Linagliptin

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Linagliptin
Linagliptin.svg
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌlɪnəˈɡlɪptɪn/ LIN-ə-GLIP-tin
Trade namesTradjenta, Trajenta, others
Other namesBI-1356
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa611036
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only) [1]
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • EU: Rx-only [2]
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability~30% (Tmax = 1.5 hours)
Protein binding75–99% (concentration-dependent)
MetabolismMinimal (~10% metabolized)
MetabolitesPharmacologically inactive
Elimination half-life~24 hours
ExcretionFeces (80%), urine (5%)[3]
Identifiers
  • 8-[(3R)-3-Aminopiperidin-1-yl]-7-(but-2-yn-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-[(4-methylquinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC25H28N8O2
Molar mass472.553 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • CC#CCN1C2=C(N=C1N3CCC[C@H](C3)N)N(C(=O)N(C2=O)CC4=NC5=CC=CC=C5C(=N4)C)C
  • InChI=1S/C25H28N8O2/c1-4-5-13-32-21-22(29-24(32)31-12-8-9-17(26)14-31)30(3)25(35)33(23(21)34)15-20-27-16(2)18-10-6-7-11-19(18)28-20/h6-7,10-11,17H,8-9,12-15,26H2,1-3H3/t17-/m1/s1 ☒N
  • Key:LTXREWYXXSTFRX-QGZVFWFLSA-N ☒N
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Linagliptin, sold under the brand name Tradjenta among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2.[4] It is generally less preferred than metformin and sulfonylureas as an initial treatment.[4][5] It is used together with exercise and diet.[4] It is not recommended in type 1 diabetes.[4] It is taken by mouth.[4]

Common side effects include inflammation of the nose and throat.[4] Serious side effects may include angioedema, pancreatitis, joint pain.[5][4] Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding is not recommended.[5] Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor.[4] It works by increasing the production of insulin and decreasing the production of glucagon by the pancreas.[4]

Linagliptin was approved for medical use in the United States in 2011.[4] In 2018, it was the 177th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 3 million prescriptions.[6][7]

Medical uses[edit]

Results in 2010, from a Phase III clinical trial of linagliptin showed that the drug can effectively reduce blood sugar.[8]

Side effects[edit]

Linagliptin may cause severe joint pain.[3][9]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that the type 2 diabetes medicines like sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin may cause joint pain that can be severe and disabling. The FDA has added a new Warning and Precaution about this risk to the labels of all medicines in this drug class, called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.

Trajenta's Prescribing Information[10] states the drug is contraindicated for people with bronchial hyperreactivity (for example, asthma).

Mechanism of action[edit]

Linagliptin belongs to a class of drugs called DPP-4 inhibitors.

Terminology[edit]

Linagliptin is the INN.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) | Linagliptin, tablet, 5 mg, Trajenta® - July 2012".
  2. ^ "Trajenta EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA).
  3. ^ a b "Tradjenta (linagliptin) Tablets. Full Prescribing Information" (PDF). Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Linagliptin Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b c British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 680. ISBN 9780857113382.
  6. ^ "The Top 300 of 2021". ClinCalc. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Linagliptin - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  8. ^ "Four Phase III Trials Confirm Benefits of BI's Oral, Once-Daily Type 2 Diabetes Therapy". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 28 June 2010.
  9. ^ "DPP-4 Inhibitors for Type 2 Diabetes: Drug Safety Communication - May Cause Severe Joint Pain". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015-08-28. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  10. ^ https://docs.boehringer-ingelheim.com/Prescribing%20Information/PIs/Tradjenta/Tradjenta.pdf?DMW_FORMAT=pdf)
  11. ^ "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary names: List 61" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 66. Retrieved 10 November 2016.

External links[edit]

  • "Linagliptin". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.