Limonia acidissima

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Limonia acidissima
Wood-apple dec2007.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Citreae
Genus: Limonia
Species: L. acidissima
Binomial name
Limonia acidissima
  • Schinus limonia L.
  • Ferronia elephantum Corrêa

Limonia acidissima is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. It is native from China to the Indian Subcontinent and eastwards to Southeast Asia. It is also native to the Dominican Republic.[3] Common names for the species in English include wood-apple and elephant-apple.[3], In India in some regional languages its known as Kavat in Hindi, Kavath in marathi, kotha in gujrathi, Kaitha/ kaintha in odisha, kabith in bangla, kaitha in UP/ MP, Kavittam in Tamil, Kapitthhamu in Telugu, Kapitya (कपित्य) in sanskrit [4]and so as Divul in Sri Lanka, Kvet in combodia, kawis/kawista in Indonesia (javanese), Kawes in Malaysia.


Limonia acidissima is a large tree growing to 9 metres (30 ft) tall, with rough, spiny bark. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets, each leaflet 25–35 mm long and 10–20 mm broad, with a citrus-scent when crushed. The fruit is a berry 5–9 cm diameter, and may be sweet or sour. It has a very hard rind which can be difficult to crack open, it appears greenish-brown in colour from outside and contains sticky brown pulp and small white seeds. The fruit looks similar in appearance to the Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos). It contains considerable amount of protein, carbohydrate, ferus, fat, calcium, Vit-B & C etc. 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains up to 49 KCal.

Wood-apple tree in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
A glass of woodapple juice


A number of other species formerly included in the genus are now treated in the related genera Atalantia, Citropsis, Citrus, Glycosmis, Luvunga, Murraya, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Naringi, Pamburus, Pleiospermium, Severinia, Skimmia, Swinglea, and Triphasia.[5]


The fruit is used to make a fruit juice with astringent properties and jams. Its leaves also have medicinal properties, the gum (resin) of this fruit can be use on acne to cure fast. Ripe fruit can be used as "aachar" (smashed with green chilly, sugar and salt only). Juice of "KODBEL" can cure common belly pain in children, bleeding from gum, purifies blood, helps prevent low BP etc.[medical citation needed][vague] Another species of this fruits are considered auspicious to be offered to Lord Shiva in pujas. A majority of Hindu temples will have a sacred tree within its compound and is known as the sthala vriksha.


Woodapple, raw (Daily Value)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 518.816 kJ (124.000 kcal)
18.1 g
Sugars 0 g
Dietary fiber 5 g
3.7 g
7.1 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.04 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
17 mg
Niacin (B3)
8 mg
Vitamin C
3 mg
130 mg
6 mg
18 mg
10 mg
Other constituents
Water 64.2 g

in Fruit Wood Apple values are for edible portion
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: 1


  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  2. ^ B. C. Stone, D. H. Nicolson (November 1978). "Arguments for Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) and against Its Rejection as a nomen ambiguum". 27. Taxon: 551–552. JSTOR 1219924. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  3. ^ a b "Limonia acidissima". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ John H. Wiersema (2005-02-22). "Species in GRIN for genus". Retrieved 2011-04-19. 

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