug measures 6.7 mm by 1.5 mm.

Comparisons with microUSB[edit]

Apple has not publicly discussed microUSB, but various tech news websites state that Lightning might have been used instead of microUSB because of its compatibility with docks and speaker systems;[11] the ability to insert the cable in either direction for user convenience;[12] Apple wishing to maintain control over the ethics of the supply chain of accessories[13] and the ability to charge a licensing fee; the mechanical weakness of USB connectors;[12] and the ability to either charge a device, or allow a device to power accessories.[citation needed] The optional supplemental standard USB On-The-Go allows USB devices to do this.[14]

On April 10, 2015, Apple announced a new line of MacBooks that featured USB-C, which has similarities with Lightning, and advantages over microUSB. USB-C, like Lightning, but unlike its predecessor microUSB, can be plugged in either direction. USB-C and Lightning are not interchangeable; as they are entirely different pin-outs, protocols and connectors, and until the launch of the new MacBooks required adapters to work with each other.

Devices using Lightning connectors[edit]

Lightning to 3.5 mm Headphone Jack Adapter

The following Apple-made devices use Lightning connectors as of September 2017:

iPhone[edit]

iPad[edit]

iPod[edit]

Adapters[edit]

  • Lightning to 30-pin Adapter
  • Lightning to 30-pin Adapter (0.2 m)
  • Lightning to Micro USB Adapter
  • Lightning to USB Camera Adapter
  • Lightning to USB 3 Camera Adapter
  • Lightning to VGA Adapter
  • Lightning Digital AV Adapter
  • Lightning to 3.5 mm Headphone Jack Adapter[15]

Accessories[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pollicino, Joe (September 12, 2012). "Apple's September 12th event roundup: iPhone 5, new iPods, iOS 6, Lightning and everything else". Engadget. Retrieved October 5, 2012. 
  2. ^ Dillet, Romain (September 12, 2012). "The iPhone 5 Comes With The New "Lightning" Connector". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 27, 2012. 
  3. ^ Schultz, Marianne (October 23, 2012). "Apple Announces Fourth-Generation iPad with Lightning Connector, New A6X Chip". MacRumors. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  4. ^ "iPad mini Technical Specifications". Apple Inc. December 2, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  5. ^ Goldman, David (November 26, 2012). "Apple bought Lightning trademark from Harley-Davidson". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved November 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Apple acquired Lightning trademark from Harley-Davidson". Apple Insider. 
  7. ^ a b Cunningham, Andrew (2015-11-13). "Apple sneaks a USB 3.0-compatible Lightning port into the iPad Pro". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  8. ^ Eric Slivka (October 11, 2012). "Apple's Lightning to 30-Pin Adapter Torn Apart, Reveals Several Chips and Copious Glue". MacRumors. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  9. ^ Foresman, Chris (October 3, 2012). "Apple revising MFi program to limit third-party Lightning accessories". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Gary Marshall (October 24, 2012). "Apple Lightning connector: what you need to know". techradar. 
  11. ^ "Engineer explains why Apple went with Lightning instead of Micro USB". idownloadblog.com. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  12. ^ a b "Hardware comparison: Lightning connector vs MicroUSB connector". pocketables.com. 2012-12-20. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  13. ^ "Made For iPhone manufacturers may have to comply with Apple's supplier responsibility code". Engadget. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  14. ^ "c|net: Clever adapter connects USB accessories to your Android device"
  15. ^ "Lightning to 3.5 mm Headphone Jack Adapter". Apple. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 

Further reading[edit]