Lindley system

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An early system of plant taxonomy, the Lindley system, was first published by John Lindley as An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany (Natural History, 1830).[1] This was a minor modification of that of de Candolle (1813).[2] He developed this further over a number of publications, including the Nixus plantarum (1833)[3][4] and a second edition of Natural History (1836).[5] [6] He also expanded his ideas on Exogens in his entry of that name in the Penny Cyclopedia (1838).[7][8] In 1839 he revised his division of the plant kingdom into classes in an article in the Botanical Register.[9][10] Lindley's system culminated in the three editions of his Vegetable Kingdom (1846, 1847, 1853)[11][12][13]

The schema of the Natural History is shown on pages xxxv and xxxvii-xlviii.[14] In the Vegetable Kingdom,[13] the schema for the first edition is on pp. lv–lxviii. The third and final edition was published in 1853,[13] with the schema on p. lv.[15] Cross references from Natural History to Vegetable Kingdom in [Square brackets].


An Introduction to the Natural History of Botany (1830)[edit]

Schema p. xxxv,[16]
Outline p. xxxvii
Index p. 345
Genera organised into Orders (referred to as Tribes, in English)

Vegetable Kingdom (1846–1853)[edit]

Summary of previous systems p. xxxv (see Notes)
Schema for 1846 and 1853 p. lv[15]
Genera organised into Alliances and Orders

Flowerless plants (Asexual)

Flowering plants (Sexual)

Natural History orders[edit]

Class I: Vasculares: Flowering plants[edit]

p. 1

Subclass I: Exogenae (Dicotyledons)[edit]

Subclass II: Endogenae (Monocotyledons)[edit]

Endogenae, or Monocotyledonous Plants p. 251[19]

(May be Tripetaloideous, Hexapetaloideous or Spadiceous)[21]

Class II: Cellulares: Flowerless plants[edit]

p. 307

Vegetable Kingdom alliances and orders[edit]

Flowerless plants[edit]

p. 5

Class I: Thallogens[edit]

3 Alliances

Class II: Acrogens[edit]

3 Alliances p. 51

Flowering plants[edit]

Class III: Rhizogens[edit]

3 orders p. 83

Class IV: Endogens (Monocotyledons)[edit]

11 Alliances p. 95

Class V: Dictyogens[edit]

5 orders p. 211

Class VI: Gymnogens[edit]

4 orders p. 221

Class VII: Exogens[edit]

4 subclasses

  • Sub-class I: Diclinous Exogens 8 alliances p. 249
  • Sub-class II: Hypogynous Exogens 13 alliances p. 326
  • Sub-class III: Perigynous Exogens 10 alliances p. 523
  • Sub-class IV: Epigynous Exogens 7 alliances p. 688


His final schemata is illustrated in the Vegetable Kingdom, his last work, on pages lv-lxvii.[27] In this work he also reviews all his previous publications relative to the many known systems published at that time.