||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (December 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In quantum mechanics, the Gorini–Kossakowski–Sudarshan–Lindblad equation (GKSL equation, named after Vittorio Gorini, Andrzej Kossakowski, George Sudarshan and Göran Lindblad) or master equation in Lindblad form, is the most general type of Markovian and time-homogeneous master equation describing non-unitary evolution of the density matrix ρ that is trace-preserving and completely positive for any initial condition.
The Lindblad master equation for an N-dimensional system's reduced density matrix ρ can be written:
where H is a (Hermitian) Hamiltonian part, the Lm are an arbitrary linear basis of the operators on the system's Hilbert space, and the hn,m are constants which determine the dynamics. The coefficient matrix h = (hn,m) must be positive to ensure that the equation is trace-preserving and completely positive. The summation only runs to N 2 − 1 because we have taken LN 2 to be proportional to the identity operator, in which case the summand vanishes. Our convention implies that the Lm are traceless for m < N 2. The terms in the summation where m = n can be described in terms of the Lindblad superoperator,
If the hm,n terms are all zero, then this is quantum Liouville equation (for a closed system), which is the quantum analog of the classical Liouville equation. A related equation describes the time evolution of the expectation values of observables, it is given by the Ehrenfest theorem.
Note that H is not necessarily equal to the self-Hamiltonian of the system. It may also incorporate effective unitary dynamics arising from the system-environment interaction.
Lindblad equations can also be expressed as the following equations for quantum observables:
where is a quantum observable.
where the eigenvalues γi are non-negative. If we define another orthonormal operator basis
we can rewrite Lindblad equation in diagonal form
This equation is invariant under a unitary transformation of Lindblad operators and constants,
and also under the inhomogeneous transformation
However, the first transformation destroys the orthonormality of the operators Ai (unless all the γi are equal) and the second transformation destroys the tracelessness. Therefore, up to degeneracies among the γi, the Ai of the diagonal form of the Lindblad equation are uniquely determined by the dynamics so long as we require them to be orthonormal and traceless.
Harmonic oscillator example
The most common Lindblad equation is that describing the damping of a quantum harmonic oscillator, it has
Here is the mean number of excitations in the reservoir damping the oscillator and γ is the decay rate. Additional Lindblad operators can be included to model various forms of dephasing and vibrational relaxation. These methods have been incorporated into grid-based density matrix propagation methods.
- Kossakowski, A. (1972). "On quantum statistical mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems". Rep. Math. Phys. 3 (4): 247. Bibcode:1972RpMP....3..247K. doi:10.1016/0034-4877(72)90010-9.
- Lindblad, G. (1976). "On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups". Commun. Math. Phys. 48 (2): 119. Bibcode:1976CMaPh..48..119L. doi:10.1007/BF01608499.
- Gorini, V.; Kossakowski, A.; Sudarshan, E.C.G. (1976). "Completely positive semigroups of N-level systems". J. Math. Phys. 17 (5): 821. Bibcode:1976JMP....17..821G. doi:10.1063/1.522979.
- Banks, T.; Susskind, L.; Peskin, M.E. (1984). "Difficulties for the evolution of pure states into mixed states". Nuclear Physics B 244: 125–134. Bibcode:1984NuPhB.244..125B. doi:10.1016/0550-3213(84)90184-6.
- Accardi, Luigi; Lu, Yun Gang; Volovich, I.V. (2002). Quantum Theory and Its Stochastic Limit. New York: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-5404-1928-0.
- Alicki, Robert; Lendi, Karl (1987). Quantum Dynamical Semigroups and Applications. Berlin: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-0-3871-8276-6.
- Attal, Stéphane; Joye, Alain; Pillet, Claude-Alain (2006). Open Quantum Systems II: The Markovian Approach. Springer. ISBN 978-3-5403-0992-5.
- Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Petruccione, F. (2002). The Theory of Open Quantum Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1985-2063-4.
- Gardiner, C.W.; Zoller, Peter (2010). Quantum Noise. Springer Series in Synergetics (3rd ed.). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-06094-6.
- Ingarden, Roman S.; Kossakowski, A.; Ohya, M. (1997). Information Dynamics and Open Systems: Classical and Quantum Approach. New York: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-0-7923-4473-5.
- Lindblad, G. (1983). Non-Equilibrium Entropy and Irreversibility. Dordrecht: Delta Reidel. ISBN 1-4020-0320-X.
- Tarasov, Vasily E. (2008). Quantum Mechanics of Non-Hamiltonian and Dissipative Systems. Amsterdam, Boston, London, New York: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-0805-5971-1.