Chinese drawing of Lin (published 1843)
|Viceroy of Liangguang|
21 January 1840 – 3 October 1840
|Preceded by||Deng Tingzhen|
|Viceroy of Shaan-Gan|
|Viceroy of Yun-Gui|
|Preceded by||Li Xingyuan (Li Hsing-yüan)|
|Succeeded by||Cheng Yuzai (Ch'eng Yü-tsai)|
|Viceroy of Huguang|
30 August 1785|
|Died||22 November 1850
|Battles/wars||First Opium War|
Lin's forceful opposition to the opium trade was a primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839–42. He is praised for his constant position on the "moral high ground" in his fight, but he is also blamed for a rigid approach which failed to account for the domestic and international complexities of the problem. The Daoguang Emperor endorsed the hard line policies advocated by Lin, but then blamed Lin for the resulting disastrous war.
Early life and career
Lin was born in Houguan (侯官; modern Fuzhou, Fujian). The second son of the family, his father was Bin Re, a Chinese official in the Qing dynasty. As a child, he was already "unusually brilliant". In 1811, he received a jinshi degree in the imperial examination, and in the same year, he was appointed to the Hanlin Academy. He rose rapidly through various grades of provincial service. He opposed the opening of China but felt the need of a better knowledge of foreigners, which drove him to collect material for a geography of the world. He later gave this material to Wei Yuan, who published the Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms in 1843. He became Governor-General of Hunan and Hubei in 1837, where he launched a suppression campaign against the trading of opium.
Campaign to suppress opium
In March 1839, Lin arrived in Guangdong to take measures that would eliminate the opium trade. He was a formidable bureaucrat known for his competence and high moral standards, with an imperial commission from the Daoguang Emperor to halt the illegal importation of opium by the British. Upon arrival, he made changes within a matter of months. He arrested more than 1,700 Chinese opium dealers and confiscated over 70,000 opium pipes. He initially attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this ultimately failed. Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave. A month and a half later, the merchants gave up nearly 1.2 million kilograms (2.6 million pounds) of opium. Beginning 3 June 1839, 500 workers laboured for 23 days to destroy it, mixing the opium with lime and salt and throwing it into the sea outside of Humen Town. Lin composed an elegy apologizing to the gods of the sea for polluting their realm. 26 June is now the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in honour of Lin Zexu's work.
In 1839, Lin also wrote an extraordinary memorial to Queen Victoria in the form of an open letter published in Canton, urging her to end the opium trade. He argued that China was providing Britain with valuable commodities such as tea, porcelain, spices and silk, while Britain sends only "poison" in return. Lin appears to have been unaware that opium was not banned in the Middle East, Europe and the Americas, and was commonly used for its medicinal rather than recreational effects. He accused the "barbarians" (a reference to the private merchants) of coveting profit and lacking morality. His memorial expressed a desire that the Queen would act "in accordance with decent feeling" and support his efforts. He wrote:
We find that your country is sixty or seventy thousand li from China. Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience?
The Royal Open Letter was prevented from reaching the Queen by shipping merchants, who attacked the Emperor`s forces before the Letter could have been acted on by Her Majesty. Belatedly, after the merchants had drawn Her Majesty`s forces into war, it was delivered and published in The Times.
Commissioner Lin and the Daoguang Emperor, comments historian Jonathan Spence, "seemed to have believed that the citizens of Canton and the foreign traders there had simple, childlike natures that would respond to firm guidance and statements of moral principles set out in simple, clear terms." Neither Lin nor the emperor appreciated the depth or changed nature of the problem. They did not see the change in international trade structures, the commitment of the British government to protecting the interests of private traders, and the peril to British traders who would surrender their opium. Moreover, the British viewed the opening of China to free trade as a moral issue as well.
Open hostilities between China and Britain started in 1839 in what later would be called "The First Opium War." The immediate effect was that both sides, by the words of Superintendent Captain Charles Elliot, and the Chinese High-Commissioner Lin Zexu banned all trade. Before this, Lin had pressured the Portuguese government of Macau, so the British found themselves without refuge, except for the bare and rocky harbours of Hong Kong. Soon, however, Qing imperial forces faced a British imperial force, which included the East India Company's steam warship Nemesis and improved weapons, and were soon routed.
Exile in Xinjiang
Lin made significant preparation for war against the possible British invasion. The British sailed north to attack Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The governors of these two provinces failed to heed a warning from Lin, however, and were unprepared when the British easily landed and occupied Dinghai.
While in Xinjiang, Lin was the first Chinese scholar to record several aspects of Muslim culture there. In 1850, he noted in a poem that the Muslims in Ili did not worship idols but bowed and prayed to tombs decorated with poles that had the tails of cows and horses attached to them. This was the widespread shamanic practice of erecting a tugh, but this was its first recorded appearance in Chinese writings. He also recorded several Kazakh oral tales, such as one concerning a green goat spirit of the lake whose appearance is a harbinger of hail or rain.
The Qing government ultimately rehabilitated Lin. In 1845, he was appointed governor-general of Shaanxi-Gansu (Shaan-Gan). In 1847. he became governor-general of Yunnan-Guizhou (Yun-Gui). These posts were less prestigious than his previous position in Canton, thus his career never fully recovered from the failures there.
Death and legacy
Lin died in 1850 while on the way to Guangxi, where the Qing government was sending him to help put down the Taiping Rebellion. Though he was originally blamed for causing the First Opium War, Lin's reputation was rehabilitated in the last years of the Qing dynasty, as efforts were made once more to eradicate opium production and trade. He became a symbol of the fight against opium, with his image displayed in parades, and his writings quoted approvingly by anti-opium reformers.
Despite the antagonism between the Chinese and the British at the time, the English sinologist Herbert Giles praised and admired Lin: "He was a fine scholar, a just and merciful official and a true patriot."
Lin Zexu’s former home, situated in Fuzhou’s historic Sanfang-Qixiang district (also known as ’’Three Lanes and Seven Alleys’’), is open to the public. Inside, his work as a government official, including the opium trade and other work where he improved agricultural methods, championed water conservation (including his work to save Fuzhou’s West Lake from becoming a rice field) .and his campaign against corruption are well documented.
In China, Lin Zexu is popularly viewed as a national hero. June 3, the day when Lin confiscated the chests of opium, is celebrated as Anti-Smoking Day in Taiwan. Monuments to Lin have been constructed in Chinese communities around the world. A statue of Lin stands in Chatham Square in Chinatown, New York City, United States. The base of the statue is inscribed with "Don't do drugs" in English and Chinese. A wax statue of Lin also appeared in Madame Tussauds wax museum in London.
More recently, Lin Zexu has appeared as a character in River of Smoke, the second novel in the Ibis trilogy by Amitav Ghosh, which takes the Opium Wars as its setting to shed new light on a much-repressed history while offering a contemporary critique of globalization. The novel takes place in 1838–1839, during which time Commissioner Lin arrived in Canton and tensions escalated between the foreigners and the Chinese officials.
Three films have been made on his role in the Opium Wars such that he is now one of the symbols of modern China's resistance to European imperialism.
- China Provinces and Administrative Divisions
- Spence (1999), p. 131.
- Spence (1999), pp. 152-158.
- Lee 2005, p. 3.
- Lovell (2011), p. 53.
- de Bary & Lufrano 2000, pp. 201–204.
- Ebrey, Walthall & Palais 2006, p. 379.
- Chang (1964), pp. 173-174.
- From Ssu-yu Teng and John Fairbank, China's Response to the West, (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1954), repr. in Mark A. Kishlansky, ed., Sources of World History, Volume II, (New York: HarperCollins CollegePublishers, 1995), pp. 266–69 and available at Brooklyn.CUNY.edu
- Hanes & Sanello 2004, p. 41.
- Kuo 1973.
- Newby, L.J. (1999), "The Chinese Literary Conquest of Xinjiang", Modern China 25 (4): 451–474, doi:10.1177/009770049902500403, JSTOR 189447
- On the progress of war, and Lin Zexu's role, see Kuo 1973.
- Madancy 2003, pp. 96-97.
- Lin Zexu Memorial
- Lin Zexu Memorial Museum | Ola Macau Travel Guide
- David Chen, Chinatown's Fujianese Get a Statue, New York Times, 20 November 1997.
- Long, strange trip: River of Smoke finds globalization's roots in the Opium Wars
- Chang, Hsin-pao (1964). Commissioner Lin and the Opium War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- de Bary, Wm Theodore; Lufrano, Richard (2000). Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century 2. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11271-0.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
- Hanes, William Travis; Sanello, Frank (2004). The Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 0-7607-7638-5.
- Kuo, Pin-Chia (1973). A Critical Study of the First Anglo-Chinese War, With Documents. Hyperion Press.
- Lee, Khoon Choy (2005). Pioneers of Modern China: Understanding the Inscrutable Chinese. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-270-090-2.
- Lovell, Julia (2011). The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams and the Making of Modern China. London: Picador. ISBN 9780330537858.
- Madancy, Joyce A. (2003). The Troublesome Legacy of Commissioner Lin: The Opium Trade and Opium Suppression in Fujian Province, 1820s to 1920s. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 9780674012158.
- Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton. ISBN 0393973514.
- Brook, Timothy; Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (2000). Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520222366.
- Hummel, Sr., Arthur W. (1943). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644-1912, Volumes 1-2. Washington: United States Government Publishing Office.
- Peyrefitte, Alain (1992). The Immobile Empire. Alfred A. Knopf.
- Waley, Arthur (1968). The Opium War Through Chinese Eyes. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804706117.
- Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2000). The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393320510.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lin Zexu.|
- Text of Lin's Letter to Queen Victoria (Alt)
- Lin Zexu Memorial
- Example of Lin Zexu’s calligraphy at the Wayback Machine (archived December 14, 2007)
- "Lin Zexu" Encyclopedia Britannica Online
|Viceroy of Liangguang