Limba people (Sierra Leone)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Sierra Leone Guinea|
|Limba • English • Krio|
|Predominantly Christianity 55%, Islam 40%, Indigenous beliefs 5%|
The Limba people are the third largest ethnic group in Sierra Leone. They represent 8.4% of Sierra Leone's total population (592,190 members). They are based in the north of the country across seven provinces, comprising about 8% of the national populations.
During Sierra Leone's colonial era, thousands of Limbas migrated to the capital city of Freetown and its Western Area. As a result, a significant number of Limbas can be found in Freetown and its surrounding Western Area.
The Limba are mainly rice farmers, traders, and hunters who live in the savannah-woodland region in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone. They predominate in 7 of Sierra Leone's 149 rural chiefdoms, and their community affairs are dominated by the local paramount chiefs.
Members of the Limba tribe believe that they have always lived in Sierra Leone in the Wara Wara mountains and were probably the first rulers of the territory. Some historians believe that the Limba were living in Sierra Leone prior to colonialism.
They were also brilliant scholars and philosophers who brought their knowledge of agriculture and trade with them and with that built a society based on this sole ideal: If you work and respect the land properly, then you are worthy to enjoy the fruits of your labor.
During the colonial era, many Limba people were captured and sold at Bunce Island as slaves to the Americas through the Atlantic slave trade. To escape this, many Limba people traveled to the capital city of Freetown and the Western area, and as a result, most Limba are located in these places.
The Limba take pride in their unique language, which differs from the other languages spoken in Sierra Leone. As a result, Limbas strive to be very articulate with their vocabulary as a way of sticking out among the rest.
They are mostly rice farmers, palm wine brewers, and stone builders.
They also have a past and current interest in politics, for example Siaka Stevens as the first president of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985, Ernest Bai Koroma as the former president of Sierra Leone from 2007, Christian Alusine Kamara-Taylor as a founding member of the All People's Congress and Paolo Conteh, the current defense minister and Eric Dura Sesay as the Bombali district chairman.
According to folklore, Limbas make excellent political leaders because they are descendants of the original rulers of Sierra Leone. The Limba's primary sport of interest is soccer, which is quite common amongst nations in West Africa.
The Limba have a spiritual home called The Kakoya Village, Wara Wara Bafodia Chiefdom, and they believe all Limbas return to the mountain through the town beyond a "door" through the rock. An ancient wooden figure discovered in a cave at The Kakoya Village was probably made by the Limba people. Now in the British Museum, it may have represented an ancestor or deity. They also have a folklore about spirits called Krifi, but information about this is limited.
The Limba people also utilize practices of the Bondo secret society which aims at gradually but firmly establishing attitudes related to adulthood in girls, discussions on fertility, morality and proper sexual comportment. The society also maintains an interest in the well-being of its members throughout their lives.
Religion and spiritual beliefs
The Limba in the southern province are mostly influenced by Christianity. Portuguese Christian missionary efforts began before the Protestant Reformation but had no lasting effects on the Temne. The Protestant presence accompanied the founding of Freetown in the late eighteenth century; Church Missionary Society representatives were active up the Rokel River and elsewhere in Temne country throughout the nineteenth century.
In the 1890s, the Soudna Mission was the first American mission in the Temne area; American Wesleyans and the Evangelical United Brethren subsequently joined the field. Today, 55% of Limba are followers of Christianity.
The Limba in the Northern Province are somewhat influenced by Islam. Muslim contacts probably go back several centuries, and fifteenth-century Portuguese were cognizant of Muslim peoples. Early traders, holy men, and warriors brought Islam into the Temne area from the north by the Susu and northeast by the Fula and Mandinka. Through the nineteenth century, as the volume of trade grew, Muslim influences increased; in the late twentieth century, a significant proportion of Temne claim to be Muslim converts.
Although 40% of Limba have converted to Islam, they still practice their traditional religion, as well.
- Almamy Suluku, powerful Limba ruler who maintained his independence as long as possible through brilliant political strategy during the colonial era. (Kamabai - Northern Province)
- Siaka Stevens, president of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985
- Joseph Saidu Momoh, president of Sierra Leone from 1985 to 1992
- Christian Alusine Kamara-Taylor, Sierra Leonean politician and one of the founding members
- Johnny Paul Koroma, Head of State of Sierra Leone from May 1997 to February 1998
- Chadwick Boseman, actor
- Ernest Bai Koroma, former president of Sierra Leone from 2007 to 2018
- Brima Acha Kamara, the former Inspector General of the Sierra Leone Police (SLP)
- Alfred Paolo Conteh, Current Sierra Leone's Minister of Defence
- John Sisay, Current Chief Executive Officer for Sierra Rutile
- Samura Mathew Wilson Kamara, Current Sierra Leone's Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Sanpha Bilo Kamara, Current Director of Prisons Department
- Eric Dura Sesay, Current Minister of State in the Office of the Vice President
- Dauda Sulaiman Kamara, current Sierra Leone's Minister of Internal Affairs Minister and Rural Development
- Moses Musa Sesay, Former mayor of Makeni
- Hon Dr. Thomas Mark Turay, former Member of parliament
- Kandeh Baba Conteh, Sierra Leonean politician and leader of the Peace and Liberation Party (PLP)
- Almamy Kossie Dura, Prominent chief in the town of Binkolo
- Peter Bayuku Conteh, Former Minister of Tourism and Cultural Affairs
- Dr. David Soure Sesay, Order Of The Rokel Holder, Commander of Sierra Leone Gulf War Contingent, 1991
- Lamin Conteh, footballer
- Abdul Thompson Conteh, footballer
- Kewullay Conteh, footballer
- Rosemarie Kargbo, former Miss Africa Netherlands
- Sampha, UK musician
- Adama Delphine Fawundu
- Photos from the Limba Region
- Limba Masks
- Limba Music Recordings
- See section on "Alimamy Suluku", famous Limba ruler of the 19th century
- "Sierra Leone 2015 Population and Housing Census National Analytical Report" (PDF). Statistics Sierra Leone. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Nabe, Med (2009-03-08). "The Limba tribe is the third largest tribe in Sierra Leone – Cocorioko". cocorioko.net. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
- Manson, Katrina; Knight, James; Connolly, Sean (2009). Sierra Leone : the Bradt travel guide (1st ed.). Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 32. ISBN 9781784770631. OCLC 1017822434. The Limba may be the oldest inhabitants of Sierra Leone.
- "The People & Culture". Consulate General of the Republic of Sierra Leone, Australia. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
- Manson, Katrina; Knight, James; Connolly, Sean (2009). Sierra Leone : the Bradt travel guide (1st ed.). Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 32. ISBN 9781784770631. OCLC 1017822434. This is borne out of a lack of myth in Limba folklore explaining how they came to arrive in the land and because of significant linguistic differences between Limba and other tongues.
- S.J. Shennan, ed. (2003). Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 9781134866298.
- British Museum Collection
- Pemunta, N. V., & Tabenyang, C.-J. (2017). Cultural power, ritual symbolism and human rights violations in Sierra Leone. Cogent Social Sciences, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1295549
- Bjälkande, Owolabi, et al. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Who Are the Decision Makers? African Journal of Reproductive Health / La Revue Africaine de La Santé Reproductive, vol. 16, no. 4, Women’s Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC), 2012, pp. 119–31, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23485781.
- "FMG in Sierra Leone" (PDF). 28TooMany, Registered Charity: No. 1150379.