Lijepa naša domovino
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2009)|
|English: Our Beautiful Homeland|
Monument to Croatian national anthem in Zelenjak
National anthem of Croatia
|Lyrics||Antun Mihanović, 1835|
|Music||Josip Runjanin, 1861|
|Adopted||29 February 1972|
"Lijepa naša domovino" (Croatian pronunciation: [lijeːpa naʃa domoːʋino], Our Beautiful Homeland) is the national anthem of Croatia. It is often referred to as just "Lijepa naša" ("Our Beautiful") in Croatia, which is also a phrase widely used as a metonym for the country.
The original lyrics were written by Antun Mihanović and first published under the title Horvatska domovina (Croatian homeland) in 1835. In 1846, the music amateur Josip Runjanin (1821–1878) composed the music for Horvatska domovina. Runjanin's army bandmaster Josip Wendl adapted his music for a military brass orchestra. It has not been known what was the original form of the melody because the first copy has not been recovered to this day.
The song was scored and harmonized for a male choir by a teacher of singing and organist of the Zagreb Cathedral Vatroslav Lichtenegger in 1861, and after that it started to be performed as the Croatian people's anthem. The title Lijepa naša has been applied since that time. The original anthem has 14 verses. Since then it has come to be known under the slightly longer present title and a few minor adjustments have been made to the lyrics.
The song was not immediately adopted by the Croatian Parliament as the national anthem. In 1907, the Association of Croatian Singing Clubs requested the parliament to do so but received no response, even though the song was used as the anthem in unofficial capacity at ceremonies, including the 29 October 1918 session of the parliament when Croatia formally dissolved its ties with Austria-Hungary.
Between 1918 and 1941, segments of the Croatian national anthem were part of the national anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and it was unofficial hymn of Croats. During the World War II, in the Independent State of Croatia it was also used as state anthem, albeit with some modifications to the lyrics. Croatian partisans were also using it, for example during ZAVNOH sessions.
The song became the official anthem of Croatia through amendments of the Constitution of Croatia adopted by the parliament of the SR Croatia on 29 February 1972. The anthem was confirmed by constitutions of 1974 and 1990, when its lyrics were slightly modified, and by the Coat of Arms, the Flag and the National Anthem of the Republic of Croatia Act.
Lyrics of "Hrvatska domovina"
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2013)|
- Tomasović, Mirko (20 March 2003). "Vrsni katalog emocija i epiteta" [An excellent catalog of emotions and epithets]. Vijenac (Matica hrvatska) (236).
- "Josip Runjanin" (in Croatian). Vinkovci: Josip Runjanin Music School. 13 May 2014.
- "State emblems". Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (Croatia).
- "Državna obilježja" (in Croatian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (MVPEI). Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "State emblems". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration (MVPEI). Retrieved 20 June 2011..
- first published in the cultural magazine Danica ilirska, No. 10, edited by Ljudevit Gaj, in 1835.
- http://www.nsk.hr/horvatska-domovina/ (pristupljeno 14. ožujka 2013.)
- http://fluminensia.org/mihanovic-u-rijeci-napisao-lijepu-nasu (pristupljeno 14. ožujka 2013.)
- Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs also has an information website on the anthem with sound files of it.
- Croatia: Lijepa naša domovino - Audio of the national anthem of Croatia, with information and lyrics