Like a Virgin (song)
|"Like a Virgin"|
Cover art for most 12-inch vinyl and later CD editions, including the 12" U.S. maxi-single
|Single by Madonna|
|from the album Like a Virgin|
|Released||October 31, 1984|
Power Station studios
(New York, New York)
|Madonna singles chronology|
"Like a Virgin" is a song by American singer Madonna. It is the title track from her second studio album Like a Virgin (1984), and was released on October 31, 1984, by Sire Records as the first single from the album. The song appears on the greatest hits compilation albums The Immaculate Collection (1990) and Celebration (2009). It was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly and produced by Nile Rodgers; Steinberg said that the song was inspired by his personal experiences of romance. "Like a Virgin" was chosen for Madonna by Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records after listening to a demo sung by Kelly. However, Rodgers initially felt that the song did not have a sufficient hook and was not suitable for Madonna, but subsequently changed his opinion after the hook was stuck in his mind.
Musically "Like a Virgin" is a dance-oriented song, composed of two hooks. Madonna's voice is heard in a high register while a continuous arrangement of drums are heard along the bassline. The lyrics of the song are ambiguous and consist of hidden innuendo. In sexual terms, the lyrics can be interpreted in different ways for different people. "Like a Virgin" received positive reviews from contemporary as well as old critics, who frequently called it as one of the defining songs for Madonna. It became her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100, while reaching the top of the charts in Australia, Canada, and Japan, and the top-ten of the other countries.
The music video portrayed Madonna sailing down the canals of Venice in a gondola, as well as roaming around a palace wearing a white wedding dress. With the video, scholars noted Madonna's portrayal of a sexually independent woman, the symbolism of the appearance of a man with lion's mask to that of Saint Mark, and the link between the eroticism of the video and the vitality of the city of Venice. Madonna has performed the song in six of her concert tours, most recent being the Rebel Heart Tour in 2015. Most of the time, her performances of "Like a Virgin" were associated with strong reaction and uproar from the media.
"Like a Virgin" has been covered by a number of artists and has appeared in or been referenced in feature films such as Reservoir Dogs, Moulin Rouge! and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason. Family groups sought to ban it as they believed the song promoted sex without marriage. On the other hand, Madonna's public persona of an indomitable, sexually unashamed, supremely confident woman was widely accepted by the younger generation who emulated her style and fashion. Scholars have credited "Like a Virgin" as the song which cemented her position as a pop culture icon.
- 1 Background
- 2 Recording and production
- 3 Composition
- 4 Critical reception
- 5 Chart performance
- 6 Music video
- 7 Live performances
- 8 Cover versions
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Track listing
- 11 Credits and personnel
- 12 Charts
- 13 Certifications
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
"Like a Virgin" was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly. In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Steinberg explained that the song was not only not written for Madonna, it was not even written for a female singer but was inspired by his personal experiences. He elaborated: "I wasn't just trying to get that racy word virgin in a lyric. I was saying ... that I may not really be a virgin — I've been battered romantically and emotionally like many people — but I'm starting a new relationship and it just feels so good, it's healing all the wounds and making me feel like I've never done this before, because it's so much deeper and more profound than anything I've ever felt."
Kelly recorded the demo, and invited Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records' A&R department to his house to listen to it. Steinberg and Kelly played four or five tunes for Ostin, and further discussed "Like a Virgin" – they were not sure for which artist the song would be suitable. Due to meet with Madonna the next day to discuss her second album, Ostin intended on playing the demo to her, believing the lyrics and the groove of the song were perfect for Madonna. "When I played it for Madonna she went crazy, and knew instantly it was a song for her and that she could make a great record out of it," Ostin recalled. In 2009, Rolling Stone interviewer Austin Scaggs asked Madonna what her first impressions were after listening to the demos of "Like a Virgin" and "Material Girl". Madonna replied:
I liked them both because they were ironic and provocative at the same time but also unlike me. I am not a materialistic person, and I certainly wasn't a virgin, and, by the way, how can you be like a virgin? I liked the play on words; I thought they were clever. They're so geeky, they're cool. I never realised they would become my signature songs, especially the second one.
Recording and production
In mid-1984, Madonna met producer Nile Rodgers at the Power Station studios (now Avatar Studios) in New York. Rodgers initially did not want Madonna to record "Like a Virgin", as he felt that the lyric 'like a virgin' was not a terrific hook; according to him it was not an all-time catch phrase. Rogers dismissed the song after hearing the demo, which he thought sounded "really stupid and retarded". Later, Rogers had second thoughts: "It's weird because I couldn't get it out of my head after I played it, even though I didn't really like it. It sounded really bubble-gummy to me, but it grew on me. I really started to like it. [...] But, my first reaction to it was, 'This is really queer.'" Rodgers credits Madonna with recognizing the song's potential. He later said: "I handed my apology to Madonna and said, 'you know... if it's so catchy that it stayed in my head for four days, it must be something. So let's do it.'" Hence the song was finally recorded. Steinberg reflected on the recording process and commented that:
When Madonna recorded it, even as our demo faded out, on the fade you could hear Tom saying, "When your heart beats, and you hold me, and you love me..." That was the last thing you heard as our demo faded. Madonna must have listened to it very, very carefully because her record ends with the exact same little ad-libs that our demo did. That rarely happens that someone studies your demo so carefully that they use all that stuff. We were sort of flattered how carefully she followed our demo on that.
Jason Corsaro, the record's audio engineer, persuaded Rodgers to use digital recording, a new technique at the time which Corsaro believed was going to be the future of recording because test pressings always sounded consistent. To ensure this, Corsaro used a Sony 3324 24-track digital tape recorder and a Sony F1 two-track for the 12-bit mix. Madonna recorded the lead parts in a small, wooden, high-ceilinged piano room at the back of Studio C, also known as Power Station's "R&B room". Corsaro then placed gobos around her while using the top capsule of a stereo AKG C24 tube microphone, with a Schoeps microphone preamplifier and a Pultec equalizer. Once the track met with everybody's approval, Robert Sabino added the keyboard parts, playing mostly a Sequential Circuits Prophet-5, as well as some Rhodes piano and acoustic piano, while Rodgers also played a Synclavier. Madonna, although not required, was present every minute of the recording sessions and the mixing process, Corsaro commented: "Nile was there most of the time, but she was there all of the time. She never left".
A 20 second sample of the song. Madonna sings the chorus which is supported by a continuous arrangement of drums and synth along the bassline.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Composed as a dance-oriented song, the intro of "Like a Virgin" consists of two hooks. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing, the song is set in common time, with a moderately dance-groove tempo of 118 beats per minute. It is composed in the key of F major with Madonna's voice ranging from the tonal nodes of low-tone G3 to high-tone C5. According to Rikky Rooksby, the bassline on the intro is a re-working of the three-note bass motif present in the Four Tops' 1965 song "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)", where Chuck Berry provided the chord arrangement. The bassline also has some similarity with Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" especially during the second verse. Madonna sings the song in her high register while drum arrangement by Tony Thompson is heard alongside the bassline, which is also supported by a synthesizer arrangement, giving it a circular progression through all the seven diatonic chords of I–IV–VIIo–III–VI–II–V–I.
Regarding the lyrics, Madonna had commented: "I like innuendo, I like irony, I like the way things can be taken on different levels." This statement highlighted the ambiguity of the lyrics of the song, which is hung on the word 'like'. Rooksby interpreted the meaning of the song in different ways to different people. He said that for women who were really virgins, the song encouraged them to hold their compose before they engaged in their very first sexual act. For sexually experienced girls, the song meant that they would be able to re-live the feelings of their first sexual encounter all over again. For the boys, the song presented a narcissistic image of them making the girl forget her past encounters and enjoy the sexual act as if for the first time.
"Like a Virgin" is one of Madonna's most famous singles, and was met with predominantly positive critical reception. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic said that "Like a Virgin" was a definitive statement. He added that the song, and "Material Girl" from the same album, made Madonna an icon. He added that both overshadowed the rest of the record, "because they are a perfect match of theme and sound." Debbie Miller from Rolling Stone commented that Madonna's voice "doesn't have the power or range of, say, Cyndi Lauper, but she knows what works on the dance floor." In 2014, Ryan Reed, also writing for Rolling Stone, called the song a "classic".
Dave Karger from Entertainment Weekly, while reviewing the album in 1995, felt that the song came off a bit repetitious and immature when compared to the present context. Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly felt that the song raised the "madonna-whore" ante. Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine called the song a classic. Alfred Soto from Stylus Magazine felt that the song was chic in its style. Katie Henderson from The Guardian commented that the song was saucy in nature. Michael Paoletta from Billboard commented that the song sustained a "fevered dance-rock momentum."
In 2000, "Like a Virgin", was honored by Rolling Stone and MTV, as the fourth song on their list of the "100 Greatest Pop Songs". It was voted ten on VH1's 100 Best Songs of the Past 25 Years. The song was listed at ninety-five on Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Songs. In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their 'Top 20 Madonna singles of all-time', by Q magazine. "Like a Virgin" was allocated the fifth spot on the list.
"Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first of 12 number-one hits on the Billboard Hot 100, where it debuted at number 48 on the issue dated November 17, 1984. The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart the week of December 22, 1984 and remained there for six weeks. "Like a Virgin" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on January 10, 1985, for shipping a million copies across United States—the requirement for a gold single prior to 1989. The song also reached number-one on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart, and was her first top-ten entry on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart at position nine. It placed at two on the year-end chart for 1985, with Madonna becoming the top pop artist for the year. In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at number 71 on the RPM issue dated November 24, 1984, and reached the top of the chart on January 19, 1985. It was present on the chart for a total of 23 weeks and ranked thirty-five on the RPM Year-end chart for 1985.
The song debuted on the UK Singles Chart on November 17, 1984 at number 51, and peaked at number three on January 12, 1985; it spent a total of 18 weeks in the chart, and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) for shipment of 500,000 copies across United Kingdom. According to Official Charts Company, the song has sold 832,200 copies there as of August 2016. Across Europe, the song peaked within the top-ten of the charts of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland. "Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first number-one song on the Australian Kent Music Report chart and on the Japanese International Singles Chart. It peaked at number-two on the New Zealand Singles Chart, number 15 on the Swedish charts and peaked the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles.
The music video, directed by Mary Lambert, who worked with Madonna in her video for "Borderline", was shot in Venice, Italy and partly in New York City in July 1984. Madonna was portrayed as a knowing virgin, a figment of the pornographic mind, as she walked through marble rooms, wearing a wedding gown. It alternated with scenes of a provocative-looking Madonna on board a gondola. She commented, "[Mary] wanted me to be the modern-day, worldly-wise girl that I am. But then we wanted to go back in time and use myself as an actual virgin." The video starts with Madonna boarding on a boat from the Brooklyn Bridge and travels to Venice. As she steps down into the city, she moves like a stripper and undulated sinuously. She wears a black dress and blue pants with a number of Christian symbol embedded jewelry around her neck. She sings the song at full volume as she watches a lion walking between the columns of the Piazza San Marco of Venice and along the statute of Saint Mark.
A number of game-playing involving carnival masks, men, lions, werelions are portrayed with allusions to eighteenth-century practices and Saint Mark. Sheila Whiteley, author of Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, felt that Madonna's image signified a denial of sexual knowledge, but also portrayed her in simulated writhing on a gondola, thus underpinning the simulation of deceit. The intrusion of a male lion, confirmed the underlying bestial discourse of both mythological fairy tale and pornographic sex. Whiteley observed that in the video, Madonna's lover wears the lion's mask and while cavorting with him, Madonna sheds the veneer of innocence and shows her propensity for wild animal passions. Having instilled desire, metaphorically she turns her lover into a Beast. Madonna commented about shooting with the lion:
"The lion didn't do anything he was supposed to do, and I ended up leaning against this pillar with his head in my crotch... I thought he was going to take a bite out of me so I lifted the veil I was wearing and had a stare-down with him and he opened his mouth and let out this huge roar. I got so frightened my heart fell in my shoe. When he finally walked away, the director yelled 'Cut' and I had to take a long breather. But I could really relate to the lion. I feel like in a past life I was a lion or a cat or something."
Reception and analysis
With the video, scholars noted the expression of Venetian vitality in it. Author Margaret Plant (2002) commented: "With the lion of Saint Mark and the virginal city to the forefront, old sacrosanct Venice was propelled into a pop world of high-energy gyration, and endless circulation." She also noted that Saint Mark was a symbol of a time when sexual crime was punished severely in Venice and acts of rape, homosexuality and fornication incurred the loss of a nose, a hand or sometimes life itself. Madonna appeared to challenge such brutality and stretch the boundaries of tolerance in the video. As the lion-man carried Madonna to the Venetian palace, it symbolized an instance of the Saint taking the simulated Virgin, where Madonna became a symbol for La Serenissima, the Republic itself.
Plant also noted that Madonna, in the video, restored the energy and eroticism of Venice, which had its name taken from Venus in familiar elision. As she exchanged her blue top for a black one during the video, Madonna demonstrated her mastery and bravery of the city, which had a reputation of turning out its visitors as victims. Carol Clerk (2002) commented that with the video, "Madonna's days as a cheap and cheerful video star were over. She was moving into serious spectacle."
In 1985, a live music video of "Like a Virgin" from The Virgin Tour filmed in Detroit, was used to promote Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour video release. This version was nominated for Best Choreography at the 1986 MTV Video Music Awards. The live performance of "Like a Virgin" from the Blond Ambition World Tour in Paris, France was released as a music video on May 9, 1991 to promote the documentary film Truth or Dare. This version was nominated for two awards at the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Female Video and Best Choreography. This video was ranked at position sixty-one on VH1's 100 Greatest Videos.
Madonna performed "Like a Virgin" at the first MTV Video Music Awards in 1984, where she appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake dressed in a wedding dress, adorned with the infamous "Boy Toy" belt buckle, and veil. The climax of her risqué performance found her "humping" and rolling around on the stage. To this day, the performance is noted as one of the most iconic and biggest performances in MTV's history.
The song has also been included in seven of Madonna's ten concert tours. For The Virgin Tour in 1985, Madonna again donned wedding attire and performed a straight version of the song featuring a quotation from Michael Jackson's similar-sounding Motown-style single, "Billie Jean". Balloons floated out towards the audience as she rolled around the stage, carrying a wedding bouquet in her hand. The performance was included in the VHS release Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour recorded in Detroit, Michigan. In the 1987 Who's That Girl World Tour, the song was given a lighthearted comedic theme and included quotations from The Four Tops' "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)". Madonna took off her outfit piece by piece, until she was standing in a black corset, and ended the performance while flirting with a young male dancer who played her bridegroom. Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl: Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo, Japan, on June 22, 1987, and Ciao Italia: Live from Italy, filmed in Turin, Italy, on September 4, 1987.
For the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, the song was re-invented with a middle-eastern arrangement and risqué choreography which found Madonna wearing a gold corset, while simulating masturbation on a red silk bed, accompanied by two male dancers who wore the infamous cone bras designed by Jean-Paul Gaultier. The performance garnered a lot of attention, particularly when police in Toronto, Canada, threatened to arrest Madonna and charge her with indecency unless she altered the performance. Madonna refused and the show went ahead unaltered. The threatened arrest failed to materialise. Two different performances were taped and released on video, the Blond Ambition: Japan Tour 90, taped in Yokohama, Japan, on April 27, 1990, and the Blond Ambition World Tour Live, taped in Nice, France, on August 5, 1990. During The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993, Madonna wore a tuxedo and adopted a Marlene Dietrich-like persona, singing the song with a thick German accent. She sang the word 'virgin' as '(w)irgin', while including a quotation from Dietrich's signature tune, "Falling in Love Again (Can't Help It)". The overplayed accent and three-quarter time signature gave the performance a sense of parody. Dietrich's look in the 1930 film Morocco inspired the whole performance. The performance was included on The Girlie Show: Live Down Under home video release, recorded on November 19, 1993 at Sydney, Australia.
In April 2003, while promoting her ninth studio album American Life, an impromptu acoustic performance of the song was done by Madonna at New York's Tower Records. Madonna's performance of "Hollywood" at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards recreated the 1984 performance of "Like a Virgin". The performance started with Britney Spears emerging from a giant cake singing the first few lines. She was later joined by Christina Aguilera and both of them writhed on the stage while singing. Madonna appeared on the cake dressed as a groom and sang "Hollywood", and ultimately kissed both Spears and Aguilera on the mouth. The performance was met with strong reaction from media.
During the Confessions Tour in 2006, the song was given a horse riding theme. Madonna wore a tight, black body suit, and performed the song atop a studded leather S&M carousel horse, while X-rays of her broken bones, the result of a horse-riding accident on her forty-seventh birthday, flashed on the screens behind her. The performance was included on The Confessions Tour live album, released in 2007. In 2008's Sticky & Sweet Tour, Madonna sang the song in Rome and dedicated the song to Pope Benedict XVI, commenting "I'd like to dedicate this song to the Pope, I know he loves me" and saying that she is a child of God. She asked the audience to sing along with her. The song was again performed on The MDNA Tour (2012), during the third section of the show. "Like a Virgin" was stripped down to a simple Burlesque-version played on the piano, featuring elements of the soundtrack "Evgeni's Waltz" from the film, W.E. On the Rebel Heart Tour (2015), a bass-heavy version of "Like a Virgin" ended the second act of the show. Jim Farber of Daily News described it as the show's "most stunning move", adding that "[Madonna] appeared on the gaping stage entirely alone, dancing with a freedom and innocence that made her, at 57, seem once again new."
In 1985, The Lords of the New Church recorded "Like a Virgin" for their compilation album Killer Lords. Gary Hill from Allmusic called the composition as "very funny and obnoxious". The same year, "Weird Al" Yankovic parodied the song with his single "Like a Surgeon" from the album Dare to Be Stupid. Eugene Chadbourne from Allmusic commented: "Turning the tacky Madonna hit inside out and upside down, Yankovic comes up with a hilarious satire of the medical profession." In 1991, Glaswegian band Teenage Fanclub covered "Like a Virgin" on their second album, The King. The song also appears on the soundtrack of the 2001 film Moulin Rouge! and is sung by the characters Harold Zidler, played by Jim Broadbent, and The Duke of Monroth, played by Richard Roxburgh. In 2004, The Meat Purveyors covered the song in a bluegrass medley, pairing it with Madonna's "Lucky Star" and "Burning Up."
In the 2004 film Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, the title character teaches the song to women in a Thai prison, after becoming annoyed that they are singing the song badly. She tells them, "Madonna is nothing if not a perfectionist!" In one of the episodes of the TV show Grey's Anatomy, the character of Cristina Yang hums the song during surgery to take the focus off herself. However, when her assisting surgery, Lexie Grey starts singing along, Christina looks venomously at her until she quiets down. Katy Perry, Travis Barker and DJ AM covered the song at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards. In 2009, the song was namechecked in the Train hit single "Hey, Soul Sister" with the lyric "I believe in you/Like a virgin you're Madonna/And I'm always gonna wanna blow your mind". The song was covered in the 2010 Glee episode "The Power of Madonna" by the cast, including Jonathan Groff, Jayma Mays, Lea Michele, Cory Monteith, Matthew Morrison, and Naya Rivera, during a dream sequence by their characters. The same year, Elton John performed a cover version of "Like a Virgin" at the Rainforest Fund Benefit Concert.
On September 9, 2011, Vanessa Carlton posted a link to a snippet of her stripped-down cover of the song in her Twitter account. In 2012 Korean girl group 2NE1 released a cover of the song for their debut Japanese album Collection. In 2012, JoJo performed a cover version of "Like a Virgin" at the LACMA for the Harvard Westlake Charity. The same year, Peruvian singer Wendy Sulca recorded a spanglish version. In 2014, Cristina Scuccia, a singing nun who won that year's The Voice of Italy season, released a ballad version of the song as her debut single, a cover that Madonna herself praised.
"Like a Virgin" is listed in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's list of "500 Songs That Shaped Rock And Roll". After the song and its video were released, "Like a Virgin" attracted the attention of family organizations who complained that the video and the song, promoted sex without marriage and undermined family values, offering an unsavoury image of Madonna as a whore. Outraged moralists condemned her as a sex kitten and sought to ban the song and the video. Conservatives were angered that Madonna dared to portray religious symbolism and the virginal wedding attire in a sexual context. Clerk noted the song attracted an unprecedented level of attention from social groups compared to any female singer's song. "The main problem was that most of them listened superficially to the lyric of the song, imagining that it detailed or called on an innocent's sexual initiation." While one section of the population were outraged at the scandal, others were taking joy at the very notion of a virginal Madonna, who retorted by saying,
I was surprised by how people reacted to "Like a Virgin" because when I did that song, to me, I was singing about how something made me feel a certain way – brand-new and fresh – and everyone interpreted it as I don't want to be a virgin anymore. Fuck my brains out! That's not what I sang at all. "Like a Virgin" was always absolutely ambiguous.
Biographer Andrew Morton noted that most of Madonna's admirers were females, who were born-and-brought-up with an image of old-fashioned stereotypes of women as virginal brides, or as whores, or with feminist values that rejected the use of a woman's looks for her self-advancement. Author William McKeen of Rock and roll is here to stay: an anthology commented that with the song, Madonna became the last word in attitude and fashion for young girls of that time. He compared that image of Madonna with that of Barbie. McKeen explained that Madonna intermixed middle-class ideas of femininity with examples of what femininity meant to her, which was having equal opportunity. She offered an aggressive sexuality that implied it was acceptable for women not only to initiate relationships, but also enjoy them.
In addition, according to Morton, at a time when eighties fashions were promoting flat-chested, stick-thin women as ideals of beauty, the more curvaceous Madonna made average girls feel that it was fine to be in the shape they were. A new word called 'Madonna wannabe' was introduced to describe the thousands of girls who tried to emulate Madonna's style. University professors, gender-studies experts and feminists earnestly started discussing her role as a post-modernist style and cultural icon. According to author Debbi Voller, "Like a Virgin" gave rise to the icon Madonna.
In the opening scene of the 1992 film Reservoir Dogs, written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, Mr. Brown (played by Tarantino himself) insists that "Like a Virgin" is a "metaphor for big dicks". When Madonna met Tarantino at a party after the film was released, she gave him an autographed copy of her Erotica album, signing "Quentin: it's about love, not dick".
Credits and personnel
- Madonna – vocals
- Billy Steinberg – songwriter
- Tom Kelly – songwriter
- Nile Rodgers – producer, drum programming, guitar
- Bernard Edwards – bass
- Tony Thompson – drums
- Rob Sabino – bass synthesizer, assorted synthesizers
- Jellybean Benitez – 12" remixer
Credits adapted from the album liner notes.
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Gold||832,200|
|United States (RIAA)||Gold||1,900,000|
|United States (RIAA)||240,000|
^shipments figures based on certification alone
- List of number-one singles in Australia during the 1980s
- List of RPM number-one singles of 1985
- List of Hot 100 number-one singles of 1984 (U.S.)
- List of Hot 100 number one singles of 1985 (U.S.)
- List of number-one dance singles of 1984 (U.S.)
- Bronson 2003, p. 600
- Scaggs, Austin (October 29, 2009). "Madonna Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. San Francisco: Jann Wenner (1090): 51. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Buskin, Richard (September 2007). "Classic Tracks: Madonna 'Like A Virgin'". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Rosen 1996, p. 283
- Rooksby 2004, p. 17
- "Digital Sheet Music – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (September 13, 2002). "Like a Virgin > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Miller, Debbie (January 17, 1985). "Madonna: Like A Virgin : Music Reviews". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Reed, Ryan (October 3, 2014). "Watch Quentin Tarantino Movie Characters Sing 'Like a Virgin'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
- Karger, Dave (November 10, 1995). "Madonna – Like a What?". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Farber, Jim (July 20, 2001). "The Girl Material". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Cinquemani, Sal (September 9, 2001). "Madonna: Like a Virgin (Remaster)". Slant Magazine. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Soto, Alfred (October 23, 2007). "Madonna – Like a Virgin / The Immaculate Collection". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Henderson, Katie (December 7, 2008). "Flashback: December 1984: Frankie Goes To Hollywood's Christmas No. 1". The Guardian. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Paoletta, Michael (November 24, 1984). "Album Reviews: Spotlight". Billboard. New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 96 (47). ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- "Rolling Stone & MTV: '100 Greatest Pop Songs': 1-50". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. 989 (23): 78. January 7, 2001. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Reporter, Associated Press (June 12, 2003). "VH1's '100 Greatest Songs of the Past 25 Years'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "Billboard Celebrates the 50th Anniversary of the Hot 100 with All-Time Charts". Reuters. April 11, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Reporter, Staff (December 9, 2003). "Top 20 Madonna Singles of All-time". Q. San Francisco: Bauer Media Group. 19 (23). ISSN 0955-4955.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending November 17, 1984". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. November 17, 1984. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending December 22, 1984". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. December 22, 1984. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "American single certifications – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved January 13, 2010. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
- Grein, Paul (May 14, 1989). "New Golden Rule: 500,000 Sales Mark for All Singles". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- "Madonna > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "Top Pop Albums 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 97 (52). December 28, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 9542". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 9672." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 0518". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "RPM's Top 100 Singles Of 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Madonna: Artist Chart History" Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "British single certifications – Madonna – Like a Virgin". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved January 13, 2010. Enter Like a Virgin in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Select Gold in the field By Award. Click Search
- Myers, Justin (August 16, 2016). "Open your chart to me... Madonna's Official Top 40 Biggest Selling Singles". Official Charts Company. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Madonna – Like a Virgin". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Like a Virgin". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna – Like a Virgin" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (doc). Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "ライク・ア・ヴァージ Japanese Singles Chart" (in Japanese). Oricon. February 11, 1985. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles". Billboard. New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 95 (21): 53. February 23, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 765
- Michael 2004, p. 65
- Plant 2002, p. 415
- Guilbert 2002, p. 78
- Whiteley 2000, p. 136
- Tannenbaum & Marks 2011, p. 15
- Plant 2002, p. 413
- Plant 2002, p. 419
- Clerk 2002, p. 41
- "MTV Video Music Awards – 1986". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "MTV Video Music Awards – 1991". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "VH1: 100 Greatest Videos". VH1. MTV Networks. February 2, 2001. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn (August 12, 2009). "Can Lady Gaga Top These Iconic MTV VMA Performances?". MTV (MTV Networks). Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Madonna (1985). Madonna Live: The Virgin Tour (VHS). Warner- Bros. Records.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 11
- Madonna (1987). Who's That Girl: Live in Japan (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan.
- Phares, Heather. "Ciao Italia: Live in Italy (Video) > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 76
- Madonna (1990). Blond Ambition: Japan Tour 90 (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan.
- Madonna (1990). Blond Ambition World Tour Live (Laserdisc). Pioneer Artists.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 80
- Madonna (1993). The Girlie Show: Live Down Under (VHS). Warner Music Vision.
- Christman, Ed (May 10, 2003). "Retail Track: Madonna Makes Music". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 115 (19): 45. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Wiederhorn, John (August 29, 2003). "Beyonce, 50, Mary J., Metallica Overshadowed By Two Little Kisses". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Hancock, David (September 5, 2003). "More On The Britney-Madonna Kiss!". CBS News. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Baltin, Steve (May 22, 2006). "Madonna Launches Tour With Disco Crucifixion". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
- Das, Lina (May 23, 2006). "Madonna concert review: 'Even the bouncers looked scared'". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Gonzalez, Ed (August 23, 2006). "Madonna: Confessions Tour". Slant Magazine. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Madonna (2007). The Confessions Tour (CD, DVD). Warner Music Vision.
- Michaels, Sean (September 8, 2008). "Madonna dedicates Like a Virgin to the Pope". The Guardian. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Ganz, Caryn (September 10, 2012). "Act of God: Madonna's MDNA Tour Comes to Yankee Stadium". Spin. Buzz Media. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Farber, Jim (September 10, 2015). "Madonna seemed to be happy at last during upbeat 'Rebel Heart' tour opener: review". Daily News. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Hill, Gary (April 9, 2001). "Killer Lords > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Chadbourne, Eugene (September 2, 2001). "Dare to Be Stupid > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "The King > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. January 8, 2002. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "Moulin Rouge: Collector's Edition > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. December 5, 2001. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "They Say Its Your Birthday Madonna". Cover Me Songs. August 9, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
- Travers, Peter (November 16, 2004). "Review: Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Burrows, Laura (May 9, 2008). "Grey's Anatomy: "The Becoming" Review". IGN. News Corporation. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn (August 31, 2009). "DJ AM Left A Wonderful Legacy, Katy Perry Says". MTV News. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- "Train — Hey Soul Sister Lyrics". Metrolyrics.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Bentley, Jean (April 21, 2010). "'Glee' Recap: Madonna Invades William McKinley High". MTV (MTV Networks). Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Prince, David J. (May 14, 2010). "Springsteen Joins Lagy Gaga, Elton John At Rainforest Benefit". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- "Discography" (in Japanese). Avex Marketing Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
- "JoJo Performs 'Like a Virgin' at Charity Event". Rap-Up. May 2, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "Wendy Sulca versiona hit de Madonna ´Like a virgin´" (in Spanish). Radio Programas del Perú. November 22, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Singing nun chooses 'Like a Virgin' for debut". BBC News. October 21, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- "Madonna Tweets Support for Italian Singing Nun Sister Cristina". NBC News. October 24, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "The Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Cross 2007, p. 31
- Voller 1999, p. 18
- Morton 2002, p. 766
- McKeen 2000, p. 232
- Like a Virgin (7-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. W 9210.
- Like a Virgin (United States 12-inch Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 20239-0.
- Like a Virgin (Canadian 12-inch Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 92 02390Q.
- Like a Virgin (Japanese 12-inch Promo Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. PS-258.
- Like a Virgin (LP, Vinyl, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 9 25157-2.
- "Austriancharts.at – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna: Like a Virgin" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Lescharts.com – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Charts.org.nz – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Madonna – Like a Virgin". VG-lista. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Singles Top 100. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Swisscharts.com – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot 100 for Madonna. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Adult Contemporary for Madonna. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Madonna. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs for Madonna. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Top 100 Single-Jahrescharts". GfK Entertainment (in German). offiziellecharts.de. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Top Annuali Single: 1985" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- "Jaaroverzichten 1984" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- "Top Selling Singles of 1985". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- "Billboard Hot 100 Chart 50th Anniversary". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. September 14, 1984. Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 111
- "American single certifications – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
- Trust, Gary (April 30, 2010). "Ask Billboard: 'Glee'-ful About Madonna". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Clerk, Carol (2002), Madonnastyle, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-8874-9
- Cross, Mary (2007), Madonna: A Biography, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-33811-6
- Fouz-Hernández, Santiago; Jarman-Ivens, Freya (2004), Madonna's Drowned Worlds, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0-7546-3372-1
- Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002), Madonna as postmodern myth, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1408-1
- McKeen, William (2000), Rock and roll is here to stay, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-04700-8
- Metz, Andrew; Benson, Carol (1999), The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary, Music Sales Group, ISBN 0-8256-7194-9
- Michael, Mick St. (2004), Madonna 'talking': Madonna in Her Own Words, Omnibus Press, ISBN 1-84449-418-7
- Morton, Andrew (2002), Madonna, Macmillan Publishers, ISBN 0-312-98310-7
- Plant, Margaret (2002), Venice: fragile city, 1797–1997, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08386-6
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004), The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-9883-3
- Rosen, Craig (1996), The Billboard Book of Number One Albums, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7586-9
- Tannenbaum, Rob; Marks, Craig (2011). I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101526415.
- Taraborrelli, Randy J. (2002), Madonna: An Intimate Biography, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2880-4
- Voller, Debbie (1999), Madonna: The Style Book, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-7511-6
- Whiteley, Sheila (2000), Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21190-5