Lili Marleen

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This article is about the song. For the 1950 British film, see Lilli Marlene (film). For the 1981 German film by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, see Lili Marleen (film).
A "Lili Marleen" and Lale Andersen memorial in Langeoog, Germany.

"Lili Marleen" (also spelled "Lili Marlen", "Lilli Marlene", "Lily Marlene", "Lili Marlène" among others) is a German love song performed by Lale Anderson (real name Elisabeth Carlotta Helena Berta Bunnenberg) which became popular during World War II throughout Europe and the Mediterranean among both Axis and Allied troops. Written in 1915 as a poem, the song was published in 1937 and was first recorded by Lale Andersen in 1939 as "Das Mädchen unter der Laterne" ("The Girl under the Lantern").

Creation[edit]

Propaganda postcard of the German Wehrmacht's postal service in Paris, 1942, with Lili Marleen motive.
Publisher: Deutsche Wehrmacht - "Militärbefehlshaber Frankreich - Platzkommandantur des Kommandanten von Paris", Paris 1942

The words were written in 1915 as a poem of three verses by Hans Leip (1893–1983), a school teacher from Hamburg who had been conscripted into the Imperial German Army.[1] Leip reportedly combined the nickname of his friend's girlfriend, Lili, with the name of another friend, Marleen, who was a nurse.[2][3] The poem was later published in 1937 as "Das Lied eines jungen Soldaten auf der Wacht" ("The Song of a Young Soldier on Watch"), with two further verses added.

It was set to music by Norbert Schultze in 1938 and recorded by Lale Andersen for the first time in 1939. In early 1942 she recorded the song in English, the lyrics translated by Norman Baillie-Stewart, a former British army officer working for the German Auslandssendedienst.[4] Tommie Connor also wrote English lyrics with the title "Lily of the Lamplight" in 1944.

Exposure and reception[edit]

First recording of Lili Marlen, dated 2 August 1939, by Electrola Studio, Berlin. Label of one of the different variants that appeared during the war. The oldest label shows that the original song title was first called "Song of a Young Sentry".

After the occupation of Belgrade in 1941, Radio Belgrade became the German forces' radio station under the name of Soldatensender Belgrad (Soldiers' Radio Belgrade), with transmissions heard throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.

While on leave in Vienna, a lieutenant working at the station was asked to collect a pile of second-hand records from the Reich radio station.[5] Among them was "Lili Marleen" sung by Lale Andersen, which up till then had sold around 700 copies. Karl-Heinz Reintgen, the German officer in charge of the station, began playing the song on the air.[6] For lack of other recordings, Radio Belgrade played the song frequently.

At one point the Nazi government's propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, ordered broadcasting of the song to stop. Radio Belgrade received letters from Axis soldiers all over Europe asking them to play "Lili Marleen" again. Erwin Rommel, commander of the Afrika Korps, admired the song and asked Radio Belgrade to incorporate it into their broadcasts. Goebbels reluctantly changed his mind, and from then on the tune was used to sign-off the broadcast at 9:55 PM.

The song was published in South Africa, in a wartime leaflet, with an anonymous English translation, as "Lili Marleen: The Theme Song of the Eighth Army and the 6th Armoured Division".[7]

Lale Andersen was awarded a gold disc for over one million sales [HMV - EG 6993].[8] It is thought she was awarded her copy after hostilities ended. HMV's copy was discarded during renovations to their Oxford Street store in the 1960s, but the disc was recovered and is now in a private collection.

Many Allied soldiers made a point of listening to the song at the end of the day. For example, in his memoir Eastern Approaches, Fitzroy Maclean describes the song's effect in the spring of 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign: "Husky, sensuous, nostalgic, sugar-sweet, her voice seemed to reach out to you, as she lingered over the catchy tune, the sickly sentimental words. Belgrade... The continent of Europe seemed a long way away. I wondered when I would see it again and what it would be like by the time we got there." [9]

The next year, parachuted into the Yugoslav guerrilla war, Maclean wrote: "Sometimes at night, before going to sleep, we would turn on our receiving set and listen to Radio Belgrade. For months now, the flower of the Afrika Korps had been languishing behind the barbed wire of Allied prison camps. But still, punctually at ten o'clock, came Lale Andersen singing their special song, with the same unvarying, heart-rending sweetness that we knew so well from the desert. [...] Belgrade was still remote. But, now [...] it had become our ultimate goal, which Lili Marlene and her nostalgic little tune seemed somehow to symbolise." [10]

In the autumn of 1944, the liberation of Belgrade seemed not far away. "Then, at ten o'clock, loud and clear, Radio Belgrade; Lili Marlene, sweet, insidious, melancholy. 'Not much longer now,' we would say, as we switched it off."[11] As the Red Army was advancing on Belgrade, he reflected again on the song. "At Valjevo, as at so many other places [...] we would tune our wireless sets in the evening to Radio Belgrade, and night after night, always at the same time, would come, throbbing lingeringly over the ether, the cheap, sugary and almost painfully nostalgic melody, the sex-laden, intimate, heart-rending accents of Lili Marlene. 'Not gone yet,' we would say to each other. 'I wonder if we'll find her when we get there.' Then one evening at the accustomed time there was silence. 'Gone away,' we said."[12]

Allied soldiers in Italy later adapted the tune to their own lyrics, creating the D-Day Dodgers song. A cartoon by Bill Mauldin in the American army newspaper Stars and Stripes shows two soldiers in a foxhole, one playing a harmonica, while the other comments, "The krauts ain't following ya too good on 'Lili Marlene' tonight, Joe. Think somethin' happened to their tenor?"

Marlene Dietrich version[edit]

"Lili Marlene"
"Lili Marlene"-"Symphonie" (7") - Marlene Dietrich.jpg
Single by Marlene Dietrich
B-side "Symphonie"
Released 7 September 1945
Format
  • 10"
  • 7"
Recorded 1944
Genre
Length 4:45
Label
Writer(s)
Producer(s) Charles Magnante
Marlene Dietrich singles chronology
"Falling in Love Again" / "See What the Boys in the Back Room Will Have"
(1939)
"Lili Marlene" / "Symphonie"
(1945)
"Illusions" / "Black Market"
(1948)

In 1944, the Morale Operations Branch of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) initiated the Muzak Project,[14] musical propaganda broadcasts designed to demoralize enemy soldiers. Marlene Dietrich, the only performer who was told her recordings would be for OSS use, recorded a number of songs in German for the project, including Lili Marleen.[15]

Dietrich also performed "Lili Marlene", as well as many other songs, live in Europe for allied troops, often on rickety, makeshift stages.

"Lili Marleen" became a massive success, specifically on the German language OSS MO radio station Soldatensender, where it became the station's theme song.[14] After its warm reception by the troops in Europe, the song was re-recorded and released, with the spelling "Lili Marlene" after her name, Marlene,with Charles Magnante on the accordion, citing him as the "orchestra director" for both it and the single's B-side, "Symphonie", sung in French. The single was released by Decca Records in 1945 on a 10" shellac gramophone record.[16] The original OSS recording of "Lili Marleen" remains unreleased.

After the war, in 1961, she went on to star in the film "Judgment at Nuremberg", chronicling the war trials. In one scene she walks down a rubbled street, ravaged by Allied attacks, with Spencer Tracy's character. As they approach a bar they hear men inside singing "Lili Marleen" in German. Dietrich begins to sing along with the song, translating a few lyrics for Tracy, referring to the German lyrics as "much darker" than the English.[17]

While touring the world in live one-woman cabaret shows from 1953 to 1975, the song was part of Dietrich's usual line-up, usually following "Falling in Love Again". She always introduced the song with some variation of this quote, from a 1960s concert, somewhere in Europe:

Now, here is a song that is very close to my heart. I sang it during the war. I sang it for three long years, all through Africa, Sicily, Italy, to Alaska, Greenland, Iceland, to England, through France, through Belgium ... [long pause] ... to Germany, and to Czechoslovakia. The soldiers loved it, 'Lili Marlene'.[18]

Dietrich sang "Lili Marlene" in her television special An Evening with Marlene Dietrich, which aired on the BBC in the UK and on CBS in the US in 1973, and was featured on four of her six original albums. She also recorded and performed it in both the original German version and the English adaptation. Both versions have appeared on countless compilation albums world-wide, several of them titled after the song.

Track listings[edit]

English version[edit]

10" single

Original issuing of the song by Decca Records in the US[16] and Brunswick Records in the UK[19] was on 10". Decca re-issued the single on 7" during the 1950s and early 1970s.[20] This is also the version of the single that was reissued by MCA in 1978[21] and 1980[22] on 7".

Side A
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "Lili Marlene"  
3:24
Side B
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "Symphonie" (sung in French)
  • Alex Alstone
  • André Gaston Isaac Tabet
  • Roger Bernstein
2:55
7" Brunswick re-issue

Most likely re-issued in the 1970s, it was originally released in the Netherlands on 7" by Brunswick Records.[23] This version of the single was re-issued again in the UK in 1989, and in 1992 it was issued in Germany, both by MCA,[24] the 1989 re-issue also having been released by Old Gold Records.[25]

German version[edit]

7" EP Philips issue

Released in 1959 by Philips Records in association with Columbia Records on 7" in the Netherlands,[26] it was intended as an abridged extended play version of an internationally released compilation album of the same name, consisting of songs sung in German by Dietrich.[27][28][29][30]

7" Columbia International issue

Released in 1961 by CBS Records on 7" in the Netherlands.[32]

7" EMI Italiana issue

Released in 1962 by EMI Italiana on 7" in Italy.[33]

Personnel[edit]

List of personnel for the original 1945 single.[16]

Connie Francis version[edit]

"Lili Marleen"
Single by Connie Francis
B-side "Mond von Mexico"
Released 1962
Format 7" single
Recorded
  • A-side: 3 June 1961
  • B-side: 5 October 1961
  • (both at Austrophon Studio, Vienna)
Genre Schlager music
Length 1:55
Label MGM Records (61 053)
Writer(s)
Producer(s) Gerhard Mendelsohn
Connie Francis
German singles chronology
"Eine Insel für zwei" /
"Das ist zuviel"

(1962)
"Eine Insel für zwei" /
"Das ist zuviel"
(1962)
"Tu' mir nicht weh" /
"Paradiso"

(1962)

"Lili Marleen" was released by American entertainer Connie Francis in 1962.

Background[edit]

The release of "Lili Marlene" marked Francis's seventh single in German. Francis also recorded the song in Italian and French.

Francis recorded "Lili Marlene" on 3 June 1961. She recorded the single's B-side, "Mond von Mexico", on 5 October 1961. Both song were recorded in Vienna, Austria at the Austrophon Studio.

"Lili Marleen" peaked at number 9 on the German music charts.[34]

Track listing[edit]

7"

Credits adapted from the liner notes of original release.[35]

Side A
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "Lili Marlene"   1:55
Side B
No. Title Writer(s) Length
1. "Mond von Mexico"  
  • Fini Busch
  • Werner Scharfenberger
 

Personnel[edit]

Chart performance[edit]

Chart (1962) Peak
position
Germany 9

Amanda Lear version[edit]

"Lili Marleen"
Single by Amanda Lear
from the album Never Trust a Pretty Face
B-side "Dreamer (South Pacific)"
Released 1979
Format 7"
Recorded 1978
Genre Euro disco
Length 4:45
Label Ariola Records
Writer(s)
Producer(s) Anthony Monn
Amanda Lear singles chronology
"Fashion Pack"
(1979)
"Lili Marleen"
(1979)
"Fabulous (Lover, Love Me)"
(1979)

French singer and euro disco queen Amanda Lear recorded a German-English language version of the song for her 1979 album Never Trust a Pretty Face. French editions of the album included a German-French version of the track. "Lili Marleen" was released as a promotional single only in Argentina, although earlier it became the B-side of the single "Gold".[36] The singer performed the song in the 1978 film Zio Adolfo in arte Führer.

Lear has made "Lili Marleen" part of her standard performance repertoire. She re-recorded the song for her albums Cadavrexquis (1993) and Heart (2001).

Track listing[edit]

  • 7" Promotional Single (1979)
A. "Lili Marleen"
B. "Dreamer (South Pacific)"

Chart performance[edit]

Chart (1979) Peak
position
Italy[37] 12

Other versions[edit]

While the Italian version, translated by lyricist Nino Rastelli and recorded in 1942 by Lina Termini, was probably the first to be released, the earliest English language recording of the song was probably Anne Shelton's, but a number of cover versions followed. A version called "The D-Day Dodgers" was sung by the Canadian Army remaining in Italy once the Normandy invasion had begun in 1944. A recording was made by Perry Como on 27 June 1944 and issued by RCA Victor Records as a 78rpm record (catalog number 20-1592-A) with the flip side "First Class Private Mary Brown". This recording was later re-issued as catalog number 20-2824-A with flip side "I Love You Truly". The song reached chart position #13 on the United States charts. The song was recorded during the musicians' strike and consequently has a backing chorus instead of an orchestral backup. A version with French words by Henri Lemarchand was recorded by Suzy Solidor in 1941.[38]

Other artists who recorded the song included Hildegarde (on Decca),[39] Martha Tilton (on Coral), and Vaughn Monroe (on V-Disc). Al Martino revived the song for Capitol Records in 1968. Another version was recorded in the 1960s by Hank Locklin, Connie Francis and Vera Lynn. A German version of the song alsocovered by Edith 'Lolita' Zuser. An instrumental version was also covered by Billy Vaughn. Hank Snow also recorded a version in 1963 on his album "I've Been Everywhere". Another French singer, Patricia Kaas used "Lili Marlene" as an intro for her song "D'Allemagne" and sang the entire song during concerts in the 1990s. Matia Bazar (Italy) recorded an uptempo beat song called "Lili Marleen" on her 1982 album Berlino, Parigi, Londra. The song is a "spoken words" early 1980s dance track. Spanish group Olé Olé, led by Marta Sánchez, released an electro-pop version of the song in 1985.[40] It became one of the best-selling singles in Spain of the 1980s, and paved way for the singer to have a successful career. The song was eventually included in the also best-selling album 'Bailando Sin Salir de Casa' in 1986. German blackmetal band Eisregen recorded a version of "Lili Marlene" on their album Hexenhaus. The German Gothic metal/Industrial metal band Atrocity released the song in both languages (English & German) on Gemini: on the blue edition was the German version, and on the red edition was the English version.[41] Kid Creole and the Coconuts included an uptempo, disco-influenced version of "Lili Marlene", with German lyrics sung by Coconut Adriana Kaegi, on their 1980 debut LP release Off the Coast of Me. Carly Simon recorded the song as the third track on her 1997 Arista CD Film Noir. It has also been translated into Hawaiian by Kiope Raymond, and recorded by Raymond and Pearl Rose on Rose's 2000 album Homecoming. Most recently it was recorded by Neil Hannon of the Irish pop group The Divine Comedy as a B-side to the 2006 single "A Lady Of A Certain Age". A slow-tempo instrumental version can be found on the compilation LP, Vienna: City of Dreams, by the Austrian zither master Anton Karas. "Lili Marlene" has been adopted as the regimental slow march by the Special Air Service, Special Air Service Regiment and Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.

Other interpretations[edit]

Humphrey Jennings directed the 29-minute-long film, The True Story of Lili Marlene, in 1944 about the song.[42]

The song is sung in a bar in Germany in the film Judgement at Nuremberg. In a scene featuring Marlene Dietrich, who famously recorded the song several times, and Spencer Tracy Dietrich's character explains to Tracy's that the German words are much sadder than the English translations.

Rainer Werner Fassbinder directed the 1980 film Lili Marleen, the story of Lale Andersen and her version of the song.[43]

The song is featured prominently in a scene of a 1983 Yugoslavian film Balkan Express set during World War II. In the scene, a bar singer (portrayed by popular folk singer Toma Zdravković) refuses to sing the song to some German soldiers who then escort him out of the bar. Later in the scene he returns to the stage and is depicted singing the song with blood on his face, implying he had been persuaded into singing by beating.

In the 1983 film The Right Stuff (film), a group of German rocket scientists working for NASA sing the song around a piano in a bar the night before one of the space flights.

The song appears several times during the World War II-themed 1988-1989 television miniseries War and Remembrance (miniseries). On the Allied side, it is played during a party attended by some of the British and American characters, prompting the British journalist Philip Rule to sarcastically lament that the only memorable song to come out of the war would be "a cheap Hun ballad." On the German side, the SS men riding on the train taking the last Theresienstadt Jews to Auschwitz slowly sing it.

Estonian punk rock band Vennaskond released an Estonian version of the song on their album Usk. Lootus. Armastus. in 1993.[44] Another Estonian group, Swing Swindlers, recorded a melancholy swinging version in 2007 (both in German and Estonian) and featured the song in their film Berlin 1945: Musik Unter Bomben with vocals by Mart Sander, Kelli Uustani, Nele-Liis Vaiksoo and Pirjo Levandi.[45]

The 2009 film, Bad Day to Go Fishing, directed by Alvaro Brechner, showed an uncontrollable titan (Jouko Ahola) who could only be appeased by the melody of "Lili Marlene".[46]

British singer-songwriter Katy Carr featured this song in English on her album Coquette (2009).

Dutch folk band Omnia recorded a version of the song on their 2011 album Musick and Poëtree.

It is often used as a song on the "I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue" round One Song to the Tune of Another. Whenever it is used jokes are often made to the German heritage of the song, by making allusions to the Third Reich. (The song "Bermuda Triangle" was sung to the tune of Lili Marlene on one episode of the show.)

Recordings[edit]

  • Lili Marleen an allen Fronten ("Lili Marleen on all fronts"). Hambergen, Germany: Bear Family Records, 2006. 7 CDs with 180-page booklet, ISBN 3-89916-154-8 (includes nearly 200 versions of "Lili Marleen").

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leibovitz, Liel and Miller, Matthew (2008). Lili Marlene: The Soldiers' Song of World War II, p. 16. New York, NY: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06584-8
  2. ^ Johann Holzem: Lili Marleen und Belgrad 1941. Der lange Weg zum Ruhm, 3. Auflage, 1997, S.9 ff.
  3. ^ Ernst Probst, Superfrauen 10 – Musik und Tanz, 2008, S. 28.
  4. ^ Christian Peters / Stiftung Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Lili Marleen, Ein Schlager macht Geschichte, Bonn 2001.
  5. ^ "Istria on the Internet - Music - Nostalgia". Istrianet.org. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  6. ^ Leibovitz, Liel; Miller, Matthew (2009). Lili Marlene : the soldiers' song of World War II (1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 201. ISBN 9780393065848. 
  7. ^ "Printed: G.P.W. – Directorate of Map Printing, U.D.F., Union of South Africa".
  8. ^ "Lale Andersen homepage : Gold disc 1939". Lalaandersen.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  9. ^ Part 2, ch 3 "Outward Bound"
  10. ^ Part III, ch 3 Orientation
  11. ^ Ch 12 Ratweek
  12. ^ Part 3, ch 13 "Grand Finale" in Eastern Approaches by Fitzroy Maclean, 1949
  13. ^ ASCAP Title Index (requires entry of title or author, no http for individual songs)
  14. ^ a b CIA.gov (2008-10-23). "A Look Back ... Marlene Dietrich: Singing For A Cause". Retrieved 2010-03-20. 
  15. ^ McIntosh, Elizabeth P. (1998). Sisterhood of spies: the women of the OSS, p. 58. Dell., London. ISBN 0-440-23466-2.
  16. ^ a b c ""Lili Marlene" original 10" release". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  17. ^ "a scene from "Judgment at Nuremberg" with Marlene Dietrich and Spencer Tracy". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  18. ^ ""Lili Marlene" - Marlene Dietrich (performed on her world tour)". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  19. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Brunswick first issue". popsike.com. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  20. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Decca Re-issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  21. ^ ""Lili Marlene" MCA 78 Re-issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  22. ^ ""Lili Marlene" MCA 80 Re-issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  23. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Brunswick re-issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  24. ^ ""Lili Marlene" MCA Records re-issues of Brunswick re-issue". volumeet.com. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  25. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Old Gold Records re-issues of Brunswick re-issue". discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  26. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Philips issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  27. ^ ""Lili Marlene" LP (US)". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  28. ^ ""Lili Marlene" LP (EU)". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  29. ^ ""Lili Marlene" LP (UK)". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  30. ^ ""Lili Marlene" LP (SA)". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  31. ^ "Du Hast Die Seele Mein". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  32. ^ ""Lili Marlene" Columbia issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  33. ^ ""Lili Marlen" EMI issue". Discogs. Retrieved 2014-06-24. 
  34. ^ Richard Weize: Connie Francis, companion book to 8-LP-Boxed Boxed Set Connie Francis in Deutschland, Bear Family Records BFX 15 305, Hambergen/Vollersode (Germany) 1988
  35. ^ http://www.discogs.com/Connie-Francis-Lili-Marleen/release/3231341
  36. ^ "GOLD 1978 France". amandalear_singoli.tripod.com. 
  37. ^ "Indice per Interprete: L". www.hitparadeitalia.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  38. ^ "Henri Lemarchand Discography at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  39. ^ Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook). ISBN 978-1-55935-147-8. OCLC 31611854.  Tape 2, side B.
  40. ^ "Ole Ole - Lili Marlen 1986". YouTube. 2008-08-15. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  41. ^ "Atrocity - Gemini - Encyclopaedia Metallum". The Metal Archives. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  42. ^ "The True Story of Lilli Marlene (1944)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  43. ^ "Lili Marleen (1981)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  44. ^ "Vennaskond". http://www.atmosphere.be Atmosphere Music. Retrieved 8 December 2009.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  45. ^ "Lili Marleen - The Swing Swindlers". YouTube. 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  46. ^ "Bad Day to Go Fishing (2009)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Andersen, Lale (1981). Leben mit einem Lied. Munich ISBN 3-423-01003-7
  • Leibovitz, Liel and Miller, Matthew (2008). Lili Marlene: The Soldiers' Song of World War II. New YorkY: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06584-8
  • Peters, Christian, Lili Marleen. Ein Schlager macht Geschichte, Aust.-Kat. Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn 2001
  • Protte, Katja, "Mythos 'Lili Marleen': Ein Lied im Zeitalter der Weltkriege", in: Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift, Jg. 63 (2004), Heft 2, S. 355-400
  • Rose, Rosa Sala (2008/2010). Lili Marleen: Canción de amor y muerte/Geschichte eines Liedes von der Liebe und vom Tod. ISBN 978-3-423-24801-3. English version (ebook): Lili Marlene: The Biography of a Song. ISBN 978-8-415-76761-9.
  • Schultze, Norbert (1995). Mit dir, Lili Marleen. ISBN 3-254-00206-7.
  • Wilson, Patrick Maitland (2002). Where the Nazis Came. ISBN 1-904244-23-8.

External links[edit]