|Type||Public limited company|
|Founded||21 June 1879|
|Founder||Carl von Linde|
|Headquarters||Dublin, Ireland (legal domicile); Woking, Surrey, UK (principal executive offices)|
|Sanjiv Lamba, CEO|
Steve Angel, Chairman of the Board
Matthew J. White, CFO
|Products||Industrial gas production, medical gas and air separation physical plant engineering, logistics services|
|Revenue||US$27.243 billion (2020)|
|US$3.322 billion (2020)|
|Total assets||US$88.229 billion (2020)|
|Total equity||US$49.569 billion (2020)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||Praxair, Lincare Holdings, Afrox, American HomePatient, NuCo2, AUECC, GTG Plin, Nauticor|
|Footnotes / references|
Linde plc is a global multinational chemical company founded in Germany and, since 2018, domiciled in Ireland and headquartered in the United Kingdom. Linde is the world's largest industrial gas company by market share and revenue. It serves customers in the healthcare, petroleum refining, manufacturing, food, beverage carbonation, fiber-optics, steel making, aerospace, material handling equipment (MHE), chemicals, electronics and water treatment industries. The company's primary business is the manufacturing and distribution of atmospheric gases, including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases, and process gases, including carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, ammonia, electronic gases, specialty gases, and acetylene.
The company was formed by the 2018 merger of Linde AG of Germany (founded in 1879) and Praxair (founded in 1907 as Linde Air Products Company) of the United States. The resulting holding company was incorporated in Ireland, with principal executive offices in Guildford, UK.
The company is a member of the Hydrogen Council, a group of companies investing in hydrogen vehicles. The company expects hydrogen vehicles to compete with electric vehicles and has invested in wind powered plants that convert water to hydrogen.
In the industrial gas area, the company uses the brand names Linde, AGA, BOC, TIG, Mox-Linde Gases, Afrox, Sigas and PanGas. HiQ is used as an identifier for high purity and premium specialty gases across all of these business brand names.
In the medical gas area, the company uses the brand names Linde Gas Therapeutics, AGA Medical, INO Therapeutics, Linde Homecare, and Farmadomo.
Linde Gas supplies industrial gases, medical gases, specialty gases, refrigerants and other chemicals. Depending on the gas and the quantity required, these may be supplied in portable high-pressure gas cylinders, in liquefied form by road tanker, from on-site gas generators or in gaseous form via pipeline to large customers. This division has four operating segments, Western Europe, the Americas, Asia & Eastern Europe, and South Pacific & Africa. These segments are subdivided into eight Regional Business Units (RBUs). The Gases Division also includes the two Global Business Units (GBUs) – Healthcare (medical gases) and Tonnage (on-site) – and the two Business Areas (BAs) – Merchant & Packaged Gases (liquefied and cylinder gases) and Electronics (electronic gases).
The product range includes hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, shielding gases for welding applications, noble gases and specialty gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, all of which are manufactured in Linde's air separation plants.
Linde Healthcare provides pharmaceutical and medical gas products and services for the healthcare industry such as oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, anaesthesia, and gas for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, sleep apnoea and pain.
Linde Engineering designs and builds large-scale chemical plants for the production of industrial gases including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, as well as large plants associated with the processing of natural gas, LNG, Liquefied petroleum gas and the manufacture of olefins. The Engineering Division develops process plants in the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) business worldwide.
The group has more than 1,000 process engineering patents and 4,000 completed plant projects. 
The product range includes:
- Air separation plants
- Ethylene Cracker Units
- Liquefied natural gas and Natural-gas processing plants
- Hydrogen and synthesis gas plants
- Chemical plants
- Adsorption and membrane plants
- Cryogenics plants
- Carbon capture and storage and carbon dioxide plants
- Furnaces, Incineration and heaters
- Plant components
Gist Limited, headquartered at Chineham Business Park, Basingstoke, offers supply chain services including end-to-end management and customer fulfilment through transport and warehousing. Gist was acquired by Linde as part of its 2006 acquisition of BOC. Following the group's merger with Praxair to form Linde plc, Gist continues to operate as a separate entity under Linde.
On 21 June 1879, Carl von Linde founded the Gesellschaft für Linde's Eismaschinen Aktiengesellschaft to develop further his work in developing mechanical refrigeration systems for the brewing and food industries. Following success in this market, he moved on to developing lower temperature systems resulting in 1895 in a patent covering the liquefaction of air. Out of this work his company developed equipment for the separation of air and other gases. Linde's process was patented in 1902 and immediately exploited by the first large-scale air separation plant installed in Linde's works in Höllriegelskreuth, near Munich in 1903.: 67
In 1906, Carl Von Linde decided to expand his oxygen extraction company overseas, targeting America, where no other companies had attempted industrial scale oxygen extraction. Along with Cecil Lightfoot, in 1907, he opened the Linde Air Products Factory, his first plant in America at Buffalo, New York.
In addition to plants for air separation, in 1906, Linde engineers started working with others on processes to separate the constituents of water gas. This work leade to the 1909 invention of the Linde–Frank–Caro process to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which were further key feedstocks for the emerging chemicals industry.
In addition to his interests in refrigeration, Carl von Linde had also partnered with Hugo Güldner and Georg Krauß and others in 1904 to form the Güldner Motoren-Gesellschaft mbH in Munich, which was moved to Aschaffenburg in 1906. Linde took full ownership of the company in 1929, and from this origin developed a business manufacturing first engines and tractors, and then from the 1950s onwards, a range of mechanical handling equipment such as fork lift trucks. Linde also acquired the Aktiengesellschaft für Industriegasverwertung (english: Corporation for Industry Gas Utilization), commonly referred to as the Heylandt Works.
In the years of Nazi Germany, Linde AG benefited from the country's attempt to become self-sufficient by refraining from imports of synthetic fuel and rubber. In 1935, general manager Friedrich Linde received the title of Wehrwirtschaftsführer, which underlined the national importance of Linde AG and allowed the company to further benefit from the German rearmament.: 99 Among the closest colleagues of the general director was Dr. Alfred Hess, plant manager in Höllriegelskreuth and uncle of Deputy Führer of the Nazi Party Rudolf Hess.: 100
Before and during World War II, all departments of Linde AG were in some way involved in the armaments production: The Heylandt-Gesellschaft für Apparatebau supplied the German rocket program, other branches produced welding equipment and engines for the armaments industry.: 111 In 1941, Linde manufactured oxygen and helium installations for IG Farben at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Three further planned installations were not installed due to the course of war.: 113–114 According to estimates of the company for mid-1944, between 400 and 500 people were used as forced labourers in production plants.: 115 Although the number may be overstated, the company claimed that 75% of its production facilities were destroyed during the war.: 126
Linde Air Products, since 1917 part of Union Carbide, sued another company in 1950 for violating its patent on a welding process by simply substituting a similar material. In Graver Tank & Manufacturing Co. v. Linde Air Products Co., the United States Supreme Court established the doctrine of equivalents which found that, while not in the literal scope of the patent, the concept discovered by Linde was still being unfairly encroached upon without compensation.
In 1989, the company acquired Lansing Bagnall, a British forklift manufacturer.
In 1996, the company acquired the rights to the Linde name from Praxair.
In March 2007, the BOC Edwards semiconductor equipment business was sold to private equity firm CCMP Capital for €685m. Also in March 2007, eight air separation units and related bulk gas business, with about 300 employees, were sold to Airgas for $495 million in cash.
In June 2011, PT Linde Indonesia, a subsidiary of Linde, announced its plan to build an air separation plant worth Rp.1 trillion ($117.33 million) in Cilegon, Banten to supply industrial gas to PT Krakatau Steel's steel plant.
In December, the company acquired homecare company Calea France SAS.
In February 2016, Lincare Holdings acquired American HomePatient, Inc.
In December 2016, Linde Korea completed the acquisition of Air Liquide Korea's industrial merchant & electronics and liquid bulk air gases divisions, based in South Korea.
In July 2018, the company agreed to sell certain business in North and South American assets to Messer Group and CVC Capital Partners for $3.3 billion to gain regulator approval for the Praxair merger.
On 31 October 2018, the merger was completed except finalising divestitures required by the respective antitrust authorities. On 1 March 2019 the company completed divestitures required by US antitrust authorities.
On 9 August 2019 Linde partnered with CarbonCure Technologies.
In October 2019, the company invested £28 million in ITM Power, a British manufacturer of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers for hydrogen production via electro-chemical splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen.
In January 2020, the company sold its LifeGas division.
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- Official website
- Business data for Linde plc: