Limnonectes

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Limnonectes
Limnon macrod 050303 062 pncw.jpg
Fanged river frog (Limnonectes macrodon)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Dicroglossidae
Subfamily: Dicroglossinae
Genus: Limnonectes
Fitzinger, 1843
Species

More than 60, see text

Synonyms

Taylorana Dubois, 1986

Limnonectes is a genus of fork-tongued frogs of about 64 known species, but new ones are still being described occasionally.[1] They are collectively known as fanged frogs because they tend to have unusually large teeth, which are small or absent in other frogs.

Habitat[edit]

These frogs are found throughout East and Southeast Asia, most commonly near forest streams. Multiple species of Limnonectes may occupy the same area in harmony.[2] Large-bodied species cluster around fast rivers, while smaller ones live among leaf-litter or on stream banks. The Indonesian island of Sulawesi is home to at least 15 species of this frog, only four of which have been formally described.[3]

Lifecycle[edit]

Tadpoles of this genus have adapted to a variety of conditions. Most species (e.g. Blyth's river frog L. blythii or the fanged river frog L. macrodon) develop normally, with free-swimming tadpoles that eat food.[4] The tadpoles of the corrugated frog (L. laticeps) are free-swimming but endotrophic, meaning they do not eat but live on stored yolk until metamorphosis into frogs.[4] Before, L. limborgi was assumed to have direct development (eggs hatching as tiny, full-formed frogs), but more careful observations have showed it has free-swimming but endotrophic larvae; this probably applies to the closely related L. hascheanus, too.[5] L. larvaepartus is the only known species of frog that gives live birth to tadpoles.[3] Parental care is performed by males.[2]

Species[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Pyron & Wiens (2011)[edit]

The following phylogeny of Limnonectes is from Pyron & Wiens (2011).[6] 35 species are included. Limnonectes is a sister group of Nanorana.[6]

Limnonectes 



Limnonectes microdiscus



Limnonectes kadarsani





Limnonectes laticeps





Limnonectes limborgi



Limnonectes hascheanus





Limnonectes dabanus



Limnonectes gyldenstolpei










Limnonectes asperatus



Limnonectes fragilis





Limnonectes fujianensis




Limnonectes bannaensis



Limnonectes kuhlii








Limnonectes leytensis




Limnonectes acanthi





Limnonectes microtympanum



Limnonectes arathooni






Limnonectes magnus




Limnonectes heinrichi



Limnonectes modestus






Limnonectes woodworthi




Limnonectes macrocephalus



Limnonectes visayanus











Limnonectes leporinus




Limnonectes parvus



Limnonectes palavanensis







Limnonectes ibanorum



Limnonectes grunniens






Limnonectes blythii



Limnonectes poilani






Limnonectes paramacrodon





Limnonectes macrodon



Limnonectes shompenorum





Limnonectes malesianus




Limnonectes ingeri



Limnonectes finchi














Aowphol, et al. (2015)[edit]

The following Limnonectes phylogeny is from Aowphol, et al. (2015).[7] 20 species are included.

Limnonectes 


Limnonectes fragilis




Limnonectes leporinus





Limnonectes leytensis



Limnonectes woodworthi





Limnonectes malesianus



Limnonectes poilani








Limnonectes khasianus




Limnonectes kadarsani



Limnonectes microdiscus





Limnonectes bannaensis



Limnonectes fujianensis






Limnonectes lauhachindai




Limnonectes dabanus



Limnonectes gyldenstolpei






Limnonectes kohchangae




Limnonectes plicatellus




Limnonectes doriae




Limnonectes macrognathus




Limnonectes hascheanus



Limnonectes limborgi











McLeod, et al. (2015)[edit]

Below is a phylogeny of species within the L. kuhlii species complex (McLeod, et al. 2015).[8] Limnonectes longchuanensis, Limnonectes hikidai, and Limnonectes cintalubang[9] are also part of the L. kuhlii species complex.




Limnonectes kuhlii (Java)



Limnonectes sisikdagu




Limnonectes fragilis





Limnonectes bannaensis




Limnonectes namiyei



Limnonectes fujianensis






Limnonectes jarujini




Limnonectes nguyenorum




Limnonectes isanensis



Limnonectes taylori



Limnonectes megastomias








References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b McLeod, D.S. , S.J. Horner, C. Husted, A. Barley & D.T. Iskandar (2011). "Same-same, but different: An unusual new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex from West Sumatra (Anura: Dicroglossidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2883: 52–64. 
  3. ^ a b Iskandar, D. T.; Evans, B. J.; McGuire, J. A. (2014). "A Novel Reproductive Mode in Frogs: A New Species of Fanged Frog with Internal Fertilization and Birth of Tadpoles". PLoS ONE. 9 (12): e115884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115884. 
  4. ^ a b Tzi Ming, Leong (2004). "Larval descriptions of some poorly known tadpoles from Peninsular Malaysia (Amphibia: Anura)" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 52 (2): 609-620. 
  5. ^ Rowley, J. J. L.; Altig, R. (2012). "Nidicolous development in Limnonectes limborgi (Anura, Dicroglossidae)". Amphibia-Reptilia. 33: 145–149. doi:10.1163/156853812X626179. 
  6. ^ a b R. Alexander Pyron; John J. Wiens (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 543–583. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. PMID 21723399. 
  7. ^ Aowphol, Rujirawan, Taksintum, Chuaynkern, and Stuart, 2015, Zootaxa, 3956: 259. Holotype: NCSM 80222, by original designation. Type locality: "Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Sirindhorn District, Kham Khuen Kaew Subdistrict, 15°17’47.6”N 105°28’22.0”E, 131 m elev." zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:270500F3-C33E-434B-B5F1-1FDB7A856AD9
  8. ^ McLeod, Kurlbaum & Hoang, 2015 : More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zootaxa, No. , p. 201–214.
  9. ^ Matsui, Nishikawa, and Eto, 2014, Raffles Bull. Zool., Singapore, 62: 681. Holotype: KUHE 47859, by original designation. Type locality: "Ranchan, Serian, Samarahan Division, Sarawak, East Malaysia (01° 08′ 30″ N, 110° 34′ 57″ E, 64 m asl)". http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9C21B7C4-27AD-4103-89C0-513D2E80106C