Linda Hogan

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Linda Hogan
Hogan in 2007
Hogan in 2007
Born (1947-07-16) July 16, 1947 (age 73) [1]
Denver, Colorado, U.S.[1]
Occupationauthor, professor[1]
Alma materUniversity of Colorado
Years active1978 - present

Linda K. Hogan (born July 16, 1947) is a poet, storyteller, academic, playwright, novelist, environmentalist and writer of short stories.[2] She is currently the Chickasaw Nation's Writer in Residence.[3] Hogan is a recipient of the Lannan Literary Award for Poetry. She lives in Tishomingo, Oklahoma.

Early life[edit]

Linda Hogan is American, born July 16, 1947 in Denver, Colorado. Her father, Charles C. Henderson, is a Chickasaw from a recognized historical family.[1] Her mother, Cleona Florine (Bower) Henderson was of white descent.[2] Linda's uncle, Wesley Henderson, helped form the White Buffalo Council in Denver during the 1950s, to help other Indian people coming to the city because of The Relocation Act, which forcibly removed Indigenous peoples for work and other opportunities. He had a strong influence on her and she grew up relating strongly to both her Chickasaw family in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and to a mixed Indian community in the Denver area. At other times, her family traveled because of her father's career in the U.S. military. Her family lived in Germany for three years. She descended from a family of storytellers who helped shape her writing[4] Along with being an author, Hogan is also an environmentalist who spent eight years volunteering at a wildlife rehabilitation center. Two out of those eight years were spent at veterinarian school and the other six were spent at Birds of Prey Rehabilitation Center in Colorado. The work was very physical so Hogan reached a point where she was no longer able to handle it. Now, she does good for animals by talking and writing about them[5] Hogan married Pat Hogan and had children, Sandra Dawn Protector and Tanya Thunder Horse[6]


Hogan earned a Master of Arts (M. A.) degree from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1978 at the Colorado Springs campus. She then briefly moved to Maryland with her husband and later moved back to Colorado where she went to school in Boulder.[5] Her first university teaching position was at Colorado College in 1980–1984, the next was in American Indian Studies and American Studies at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis (1982-1984).[1] Hogan started writing in her late twenties after working with orthopedically handicapped children. During her lunch hours, she would read Kenneth Rexroth's work, which gave her the confidence to start writing publicly.[7] She kept a journal that she wrote in religiously. As she began to write essays and fiction, she realized that the energy she put into writing in a journal, had a new outlet. As she journaled, she also discovered that she was writing about the beauty of nature every morning and she believed she could do more for nature in less private writing settings[5] After writing her first book, Calling Myself Home, she continued to write poetry. Her work has both a historical and political focus, but is lyrical. Hogan's lyrical work is considered to have a voice of literary activism and in it is Native spirituality and indigenous knowledge systems of all genres[8] She considers her work politically centered because it is about a world view that cannot be separated from the political.[5] Her most recent books are The Book of Medicines (1993) and Rounding the Human Corners. (2008) and a book of new and selected poetry containing work from the 1970s until 2014. Published in 2015.Hogan also has worked with Brenda Peterson in writing, Sightings, the Mysterious Journey of the Gray Whale for National Geographic books. She also wrote the script for the PBS documentary, Everything Has a Spirit, regarding Native American religious freedom.[8]

She is also a novelist and essayist. Her work centers on the world of native peoples, the environment, and from her own indigenous perspective. She is currently known by students of ecological literature and eco-poetics. She was a full professor of Creative Writing at the University of Colorado and then taught for two years in the University's Ethnic Studies Department. Her most recent teaching has been as Writer in Residence for The Chickasaw Nation for six years, and a faculty position at the Indian Arts Institute in Santa Fe.

Hogan has published works in many different backgrounds and forms. Her concentration is on environmental themes as well Southeastern tribal histories and indigenous spirits and culture.[8] She has acted as a consultant in bringing together Native tribal representatives and feminist themes, particularly allying them to her native ancestry. For example, in her second novel, Power, she uses her protagonist to highlight the unique and difficult experience of Native Americans in current times. Her use of this point of view showcases her heritage and belief in nature. She strives to balance the perception of male and female power in Native American culture that was disrupted by the effects of the early Christian Americans.[9] Hogan captures the intersectionality of modern generations with indigenous heritage and social equity within modern institutions. In Power, Omishto, the protagonist and narrator, grapples with listening to Taiga relatives or legends and academic or modern institutions. The novel brings up important points about humanity and the role they are intended to play within nature and tradition. Oshmito is just a young girl when she is introduced to the reader, growing up as a native in an emergent and westernizing world. It seems that this character is an embodiment of Linda Hogan herself. Oshmito is wrestling with her identity with the Taiga tribe, personified through her Aunt Ama, and the modern American life, exemplified through her mother, father, and sister. The degradation of the reverence towards the Taiga people and their customs is bound to the life of Ama and when even she betrays the tribe through taking the life of a panther, her animal ally and their hallowed ancestor, all seems lost to Oshmito. This contrast of Aunt Ama’s quintessence versus her actions signals to the reader that Hogan is attempting to complicate the idea that one is not wholly native or wholly westernized—the two are not mutually exclusive.[10]


Her work, whether fiction or non-fiction, expresses an indigenous understanding of the world. She has written essays and poems on a variety of subjects, both fictional and nonfictional, biographical and from research. Hogan has also written historical novels. Her work studies the historical wrongs done to Native Americans and the American environment since the European colonization of North America.

Hogan was a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Oklahoma. Hogan is the second minority woman to become a full professor at the University of Colorado.[12] She is the (inaugural) Writer-in-Residence for the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma. In October 2011, she instructed a writing workshop through the Abiquiu Workshops in Abiquiú, New Mexico.[13] She currently teaches one class a year in the graduate writing program at the University of Colorado as she keeps up with her schedule from her other work. Supporting solely herself and her home, Hogan keeps very busy but rarely works full-time because otherwise, she would not be able to write.[5]

She has now returned to her Chickasaw homeland in Oklahoma, where she lives in Tishomingo.[14] with her family. Hogan feels as though she owes the future to her children and grandchildren. She says that her home is a place for her grandchildren particularly because they are given the opportunity to explore nature. Along with this, she believes that tradition and language are extremely important, especially in Native American culture, which is why her family is so important to her. Her work is completely dedicated to her children.[5]

She strives to help other writers succeed, even offering to further their careers with her insight. She teaches Creative Writing workshops, and will, on occasion, take a private client under her wing, helping them to edit, write, or complete their works.[15]

Awards and recognition[edit]

  • 2016 Throreau Prize from PEN[16]
  • Native Arts and Cultures Foundation 2015 National Artist Fellowship[17]
  • Mountains and Plains Booksellers Spirit of the West Literary Achievement Award, 2007
  • Inducted into the Chickasaw Hall of Fame in 2007[18]
  • Writer of the Year (Creative Prose), Wordcraft Circle Award, 2002
  • Lifetime Achievement Award, Native Writers' Circle of the Americas, 1998
  • Colorado Book Award, 1996
  • Colorado Book Award
    • Solar Storms (1996)
    • The Book of Medicines (1993)
  • Lannan Award, 1994, for Outstanding Achievement in Poetry
  • Oklahoma Book Award for Fiction, 1991 (Mean Spirit)
  • Guggenheim Fellow, 1991[19]
  • Finalist, Pulitzer Prize for Literature, 1991.
  • American Book Award, Before Columbus Foundation, 1986
  • Stand magazine Fiction Award, 1983
  • Five Civilized Tribes Play Writing Award, 1980
  • Finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for The Book of Medicines[20]


  • Dark, Sweet: New and Selected Poems, Coffee House Press, 2014
  • Indios, poems, Wings Press 2012
  • The Inner Journey: Views from Native Traditions (ed.) Morning Light Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-59675-026-5
  • Rounding the Human Corners: Poems, Coffee House Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1-56689-210-0
  • People of the Whale: A Novel; W. W. Norton & Company, 2009, ISBN 978-0-393-33534-7
  • The Woman Who Watches Over the World: A Native Memoir. W.W. Norton. 2001. ISBN 978-0-393-05018-9.; W. W. Norton & Company, 2002, ISBN 978-0-393-32305-4
  • The Sweet Breathing of Plants: Women and the Green World, 2000; North Point Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-86547-559-5
  • Power. W. W. Norton & Company. 1998. ISBN 978-0-393-04636-6.; W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 978-0-393-31968-2
  • Dwellings: A Spiritual History of the Living World. W.W. Norton. 1995. ISBN 978-0-393-03784-5.; Simon and Schuster, 1996, ISBN 978-0-684-83033-9
  • Hogan, Linda (1999). Power. New York. p. 58. ISBN 0-393-31968-7.
  • Solar Storms. Scribner. 1995. ISBN 978-0-684-81227-4.; Simon and Schuster, 1997, ISBN 978-0-684-82539-7
  • The book of medicines: poems, Coffee House Press, 1993, ISBN 978-1-56689-010-6
  • Red Clay: Poems and Stories, Greenfield Review Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-912678-83-2
  • Mean Spirit, Atheneum, 1990, ISBN 978-0-689-12101-2
  • Savings: Poems. Coffee House Press. 1988. ISBN 978-0-918273-41-3. Linda Hogan.
  • Seeing Through the Sun. University of Massachusetts Press. 1985. ISBN 978-0-87023-472-9. Linda Hogan.
  • Eclipse, American Indian Studies Center, University of California, 1983, ISBN 978-0-935626-18-6
  • Daughters, I Love You, Research Center on Women, 1981
  • A Piece of Moon (1981)
  • Calling Myself Home, Greenfield Review Press, 1978


  • Dennis, Helen M. Native American Literature: Towards a Spatialized Reading. London, Routledge 2006. pp. 61–85.

In Anthology[edit]

  • Melissa Tuckey, ed. Ghost Fishing: An Eco-Justice Poetry Anthology. University of Georgia Press, 2018.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Linda Hogan." Native American Literature. Accessed October 28, 2016
  2. ^ a b Jennifer McClinton-Temple, Alan R. Velie (2007). Encyclopedia of American Indian literature. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-5656-9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link), p. 167.
  3. ^ "Dynamic Women of the Chickasaw Nation." Chickasaw Nation. 16 April 2009 (retrieved 17 Dec 2009)
  4. ^ "Linda Hogan" (PDF). Writers of the Native American Renaissance. Native American Lit. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Murray, John. "Interview With Linda Hogan". A Journal of the Built and Natural Environments. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Linda Hogan" (PDF). Writers of the Native American Renaissance. Native American Lit. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ "Linda Hogan" (PDF). Writers of the Native American Renaissance. Native American Lit. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ a b c Hogan, Linda. "Linda Hogan". Linda Hogan Writer. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Linda Hogan" (PDF). Writers of the Native American Renaissance. Native American Lit. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ Stein, R. (1999-01-01). "Power". Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment. 6 (1): 170–170. doi:10.1093/isle/6.1.170. ISSN 1076-0962.
  11. ^ Hogan, Linda (1999). Power. New York. p. 58. ISBN 0-393-31968-7.
  12. ^ Hogan, Linda. "Linda Hogan Biography". Linda Hogan Writer. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. ^ "Dwellings: Landscapes Of The Heart / Creative Writing From Nature". Abiquiu Workshops. Archived from the original on September 20, 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. ^ Berry, Carol. "A Chickasaw Writer Returns to her Heartland."Center of the American West. University of Colorado. October 26, 2008. Accessed October 28, 2016.
  15. ^ Hogan, Linda. "Linda Hogan Biography". Linda Hogan Writer. Retrieved 2020-11-08. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  16. ^ Hogan, Linda. "Linda Hogan". Linda Hogan Writer. Retrieved 2016-11-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. ^ "Linda Hogan". Native Arts and Cultures Foundation. Accessed October 28, 2016
  18. ^ Chickasaw Hall of Fame Archived 2012-12-02 at the Wayback Machinedead link October 28, 2016
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2011-07-03. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Hogan, Linda. "Linda Hogan Biography". Linda Hogan Writer. Retrieved 2020-11-08. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links[edit]