Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A live individual of Limax maximus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Heterobranchia
Order: Stylommatophora
Superfamily: Limacoidea
Family: Limacidae
Lamarck, 1801[1]
12 genera, many species (more than 56 species)

Limacidae, also known by their common name the keelback slugs, are a taxonomic family of medium-sized to very large, air-breathing land slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Limacoidea.


The distribution of the family Limacidae is the western Palearctic.[4] There are 28 species of Limacidae in Russia and adjacent countries.[5]



In this family, the number of haploid chromosomes lies between 21 and 25 and also lies between 31 and 35 (according to the values in this table).[6]


2002 taxonomy[edit]

Zhiltsov & Schileyko (2002)[7] elevated the subfamily Bielziinae to family level, Bielziidae, based on the morphology of the reproductive system of Bielzia coerulans.[7]

2005 taxonomy[edit]

The following two subfamilies were recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):

  • subfamily Limacinae Lamarck, 1801 - synonyms: Limacopsidae Gerhardt, 1935;[8] Bielziinae I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 1980
  • subfamily Eumilacinae I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 1980[9]


Genera in the family Limacidae include:

subfamily Limacinae

subfamily Eumilacinae


A cladogram showing the phylogenic relationships of this family to other families within the limacoid clade:[4]

 limacoid clade 


Parasites of slugs in this family include larvae of the marsh flies Sciomyzidae, and others.


  1. ^ (in French) Lamarck J.-B. 1801. Système des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'après la considération de leurs… Paris, Detreville, VIII: 1-432. Page 62, originally spelled under vernacular name "es Limaciers".
  2. ^ (in Polish) Wiktor A. (1989). Limacoidea et Zonitoidea nuda. Slimaki pomrowioksztaltne (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Fauna Poloniae 12, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warszawa, 208 pp., page 141.
  3. ^ "Families in Gastropoda" AnimalBase. accessed 10 September 2010.
  4. ^ a b Hausdorf B. (2000). "Biogeography of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): Vicariance Events and Long-Distance Dispersal". Journal of Biogeography 27(2): 379-390. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00403.x, JSTOR.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kantor Yu I., Vinarski M. V., Schileyko A. A. & Sysoev A. V.(published online on December 22, 2009). "Catalogue of the continental mollusks of Russia and adjacent territories". Version 2.3.
  6. ^ Barker G. M.: Gastropods on Land: Phylogeny, Diversity and Adaptive Morphology. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited pages: 139 and 142.
  7. ^ a b (in Russian) Zhiltsov S. S. & Schileyko A. A. (2002). "Morphology of reproductive system of Bielzia coerulans (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and phylogenetic relations of the genus Bielzia". Ruthenica 12: 73-79. abstract.
  8. ^ (in German) Gerhardt U. (16 July 1935). "Weitere Untersuchungen zur Kopulation der Nacktschnecken". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 30(2): 297-332. Page 329.
  9. ^ (in Russian) Likharev I. M. & Wiktor A. (after 10 November 1980). Slizni fauny SSR i sopredelnykh stran (Gastropoda terrestria nuda) [The fauna of slugs of the USSR and adjacent countries]. Fauna SSSR, Molljuskii, 3(5): 437 pp. Page 290.
  10. ^ Wiktor A., Quintana J. & Beckmann K.-H. (2007). "Redescription of "Limax majoricensis" (Heynemann 1863) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Limacidae) from the Balearic Islands. pp. 187-197. In: Beckmann K.-H.: Die Land- und Süßwassermollusken der Balearischen Inseln. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, 255 pp., ISBN 978-3-939767-05-3.
  11. ^ Marshall, B. (2015). Ambigolimax Pollonera, 1887. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=819989 on 2015-04-15

External links[edit]