Limonia acidissima

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Limonia acidissima
Wood-apple dec2007.jpg
Scientific classification

L. acidissima
Binomial name
Limonia acidissima
  • Schinus limonia L.
  • Ferronia elephantum Corrêa

Limonia acidissima is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. Common names for the species in English include wood-apple and elephant-apple.[3]


Limonia acidissima is a large tree growing to 9 metres (30 ft) tall, with rough, spiny bark. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets, each leaflet 25–35 mm long and 10–20 mm broad, with a citrus-scent when crushed. The flowers are white and have five petals. The fruit is a berry 5–9 cm diameter, and may be sweet or sour. It has a very hard rind which can be difficult to crack open, it appears greenish-brown in colour from outside and contains sticky brown pulp and small white seeds. The fruit looks similar in appearance to the Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos). It contains considerable amount of protein, carbohydrate, iron, fat, calcium, Vit-B & C etc. 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains up to 49 KCal.

Wood-apple tree in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
A glass of woodapple juice


A number of other species formerly included in the genus are now treated in the related genera Atalantia, Citropsis, Citrus, Glycosmis, Luvunga, Murraya, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Naringi, Pamburus, Pleiospermium, Severinia, Skimmia, Swinglea, and Triphasia.[4]


Limonia acidissima is native to the Andaman Islands, Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka.[5][6] The species has also been introduced to Indochina and Malesia.[6][5]


The fruit is used to make a fruit juice with astringent properties and jams. Ripe fruit can be used as pickle (mashed with green chilly, sugar and salt only).[7] Another species of this fruits are considered auspicious to be offered to Shiva and Ganesha in pujas. A majority of Hindu temples will have a sacred tree within its compound and is known as the Sthala Vriksha.


Woodapple, raw (Daily Value)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy518.816 kJ (124.000 kcal)
18.1 g
Sugars0 g
Dietary fiber5 g
3.7 g
7.1 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
0.04 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
17 mg
Niacin (B3)
8 mg
Vitamin C
3 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
130 mg
6 mg
18 mg
10 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water64.2 g

in Fruit Wood Apple values are for edible portion
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: 1


  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  2. ^ B. C. Stone, D. H. Nicolson (November 1978). "Arguments for Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) and against Its Rejection as a nomen ambiguum". Taxon. Taxon. 27 (5/6): 551–552. doi:10.2307/1219924. JSTOR 1219924.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ "Limonia acidissima". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  4. ^ John H. Wiersema (2005-02-22). "Species in GRIN for genus". Archived from the original on 2000-11-02. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
  5. ^ a b "Limonia acidissima L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  6. ^ a b Smith, Albert C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis nova : a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). 3. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. pp. 526–527. Retrieved 2018-03-25 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.
  7. ^ Jaya Surya Kumari Manthena and K. Mythili (2004). "Development of wood apple pickle". Int. J. Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2014. Retrieved 2019-06-09.

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