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Lihyani[citation needed] tombs carved into the cliffs at Mada'in Saleh
Lihyani Head of a statue (4th/3rd century BC) from Al-'Ula

Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان) is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom. It was located in northwestern Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. the 6th to 4th centuries BC. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan (see Biblical Dedan), which is now called Al-`Ula oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima.

The Lihyanites later became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD. This encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent Kingdom to manage their country. This was headed by the King (Timmy), one of the former royal family, which governed Al-Hijr before the Nabataean invasion.

The Arab genealogies consider the Banu Lihyan to be descended from the Ishmaelite Arabs from Ishmael. The descendants of Lihyan founded the Arab kingdom of Lihyan, and presently live in the desert between Mecca and Jeddah.

Their cities included Higra, Al-`Ula, Al-Khuraibah, Teima, Oman.[citation needed]

Kings of Lihyan:

  • Kabeer Al ibn mata' Al,
  • Jashim ibn shahr,
  • Hinas ibn shahr,
  • Takhmy ibn lthan,
  • Shamit Jashim ibn lthan,
  • Jlt qoos,
  • Mn'y lthan ibn Hinas,
  • Hinas ibn talny,
  • Talny ibn hinas,
  • 'Abdan hinas,
  • Slih,
  • Fthij,
  • Mas'ud,
  • Shahr ibn hinas.[citation needed]


  • Lozachmeur, H (ed.) 1995. Présence arabe dans le croissant fertile avant l'Hégire. (Actes de la table ronde internationale Paris, 13 Novembre 1993). Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations. pp. 148. ISBN 2-86538-254-0. [1]
  • Werner Caskel, Lihyan und Lihyanisch (1954)
  • F.V. Winnett "A Study of the Lihyanite and Thamudic Inscriptions", University of Toronto Press, Oriental Series No. 3. [2]

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