Limonia acidissima

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Limonia acidissima
Wood-apple dec2007.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Tribe: Citreae
Genus: Limonia
Species: L. acidissima
Binomial name
Limonia acidissima
Synonyms[1][2]
  • Schinus limonia L.
  • Ferronia elephantum Corrêa

Limonia acidissima is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia. Common names for the species in English include wood-apple and elephant-apple.[3] In India in some regional languages its known as Kavat in Hindi, Kavath in marathi, kotha in gujarati, Kaitha/ kaintha in odisha, kabith in bangla, kaitha in UP/ MP, விளாம்பழம் in Tamil, Kapitthhamu or velagakaya in Telugu, Kapitya (कपित्य) in sanskrit [4] and so as Divul in Sri Lanka, Kvet in combodia, kawis/kawista in Indonesia (javanese), Kawes in Malaysia.

Description[edit]

Limonia acidissima is a large tree growing to 9 metres (30 ft) tall, with rough, spiny bark. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets, each leaflet 25–35 mm long and 10–20 mm broad, with a citrus-scent when crushed. The flowers are white and have five petals. The fruit is a berry 5–9 cm diameter, and may be sweet or sour. It has a very hard rind which can be difficult to crack open, it appears greenish-brown in colour from outside and contains sticky brown pulp and small white seeds. The fruit looks similar in appearance to the Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos). It contains considerable amount of protein, carbohydrate, ferus, fat, calcium, Vit-B & C etc. 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains up to 49 KCal.

Wood-apple tree in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
A glass of woodapple juice

Taxonomy[edit]

A number of other species formerly included in the genus are now treated in the related genera Atalantia, Citropsis, Citrus, Glycosmis, Luvunga, Murraya, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Naringi, Pamburus, Pleiospermium, Severinia, Skimmia, Swinglea, and Triphasia.[5]

Distribution[edit]

Limonia acidissima is native to India and Sri Lanka.[6] Some sources include Fiji in the native distribution,[7] but Flora Vitiensis nova dates the species' introduction there to around 1880.[6] The species has also been introduced to Indochina and Malesia.[6][7]

Uses[edit]

The fruit is used to make a fruit juice with astringent properties and jams. Ripe fruit can be used as "aachar" (smashed with green chilly, sugar and salt only). Another species of this fruits are considered auspicious to be offered to Shiva and Ganesha in pujas. A majority of Hindu temples will have a sacred tree within its compound and is known as the sthala vriksha.

Nutrition[edit]

Woodapple, raw (Daily Value)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 518.816 kJ (124.000 kcal)
18.1 g
Sugars 0 g
Dietary fiber 5 g
3.7 g
7.1 g
Vitamins Quantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.04 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
1417%
17 mg
Niacin (B3)
53%
8 mg
Vitamin C
4%
3 mg
Minerals Quantity %DV
Calcium
13%
130 mg
Iron
46%
6 mg
Manganese
857%
18 mg
Zinc
105%
10 mg
Other constituents Quantity
Water 64.2 g

in Fruit Wood Apple values are for edible portion
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: 1

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  2. ^ B. C. Stone, D. H. Nicolson (November 1978). "Arguments for Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) and against Its Rejection as a nomen ambiguum". 27. Taxon: 551–552. JSTOR 1219924. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  3. ^ "Limonia acidissima". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2016-04-03. 
  4. ^ http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/31505
  5. ^ John H. Wiersema (2005-02-22). "Species in GRIN for genus". Ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  6. ^ a b c Smith, Albert C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis nova : a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). 3. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. pp. 526–527. Retrieved 2018-03-25 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by Smithsonian Libraries. 
  7. ^ a b "Limonia acidissima L". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-03-25. 

External links[edit]