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Another name used for this territory is Walloon Flanders, but this name is confusing, as it refers to language, whereas it should refer to geography. Furthermore, the French dialect spoken in Lilloise Flanders was not Walloon, but Picard.
Lilloise Flanders was part of the County of Flanders since the early Middle Ages. It belonged to the Kingdom of France from 1304 to 1369, by the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge which concluded the Franco-Flemish War (1297-1305).
 It was to some degree independent from the County of Flanders and is in some lists even seen as one of the Seventeen Provinces. Furthermore, Lilloise Flanders adhered to the Union of Arras in 1579, where as the County of Flanders joined the Union of Utrecht.
In 1678, Lilloise Flanders was annexed to France after the Treaties of Nijmegen.
Together with Maritime Flanders, it forms French Flanders.
Today, it is part of the Departement du Nord and roughly corresponds with the Arrondissement of Lille and the Arrondissement of Douai.