Limacoid clade

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Limacoid clade
Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Bielzia coerulans-1.jpg
A live individual of Bielzia coerulans in the Limacidae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
clade Sigmurethra
clade limacoid clade


See text

The limacoid clade is a taxonomic clade of air-breathing land snails, semislugs and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs in the informal group Sigmurethra.[1][2]


The original ancestral area of limacoid families is thought to be the Palearctic region and south-eastern Asia.[3]


The word "limacoid" means "resembling a slug".[4]

Typography of the name[edit]

In 1998, for the same taxon, Hausdorf[2] used the name Limacoidea sensu lato.

The name of this taxon, the limacoid clade, was written by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)[1] with quotation marks like this: "limacoid clade".

Other typographical variants are used by various other authors, for example capitalizing and restricting the use of the quote marks thus: "Limacoid" clade and "Limacoid clade".

2003 taxonomy by Schileyko[edit]

The study of A. Schileyko in this group, published in parts 8-11 of his monograph between 2002 and 2003, did not discuss the system that Hausdorf had proposed.[5] However, Schileyko refers to the work of Hausdorf, where this system was proposed,[2] in part 10 (2003) on page 1390.[5] So he was acquainted with this system before 2003.

Alternative taxonomy is as follows (subfamilies listed only for Helicarionidae and Zonitidae):

  • Superfamily Helicarionoidea
    • Family Euconulidae
    • Family Trochomorphidae
    • Family Helicarionidae
      • Subfamily Geotrochinae
      • Subfamily Helicarioninae
      • Subfamily Papuarioninae
      • Subfamily Urocyclinae
    • Family Gymnarionidae
    • Family Rhysotinidae
    • Family Ariophantidae
    • Family Ostracolethidae
    • Family Ryssotidae
    • Family Milacidae
  • Superfamily Dyakioidea
    • Family Dyakiidae
    • Family Staffordiidae
  • Superfamily Gastrodontoidea
    • Family Gastrodontidae
  • Superfamily Zonitoidea
    • Family Zonitidae
      • Subfamily Pristilomatinae
      • Subfamily Godwiniinae
      • Subfamily Zonitinae
      • Subfamily Oxychilinae
    • Family Daudebardiidae
    • Family Parmacellidae
  • Superfamily Trigonochlamydoidea
    • Family Trigonochlamydidae
  • Superfamily Vitrinoidea
    • Family Vitrinidae
  • Superfamily Limacoidea
    • Family Limacidae
    • Family Agriolimacidae
    • Family Boettgerillidae

Moreover, after these groups, in the same infraorder Limacoinei, Schileyko listed six more superfamilies: Camaenoidea, Xanthonychoidea, Helicoidea, Polygyroidea, Hygromioidea and Arionoidea.[5]

2005 taxonomy by Bouchet & Rocroi[edit]

Explanatory note[edit]

For this particular group of families, Bouchet & Rocroi adapted the taxonomic approach which was originally published by German malacologist Bernhard Hausdorf in 1998 in the Journal of Molluscan Studies.[2]

Bouchet & Rocroi clearly state, on page 283:[1]

However, in their paper, Bouchet & Rocroi (apparently accidentally) failed to show, graphically or typographically, any coverage of the limacoid clade in the taxonomic section of their paper, on pages 268-269.

Because of this omission, some authors have subsequently (mistakenly) included in the "limacoid clade" the two following superfamilies: Arionoidea and Helicoidea. This misunderstanding was copied by Poppe & Tagaro (2006)[6] who attempted to explain the changes within this taxonomy to the public. This same error is reproduced in various other internet sources.

Taxonomic list[edit]

The taxonomy of Bouchet and Rocroi[1] shows the "limacoid clade" as follows:

(Families that are exclusively fossil are indicated with a dagger †)


A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of families in the limacoid clade:[3]

 limacoid clade 


























See also[edit]

As explained in the previous section, the superfamilies Arionoidea and Helicoidea do not belong to the limacoid clade. However, they are sometimes mistakenly included in this taxon.


  1. ^ a b c d Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.-P. (2005). "Classification and Nomenclator of Gastropod Families". Malacologia. 47 (1-2). 
  2. ^ a b c d B. Hausdorf (1998). "Phylogeny of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 64 (1): 35–66. doi:10.1093/mollus/64.1.35.
  3. ^ a b Hausdorf B. (2000). "Biogeography of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): Vicariance Events and Long-Distance Dispersal". Journal of Biogeography 27(2): 379-390. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00403.x, JSTOR.
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c A.A. Schileyko (1998–2007). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs (in 15 parts)". Ruthenica (suppl.): 1–2210. 
  6. ^ Poppe G. T. & Tagaro S. (23 February 2006). The New Classification of Gastropods According to Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005. Visaya Net.