||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2013)|
Public Square in downtown Lima
Location in the state of Ohio
|• Mayor||David Berger (D)|
|• Total||13.80 sq mi (35.74 km2)|
|• Land||13.57 sq mi (35.15 km2)|
|• Water||0.23 sq mi (0.60 km2)|
|Elevation||879 ft (268 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||38,339|
|• Density||2,857.1/sq mi (1,103.1/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|Area code(s)||419 567|
|GNIS feature ID||1048916|
Lima (// LY-mə) is a city in and the county seat of Allen County, Ohio, United States. The municipality is located in northwestern Ohio along Interstate 75 approximately 72 miles (116 km) north of Dayton and 78 miles (126 km) south-southwest of Toledo.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,771. It is the principal city of and is included in the Lima, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Lima-Van Wert–Wapakoneta, Ohio, Combined Statistical Area. Lima was founded in 1831.
- 1 History
- 2 Lima's oil history
- 3 Railroads and locomotives
- 4 Medical care
- 5 Geography
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Politics
- 8 Sister cities
- 9 Culture
- 10 Education
- 11 Historic architecture
- 12 Notable people
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
In the years after the American Revolution, the Shawnee were the most prominent residents of west central Ohio, growing in numbers and permanency after the 1794 Treaty of Greenville. By 1817, the United States had created the Hog Creek Reservation for the local Shawnee, covering portions of what would become Allen and Auglaize counties, and including part of present-day Lima.
The creation of the Shawnee reservation freed other lands in the area for settlement, and in February 1820, the Ohio legislature formally established Allen County. In 1831 the Shawnee were forced to surrender all their land in the area to the United States and relocated to Kansas, opening all of Allen County to settlement. The Ohio legislature mandated that a county seat be established and "Lima" was the result.
Leadership and growth
Since 1831, Lima has been the center of government for Allen County, the first of its three courthouses erected in the city's first year. The foundations of city life followed in quick order. The first school appeared in 1832. Lima's first surgeon, Doctor William McHenry arrived in 1834. 1836 brought the first newspaper to Lima. Lima was officially organized as a city in 1842. Henry DeVilliers Williams was its first mayor. The first public school opened in 1850. In 1854, the first train appeared in Lima, a harbinger of later economic success.
Also in 1854, a cholera outbreak in Delphos (a town in Allen County northwest of Lima) spread throughout west central Ohio. Countywide problems caused by the contaminated water supply were not solved until 1886 when Lima started a municipal water system. Lima's role as a regional center for industry began early. The Lima Agricultural Works began operations in 1869. The company changed names and types of manufacturing through the years. In 1882, under the name Lima Machine Works, the industry built the first Shay-geared locomotive.
Stimulated by the economic boom in nearby Findlay, in 1885 Lima businessman Benjamin C. Faurot drilled for natural gas at his paper mill. On May 19, oil was discovered instead of gas. The oil well never realized enormous profits, but it triggered Lima's oil industry, bringing John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil to the city. Lima's oil field was, for about a decade, the largest in the US.
Economic development brought money for arts and entertainment. Benjamin Faurot's Opera House opened in 1882, a nationally renowned structure so impressive that New Yorkers used it as a model for their own theaters. In 1907, Lima built its first movie theater.
In the early 20th century, Benjamin A. Gramm and his close friend Max Bernstein formed the Gramm-Bernstein Company, which became a pioneer in the motor truck industry. During WWI, Gramm created the "Liberty truck", which was welcomed upon its arrival in Washington, D.C., by President Woodrow Wilson. Thousands were sent to Europe to help the Allied war effort.
The Roaring 20s
After WWI, Allen County's population growth lagged the state and the nation. Galvin was an assistant superintendent at the Peru Steel Casting Co. of Peru, Ind. He then became acting manager at American Steel Foundries in Pittsburgh. In 1921, Lima voters approved a change in the structure of Lima city government. Voters now elected five commissioners, with the commission chair serving as mayor. The charter sought to establish professional management, requiring the commissioners to hire a city manager, who reported to the mayor. Lima proved itself to be very much in the Progressive tradition with these changes, after flirting with radicalism in 1912 when the voters elected a Socialist mayor.
The darker side of the progressive era revealed itself in the prominence of the Ku Klux Klan in the city. It was a center for the Black Legion, a notoriously violent subset of the Klan. On August 1, 1923, a KKK parade in Lima drew a crowd estimated at 100,000 people.
Economically, the 1920s were a time of industrial expansion in Lima. In 1925, Lima Locomotive Works, Inc. built the "Lima A-1", a 2-8-4 model that became the prototype for the modern steam locomotive. The Locomotive Works also created a new division, the Ohio Power Shovel Company. In 1927, local industrialist John E. Galvin helped found Superior Coach Company. It became the world's largest producer of school buses and funeral coaches within two decades. In 1930, eight railroad companies served Lima.
Allen County's population grew significantly faster than the state during the Great Depression. In 1933, Lima again reorganized its government. The citizens adopted a "strong mayor" model to replace the city manager of the 1920s. Despite the hardships of the decade, Lima residents supported the construction of a hospital to serve the area. Lima Memorial Hospital, named in honor of WWI veterans, opened on Memorial Day, 1933.
The Lima area was not safe from the increased crime rate of the 1930s. In 1933, gangster John Dillinger was in the Allen County Jail, arrested for robbing the Citizens National Bank in nearby Bluffton, Ohio. Dillinger's cohorts broke him out of jail, killing Allen County Sheriff Jess Sarber in the process. The murder and jailbreak put Dillinger at the top of the FBI's ten most wanted list. His was not the only crime outfit to plague Lima during the decade. In 1936, the notorious Brady Gang robbed a local jewelry store twice.
The Great Depression slowed the pace of industrial expansion. In 1930, a Lima directory listed 93 industrial employers with some 8,000 employees. By 1934, industrial employment was reduced by half. In 1935, Westinghouse located a Small Motor Division in Lima to build fractional horsepower electric motors. The Ohio Steel Foundry turned the corner and grew, eventually expanding its successes in its industry. The thirties were a decade for organizing labor in Lima. By 1940 there were at least fifty labor unions representing local workers.
World War II
Lima benefited from increased production during WWII and a growing population, but suffered a significant economic decline at the end of the decade when industry retooled for peacetime production. In May 1941, based in the steel foundry, construction began on Lima Army Tank Plant to manufacture centrifugally cast gun tubes. In November 1942, United Motors Services took over operation of the plant to process vehicles under government contract. The plant prepared many vehicles for Europe, including the M5 light tank and the T-26 Pershing tank. At its peak during the war, the Lima Tank Depot (now the Joint Systems Manufacturing Center, operated by General Dynamics), employed over 5,000 people.
The area's expanding population in the 1940s and 1950s brought hospital and school expansion. St Rita's Hospital, founded in 1918, opened a seven-story addition in 1948. With voter support, school leadership built six new elementary schools and the new centralized Lima Senior High School during the 1950s. Lima's industrial production grew in the decade. During the Korean War, the Lima Tank Depot resumed manufacturing, at a level expanded from WWII standards.
During the 1960s, Lima experienced both growth and community unrest. In 1962, a new Allen County Airport was built in Perry Township. With the passage of the city income tax in 1966, Lima constructed a new facility for the Lima Police Department. Also during the 1960s, The Ohio State University established a regional campus in Lima.
Civil rights issues had rocked Lima in the 1950s, perhaps most prominently in the efforts to desegregate the city's only public swimming pool in Schoonover Park. Civil unrest continued in the 1960s and into the 1970s.
Rust belt decline
In January 1969, a crude oil line in south Lima ruptured, causing 77,000 US gallons (290,000 L) of oil to escape into the city's sewer system. Explosions and fire erupted from sewers as 7,000 residents were evacuated. Governor Jim Rhodes ordered the Ohio National Guard into the area to maintain order. In August 1970, further conflict erupted when a black woman was killed by police as she tried to prevent the arrest of a juvenile. Several officers were wounded in the violence that followed. Mayor Christian P. Morris declared a state of emergency and the National Guard was again called in to aid local police.
During the 1970s and 1980s, a number of industries left Lima, part of the "Rust Belt" decline affecting all of Ohio. In April 1971, the last "Cincinnatian," of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stopped in Lima. The Cincinnatian was an iconic lightweight streamliner serving the B&O's Detroit line from Cincinnati. Lima had also been served by the Pennsylvania Railroad's "Broadway Limited," a high speed New York to Chicago service, the "Capital Limited," Chicago to Washington D.C. service, via Pittsburgh, the Nickel Plate Road's "Blue Arrow," and "Blue Dart," and the Erie Lackawanna's "Lake Cities," which serviced New York, Cleveland, and Chicago with direct service both ways. Many of these services were maintained by Amtrak until 1991, when the former Erie Lackawanna and Pennsylvania Railroad mainlines between New York and Chicago were downgraded.
In 1973, Lima's District Tuberculosis Center, which served five counties, closed its doors. Superior Coach Company, once the nation's largest producer of buses, closed in 1981. Also in 1981, Clark Equipment shut down. In 1985, Airfoil Textron closed. Sundstrand (formerly Westinghouse) closed in 1995. By the mid-1990s, Lima had lost more than 8,000 jobs. Lima's population dropped from 52,000 in the 1970s to 45,000 in 1999. Lima's plight and its subsequent efforts to re-define itself were captured in the PBS documentary Lost in Middle America.
Lima's oil history
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
With the discovery of oil in Lima in 1885, Ohio began what came to be called the "Oil Boom of Northwest Ohio." Discovery actually began in Findlay, Ohio, a city forty miles north of Lima. The discovery of natural gas deposits there in 1884 led to national marketing efforts advertising free gas, as Findlay's business leaders tried to "boom" the town. In 1885, Benjamin C. Faurot of Lima was one of hundreds of businessmen who visited Findlay to see the seemingly unlimited supply of natural gas burning day and night. Faurot owned the Lima Paper Mill. He spent $2,500 on energy consumption annually. Water for his operation was also a problem. So Faurot decided to drill in Lima – for gas or water. Faurot's first oil, found along the Ottawa River on May 19, 1885, was more accidental discovery than deliberate scientific experiment.
During the first week, the well produced more than 200 barrels (32 m3) of oil. Faurot quickly organized local businessmen into a syndicate that would purchase oil leases from farm owners. The company was called the Trenton Rock Oil Company, and by 1886, had 250 wells from Lima to St. Marys, Ohio, and west to Indiana.
When the news broke that northwest Ohio had oil, Standard Oil of Cleveland decided to build a refinery in Lima. Unlike Pennsylvania's oil, northwest Ohio's "sour crude" was high in sulfur content, smelling like rotten eggs, and customers shunned it. Lima's new Solar Refinery was charged with solving the sulfur problem. Until then, Standard bought and stored as much northwest Ohio crude as was possible to maintain their monopoly. It dropped the price of crude from more than sixty cents a barrel to forty cents in an attempt to discourage further production.
Oil drilling fever hit northwest Ohio and "boom towns" sprang up overnight. Additional crude glutted the market, and trying to slow production, Standard Oil lowered its price to fifteen cents a barrel. This decision had little effect on the large producers elsewhere, but the smaller Lima producers, whose oil wells could not keep up, found themselves severely hampered. Fourteen independent Lima producers formed a combine – the Ohio Oil Company. Eventually, it became Marathon Oil, still located in Findlay, Ohio.
Lima's Solar Refinery General Manager John Van Dyke and Herman Frasch, Standard's chemist, solved the distillation problem for sour crude by devising a method for removing the sulfur. The gamble that John D. Rockefeller took building pipelines and storage tanks for Ohio's sour crude paid off. By 1901, the excitement about Ohio oil slowed with the news of a Beaumont, Texas, gusher producing 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d).
In 1911, the courts declared Standard Oil Trust a monopoly and broke it into several companies. Between 1887 and 1905, the Lima Oil Field was a world-class producer, yielding 300 million barrels (48,000,000 m3). Lima was also a pipeline center. Within three years of the discovery of oil, a trunk line reached Chicago. Lima oil lit the buildings of the 1893 World's Fair. Production peaked in 1904, and then dropped off rapidly. By 1910, the field was regarded as virtually played out. Still, the Lima Refinery has survived, continuing to operate for more than 125 years under a succession of owners—Solar Refining Company (1886), a subsidiary of Standard Oil until the breakup in 1911, SOHIO (1931), British Petroleum (1987), Clark USA (1998), Premcor (2000), Valero Energy Corporation (2005), and most recently Husky Energy (2007).
Railroads and locomotives
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
For most of its history, smokestack industries and a blue-collar work ethic defined Lima. Nothing played a bigger part in shaping the city's self-image than its connection to railroads and railroading – as a Midwestern rail hub and even more as home to the Lima Locomotive Works, whose products for more than 70 years carried the city's name globally.
The first locomotive appeared in Allen County in 1854, brought in from Toledo as freight on the Miami and Erie Canal. Named the Lima, the engine was used on construction of the county's first railroad, the Ohio and Indiana. East-west passenger service to Lima began in 1856, when the Ohio & Indiana consolidated with the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago. North-south passenger service began in 1858 on the Dayton & Michigan Railroad. Machine shops for the Dayton & Michigan were built in Lima by 1860, and for the Lake Erie and Western Railroad by 1880. By the early years of the 20th century, the railroad shops employed 1,000 people in Lima.
In 1906, an average of 143 trains and 7,436 cars, carrying 223,080 tons of freight, passed through Lima every 24 hours. In addition, 49 steam and 28 electric trains landed passengers in Lima daily. Lima service on the electric interurban Ohio Western Railway began in 1902 and Lima became the hub of an interurban network that reached Toledo, Cleveland and Cincinnati as well as Fort Wayne, Indiana. In 1920, Lima was served by five steam railroads and Allen County by eight, in addition to five electric interurban lines.
For years, Lima was a crossroads for famous passenger trains including the Nickel Plate Road's Clover Leaf Commercial Traveler and the Erie Railroad's Erie Limited and Lake Cities. The Pennsylvania Railroad train that in 1912 became known as the Broadway Limited stopped in Lima from its inception in 1902 until 1990. Standard-bearer of the Pennsylvania Railroad in its "speed wars" with the New York Central's 20th Century Limited, the Broadway Limited catered to a rich and glamorous clientele, offering strictly first-class service between New York City and Chicago. At its peak, the Broadway Limited regularly averaged 60 mph (97 km/h) on its 900-mile (1,400 km) run. On a westbound run in the early morning of June 12, 1905, making up time after being held up by mechanical problems, the train was clocked just east of Lima at 127 mph (204 km/h).
Railroads began to cut back passenger service to Lima during the Great Depression. Electric interurban service ceased in 1937. After a brief boom for railroads during WWII, passenger service declined sharply in the 1950s. The Nickel Plate Road ended scheduled passenger service to Lima in 1959, the Erie-Lackawanna in 1970 and the Baltimore & Ohio in 1971. Freight still moves over most of the historic rail routes in and out of the city, but the last passenger train to stop in Lima was the Broadway Limited, then operated by Amtrak, on November 11, 1990.
The enterprise that became the locomotive works – "the Loco," as it was commonly called in Lima – had its beginnings in 1869 when John Carnes and four partners bought a machine shop that was called the Lima Agricultural Works. The company initially manufactured and repaired agricultural equipment, then moved into the production of steam power equipment and sawmill machinery. The shop designed its first narrow-gauge steam locomotive in 1878. The same year, the shop first worked on a geared locomotive designed by Michigan lumberman Ephraim Shay. The Shay locomotive was built for steep grades, heavy loads and tight turns. In 1881, Shay granted the Lima works an exclusive license to manufacture his locomotives. By 1882, locomotives were the company's main product. In time, the Lima Locomotive Works – a name formally adopted in 1916 – would produce 2,761 Shay locomotives, which were sent to 48 states and 24 foreign countries. As of 2005, some were in use 100 years after they were shipped.
By 1910, the company was moving aggressively into direct-drive locomotives for general railroad use. A new "super power" design, introduced in 1925, enabled Lima to capture 20% of the national market for locomotives. The "super power" locomotive was created by mechanical engineer William E. Woodard. Designed to make more efficient use of steam at high speed, it became, in the words of railroad historian Eric Hirsimaki, "one of the most influential locomotives in the history of steam power." Later years saw the introduction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway 2-6-6-6, one of the largest locomotives ever built, and the glamorous Southern Pacific "Daylights," designed to complement the Pacific Coast scenery.
The locomotive works dabbled in other product lines. It produced railroad cars in the early years and acquired the Ohio Power Shovel Company in 1928. During WWII, the plant produced 1,655 Sherman tanks. Employment grew from 150 in the 1890s to 1,100 in 1912 and 2,000 in 1915, peaking at 4,300 in 1944. Over the course of its history, the Locomotive Works was a microcosm of the community, a place where each successive wave of newcomers took its place in turn. First the Germans and Italians, later African-Americans and ultimately women joining the work force during WWII. Labor organizing efforts were under way at the plant at least by the 1890s.
Post-war mergers attempting to keep the plant operating created the Lima-Hamilton Corporation in 1947 and later Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton in 1950. The last steam locomotive built at the plant, Nickel Plate No. 779, was delivered May 13, 1949. It is now on display in Lima's Lincoln Park. The final diesel locomotive, built by Lima-Hamilton, was delivered in 1951. After the end of locomotive production, the plant continued to produce cranes and road building equipment. The plant was sold to Clark Equipment in 1971. Clark employed 1,500 as late as 1974, but the plant closed permanently in 1981. As of 2006, the Lima Locomotive Works plant has been razed.
Currently, there are only a handful of railroads that serve Lima. The Chicago, Fort Wayne, and Eastern and the Indiana and Ohio railroad are owned by RailAmerica and are in the north and east parts of town. CSX Transportation runs through town frequently and the Norfolk Southern Railway has one train each day to Lima. The R.J. Corman Railroad/Western Ohio Line runs southwest from town.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
The first doctor in Allen County, Samuel Jacob Lewis, was assigned to duty at Fort Amanda in 1812.
Lima has been a regional medical center since its earliest days. Currently, the city's two hospitals serve a 10-county area of northwest and west central Ohio. St. Rita's Medical Center, a level 2 trauma center, with nearly 4,000 employees as of June 2006, is Allen County's largest employer while Lima Memorial Health System ranks third. In 2005, St. Rita's embarked on a $130 million expansion expected to create up to 500 more jobs, this new addition is known as "The Medical Center of the Future".
The Roman Catholic Church Sisters of Mercy opened St. Rita's in December 1918, in the midst of a national (and global) influenza epidemic. Since then, the hospital has grown dramatically, with major expansions launched in 1945 and 1967. The hospital has also created satellite facilities in the surrounding towns of Ottawa, Delphos and Wapakoneta. SRMC also houses a separate hospital with the walls of the main facility. This "interior" facility, "Triumph", was implemented to serve poverty-level citizens who are unable to afford continuing care otherwise. In July 2008, St. Rita's Medical Center purchased Lima Allen County Paramedics. Lima Allen County Paramedics was established in 1964 and since then has been a vital private emergency and non-emergency ambulance service in the area.
Lima Memorial Health System, formerly Lima Memorial Hospital, a level 2 trauma center, can trace its roots to 1899, when it began as Lima City Hospital. Formed by the Pastors Union of Lima, the 13-bed facility was the first community hospital in northwest Ohio. During the Great Depression, the city of Lima helped to finance a larger hospital, which opened on Memorial Day 1933 on the city's east side. The region's first open-heart surgery was performed at Lima Memorial on April 22, 1997. In 1999 LMHS entered into a Joint venture with Blanchard Valley Health Association ("BVHA") and ProMedica Health System. Lima Memorial Health System is currently undergoing an extensive remodel phase. The eight story patient tower is being converted to all private rooms, and all cardiac services will be combined to one area. A new surgery center is under construction at this time, and the installation a level 2 neonatal ICU is in the works.
For decades, Lima also had two other hospitals with strikingly different missions. The Ottawa Valley Hospital, which opened in 1909 as the District Tuberculosis Hospital, was one of the first in the state dedicated to the treatment of tubercular patients. The hospital treated patients from seven to 90 years old, at a time when tuberculosis was nearly always fatal. The average stay was three to five years. As treatment improved, the hospital closed, though the building was used until 1973.
A longer and stranger history is attached to the facility originally known as the Lima State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. Situated on 628 acres (2.54 km2) three miles (5 km) north of downtown Lima, the hospital was constructed between 1908 and 1915. Built at a cost of $2.1 million, it was the largest poured-concrete structure in the country until supplanted by the Pentagon.
For much of its history, Lima State Hospital functioned largely as a warehouse. Patients sometimes staged dramatic protests against the conditions of their confinement, and frequently escaped (more than 300 escapes by 1978). Conditions improved significantly after 1974 as a result of a class-action lawsuit filed on behalf of the patients. In a landmark ruling, US District Judge Nicholas J. Walinski spelled out detailed requirements for assuring each patient's rights to "dignity, privacy and human care." In its last years, the state hospital was used for the filming of a made-for-television movie about the Attica Prison riots in New York.
Starting in 1982, Lima State Hospital became a medium-security prison, the Lima Correctional Institution. The prison closed in 2004, though a smaller prison on the site, the Allen Correctional Institution, remains.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.80 square miles (35.74 km2), of which 13.57 square miles (35.15 km2) is land and 0.23 square miles (0.60 km2) is water.
The Ottawa River flows through the city. Locals sometimes refer to the river as "Hawg Creek". This resembles a traditional local name used dating back to the Hog Creek Shawnee community that existed between Lima and present Ada, prior to the Shawnee removal of 1831. This removal made possible the official founding of "Lima" as a formal town in that year.
||American Township||American Township and Bath Township||Bath Township|
|Shawnee Township and American Township||Bath Township and Perry Township|
|Shawnee Township||Shawnee Township and Perry Township||Perry Township|
Lima's climate is largely reflective of the variant climate of Ohio. The region's climate can best be described as a humid continental climate, according to the Koppen Climate Maps. The city lies roughly halfway between Toledo and Dayton, Ohio and weather is at a similar medium. Summers are hot and humid and winters are generally cool to cold, with moderate precipitation year round. Due to the city's inland location the moderating effects of Lake Erie are diminished, causing the city to experience higher averages in the summer and colder plunges in the winter than Toledo. On average the city sees around 4 more inches of snow annually than Dayton. During the summer months, Lima is prone to smog and allergens lingering when heat indexes exceed 85°F.
The percentage of college graduates is 9.5%, according to the US Census Bureau. The city has the highest crime rate for a city its size (20–60,000) in Ohio and also the 9th highest per capita in 2006, according to the FBI.
As of the census of 2010, there were 38,771 people, 14,221 households, and 8,319 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,857.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,103.1/km2). There were 16,784 housing units at an average density of 1,236.8 per square mile (477.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% White, 26.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.2% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population.
There were 14,221 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.5% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age in the city was 32.9 years. 24.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 13.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 23.6% were from 45 to 64; and 11.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 52.8% male and 47.2% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 40,081 people, 15,410 households, and 9,569 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,135.0 people per square mile (1,210.9/km²). There were 17,631 housing units at an average density of 1,379.0 per square mile (532.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.30% White, 24.48% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, and 2.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.97% of the population.
There were 15,410 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,067, and the median income for a family was $32,405. Males had a median income of $29,149 versus $22,100 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,882. About 19.2% of families and 22.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.
- Harima, Hyōgo, Japan
Published authors from Lima have produced poetry collections, scholarly works, novels and memoirs.
- Donald Richie first published "The Inland Sea" in 1970. It was later turned into a documentary on PBS.
- Harry Halsey Starrett was a Lima poet during the 1950s and 1960s.
- Marilyn R. Stark has produced novels (e.g., Broken Arrow, Broken Promises) and historical nonfiction (e.g. 'Lima/Allen County, Ohio: a Pictorial History').
- Lynn Lauber, a New York novelist, wrote 21 Sugar Street and White Girls, both somewhat fictionalizing her Lima growing-up years during the 1960s (in "Union, Ohio").
- Dr.Emmett Murray Jr. ("Duke"), a popular family physician, published two books of Lima-based memoirs: Come Reminisce with Me (2003) and In the Company of Friends (2008). In a tribute piece, the Allen County Museum website called him "the Mark Twain of Lima."
- Doug Sutton-Ramspeck, writing under the name Doug Ramspeck, has published three full-length collections of poetry: Black Tupelo Country (BkMk Press: University of Missouri-Kansas City), Mechanical Fireflies (Barrow Street Press), and Possum Nocturne (NorthShore Press). He is also the author of a chapbook, Where We Come From (March Street Press), and several hundred poems.
- Phyllis Diller published an autobiography, Like a Lampshade in a Whorehouse, that describes her downtown Lima girlhood in detail.
Lima in popular culture
Lima was also the focus of the 1999 TV documentary "Lost in Middle America (and What Happened Next)" directed by Scott Craig. 
Comedian Lenny Bruce recounted a story where he spent three weeks in Lima on "The Lenny Bruce Originals, Volume 2."
Lima Symphony Orchestra
In January 1953, a committee composed of John LaRotonda, Ben Schultz, Dom Trovarelli and Fred Mills organized the Lima Symphony Orchestra. This committee selected Lawrence Burkhalter as the Symphony's first conductor and the LSO made its debut performance on May 23, 1954, in the Central High School auditorium.
- University of Northwestern Ohio
- James A. Rhodes State College (formerly Lima Technical College)
- The Ohio State University, Lima Campus.
- Lima Senior High School
- Shawnee High School
- Bath High School
- Perry High School
- Apollo Career Center
- Lima Central Catholic High School
- Lima Christian Academy
- Temple Christian School
- Elida High School
Among the city's most distinctive residential neighborhoods, the "Golden Block" on the west side, was almost entirely demolished in the 1960s; only the MacDonnell House, part of the Allen County Museum, and the YWCA survived. Today, the city includes twenty-four buildings and one historic district that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Allen County Courthouse, the post office, the Hotel Argonne, and the Neal Clothing Building.
- Al Jardine – founding member of The Beach Boys
- Al Snow – professional wrestler
- Ann Hamilton – contemporary artist
- Ben Roethlisberger- professional football player
- Brad Komminsk – professional baseball player
- Bud Collins – sportswriter and TV commentator, member of International Tennis Hall of Fame
- Charles N. Lamison – two-term United States congressman
- Charles William Fulton – United States Senator
- Clay Tucker – professional basketball player
- Donald Richie – author who has written a number of books about the Japanese people and Japanese cinema
- Edward L. Feightner - United States Navy World War II flying ace, test pilot, and Blue Angels lead solo
- Gary Moeller - University of Michigan football head coach
- Gene Stechschulte – professional baseball player
- Gloria Foy – dancer, singer, and vaudeville performer
- Helen O'Connell – singer, actress, and dancer
- Hit The Lights – pop punk band
- Hugh Downs – television host, producer, and author
- James R. Black – actor and former professional football player
- James T. Begg – U.S. Representative
- Jeff Mullen – a football coach
- Jerry Byrd – Lap steel guitar musician
- Jim Baldridge – news anchor
- Jim Lynch – professional football player
- Joe Henderson – jazz tenor saxophonist
- Joe Morrison – professional football player and collegiate football coach
- John L. Cable – U.S. Representative
- Jon Niese – professional baseball player
- Justin LeHew – Navy Cross recipient
- Marilyn Meseke – Miss America
- Matthias H. Nichols – U.S. Representative
- Michael Pitts – pastor and preacher
- Mike Current – professional football player
- Pamela Kyle Crossley – historian
- Paul Shuey – professional baseball player
- Phyllis Diller – comedienne and actress
- Rosemary Hinkfuss – member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
- Ryan Drummond – actor, comedian, and clown
- Sue Downey - Miss Ohio USA 1965, Miss USA 1965
- Steve Cook – American pocket billiards player
- Thomas L. Sprague – United States admiral
- Tom Barrington – professional football player
- Travis Walton – collegiate basketball player
- Walter Baldwin – actor
- William Alfred Fowler – Nobel Prize for Physics
- William E. Metzger, Jr. - Medal of Honor recipient
- William White – professional football player
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- http://the419.com/john-e-galvin-limas-man-steel/ John E. Galvin: Lima’s own Man of Steel
- O'Meara, Dina (2 May 2007). "Husky Energy to Buy Valero's Refinery in Ohio". Hard Assets. Canadian Press. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Lima Allen County Paramedics opens new home". LimaOhio.com. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Lima Memorial Hospital history".
- "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- U.S. Census Bureau General Demographic Profile of Lima (pdf format)
- [dead link]
- "Lima's Sister City History".
- "Lima Sister City Projects" (PDF).
- From Lima to Japan http://the419.com/lima-japan/
- "Lost in Middle America". IMDB. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
- Hopkins, Phyllis G. National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Lima Multiple Resource Area. National Park Service, 1980-05-15, 3. Accessed May 13, 2010.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- Carnes, John R. (ed.) The 1976 History of Allen County (1976)
- Hirsimaki, Eric. Lima: The History (1986)
- Hurricane, Chris. Lima: The Hood (2004)
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720–1830 (1996)
- Jacobs, T. K., Jr. "History of Transportation in Allen County" (1916)
- Kimcaid, Kim. "The Birth of Lima," The Lima News, April 19, 2006, p D1
- Lackey, Mike. "Enduring Tales Hold Truths, Not Always Facts," The Lima News, May 28, 2006, p. A2
- Lackey, Mike. "The Interurban System: Electric Trains Eased Rural Isolation," The Lima News, Aug., 16, 2003, p A5
- Lackey, Mike. "Lima Engine Steaming Along after 100 Years," The Lima News, Aug. 26, 2005, p A2
- Lackey, Mike. "Echoes of Rail Resound: Lima Loco Helped Define a Town that Worked," The Lima News, September 17, 1997, p B1
- History of Lima City Schools
- Lost in Middle America. David Crouse and Scott Craig. 57 mins. (1999)
- Miller, Charles C. and Dr. Samuel A. Baxter. History of Allen County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (1906)
- Minutes of History. Allen County Historical Society, n.d.
- Ohio History Central
- Rusler, William (ed.) A Standard History of Allen County, Ohio (1921)
- Schuck, Raymond F. "A Brief History of the Lima Locomotive Works" (1983)
- Smithsonian Institution. Handbook of North American Indians (1978)
- Stark, Marilyn R. A Pictorial History of Lima/Allen County (1993)
- Stark, Marilyn R. and Robert L. Townsend. The History and Purposes of Allen County Buildings, Institutions and Government (2000)
- History of St. Rita’s Medical Center
- Sugden, John. Bluejacket: Warrior of the Shawnee (2003)
- Swindell, Larry. Spencer Tracy: A Biography (1969)