Line of succession to the former throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was unified with the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. The headship of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies has been disputed since the death of claimant Prince Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria on 7 January 1960 between Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria and his descendants and Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro and his descendants. The two current claimants to the former realm of the Two Sicilies are Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, both descended in the male line from Charles III of Spain, who obtained the crowns of Naples and Sicily and forged them into one hereditary monarchy.

As the Grand Magistry of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George is extant and traditionally descends with the headship of the Two Sicilies dynasty, that organisation continues to be divided into rival chivalric orders with members espousing allegiance to one or the other entity.

King Charles ordained that the Spanish crown would be reserved for his eldest son's heirs, while his "Italian sovereignty" would descend to the heirs of his next eldest son. The succession law of the defunct Kingdom of the Two Sicilies as outlined in Charles III's Pragmatic of 6 October 1759 was semi-Salic, conferring that realm on King Charles's third son who became Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (the eldest son was mentally incompetent, while the second was, as Prince of Asturias, the heir apparent to Spain).[1] It further stipulated that in future heirs male of the body of Charles III or, failing males, the female nearest in kinship to the last male in his descent or, that lineage also failing, the heirs male of Charles III's brothers, were to inherit the Neapolitan-Sicilian throne.[1] However, the Pragmatic also required that the crowns of Spain and of the Two Sicilies were henceforth never to be combined, even if the Italian branch became entirely extinct, leaving only the Spanish Bourbons to inherit.[1] In such a case, the Two Sicilies throne was always to be transferred to the next male dynast in the order of succession who was neither the monarch of Spain nor his heir, the Prince of Asturias.[1]

Original claim (1861–1960)[edit]

Succession[edit]

Claimants[edit]

Name
Reign
Portrait Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim
Francis II
20 March 1861

27 December 1894
Francesco II of the Two Sicilies.JPG 16 January 1836
Naples, Two Sicilies

Son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
and Maria Cristina of Savoy
Maria Sophie of Bavaria
Bari Cathedral
3 February 1859
1 daughter
27 December 1894
Aged 58
Arco, Trentino, Austria-Hungary
Son of Ferdinand II
Deposed king of the Two Sicilies
Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
(Alphonse I)
27 December 1894

26 May 1934
Afonso de Bourbon-Duas Sicílias.jpg 28 March 1841
Caserta, Two Sicilies

Son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
and Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Church in Rome
8 June 1868
12 children
26 May 1934
Aged 93
Cannes, France
4th son of Ferdinand II
Half-brother of Francis II
Prince Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria
(Ferdinand III)
26 May 1934

7 January 1960
Ferdinando Pius.jpg 25 July 1869
Rome, Papal States

Son of Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
and Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Maria of Bavaria
Munich Frauenkirche
31 May 1897
6 children
7 January 1960
Aged 90
Lindau, Bavaria, Germany
1st son of Alfonso, Count of Caserta

Calabrian claim (1960–2014)[edit]

Succession[edit]

Claimants[edit]

Name
Reign
Portrait Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim
Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria
(Alphonse II)
7 January 1960

3 February 1964
Infante Alfonso, claimed Duke of Calabria.jpg 30 November 1901
Madrid, Spain

Son of Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
and Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
Alicia of Bourbon-Parma
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
13 April 1936
3 children
3 February 1964
Aged 62
Madrid, Spain
Grandson of Alfonso, Count of Caserta
Nephew of Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria
Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria
(Charles I)
3 February 1964

5 October 2015
NAC NAC web 20.jpg 16 January 1938
Lausanne, France

Son of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria
and Alicia of Bourbon-Parma
Anne of Orléans
St's Peter Church, Dreux
12 May 1965
5 children
5 October 2015
Aged 77
Retuerta del Bullaque, Ciudad Real, Spain
1st son of Alfonso, Duke of Calabria
Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria
(Peter I)
5 October 2015

25 January 2014
No image.svg 16 October 1968
Age 48
Madrid, Spain

Son of Carlos, Duke of Calabria
and Anne of Orléans
Sofia Landaluce y Melgarejo
Almudena Cathedral
30 March 2001
7 children
1st son of Carlos, Duke of Calabria

Castrian line (1960–2014)[edit]

Succession[edit]

Claimants[edit]

Name
Reign
Portrait Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
(Rainier I)
7 January 1960

13 January 1973
Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro.jpg 3 December 1883
Cannes, France

Son of Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
and Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Maria Carolina Zamoyska
Church in Vyšné Ružbachy, now Slovakia
12 September 1923
2 children
13 January 1973
Aged 89
Lacombe, France
5th son of Alfonso, Count of Caserta
Brother of Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria
Claim based on documents reputed invalid
Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro
(Ferdinand III)
13 January 1973

20 March 2008
No image.svg 28 May 1926
Maciejowice, Poland

Son of Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro
and Maria Carolina Zamoyska
Chantal de Chevron-Villette
Church in Giez, Switzerland
23 July 1949
3 children
20 March 2008
Aged 81
Draguignan, France
Son of Ranieri, Duke of Castro
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro
(Charles I)
20 March 2008

25 January 2014
23 February 1963
Age 54
Saint-Raphaël, France

Son of Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro
and Chantal de Chevron-Villette
Camilla Crociani
Saint-Charles Church, Monaco
31 October 1998
2 daughters
Son of Ferdinand, Duke of Castro

Reunified claim (2014–present)[edit]

Claimants[edit]

On 25 January 2014, representatives of the two rival branches, Prince Carlo (Castro line) and Prince Pedro, then Duke of Noto (Calabria line), jointly signed a pledge of partial reconciliation.[3] The document recognised both branches as members of the same house, committed both to pursue further reconciliation and concord, meanwhile recognising the titles then claimed by each branch.[4]

At the Holy Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica celebrated in Rome on 14 May 2016, during the International Pilgrimage of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George to Rome and Vatican City, Prince Carlo made public his decision to change the rules of succession. This change was made in order to make the rules of succession compatible with international and European law, prohibiting any discrimination between men and women. The rule of absolute primogeniture would henceforth apply to his direct descendants, his elder daughter being recognized as heiress apparent.[2] Prince Pedro publicly objected that Prince Carlo's declaration violated the terms of their reconciliation agreement, to which Carlo replied that further "destabilisation" could lead to termination of the 2014 pact.[5]

Name
Reign
Portrait Birth Marriage(s)
Issue
Death Claim
Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro
(Charles I)
25 January 2014

Incumbent
23 February 1963
Age 54
Saint-Raphaël, France

Son of Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro
and Chantal de Chevron-Villette
Camilla Crociani
Saint-Charles Church, Monaco
31 October 1998
2 daughters
Son of Ferdinand, Duke of Castro
Claim recognized by a signed agreement

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The Two Sicilies and Constantinian Order Successions: Commentary and Documents. Madrid, Spain: Grand Chancellery, Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. 1998. pp. 2–5, 13, 15–18, 21–25. 
  2. ^ a b c New Rules of Succession decreed for the Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies
  3. ^ "Riconciliazione in Casa Borbone: unità per l’Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio?". Notiziario Araldico. 25 January 2014. 
  4. ^ "Borbone: Finalmente la riconciliazione". Prliament of the Two Sicilies. 25 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Gigi Del Fiore (30 May 2016). "Pedro, l'abusivo spagnolo". Dagospia. 

See also[edit]