LineageOS

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LineageOS
LineageOS Wordmark.svg
LineageOS 16.0 home screen.png
LineageOS 16.0 home screen
DeveloperLineageOS open-source community
Written inC (core), C++ (some third party libraries), Java (UI)
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateActive
Source modelOpen source
Latest release
Latest preview16.0 (March 1, 2019; 9 months ago (2019-03-01)) [±]
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Marketing targetFirmware replacement for Android mobile devices
Available in
Update methodOver-the-air (OTA), ROM flashing
Package managerAPK-based
Platformsarm, arm64, x86, x86-64
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
Default user interfaceStock
LicenseApache 2,[2] MIT,[3] and other licenses[4]
Preceded byCyanogenMod CyanogenOS
Official websitewww.lineageos.org

LineageOS is a free and open-source operating system for set-top boxes, smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. It is the successor to the custom ROM CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016 when Cyanogen Inc. announced it was discontinuing development and shut down the infrastructure behind the project.[5][6] Since Cyanogen Inc. retained the rights to the Cyanogen name, the project rebranded its fork as LineageOS.[7]

LineageOS was officially launched on 24 December 2016, with the source code available on GitHub.[8] As with all versions of Android, operating system releases are specific to a single model. Since its launch, LineageOS development builds are available for more than 185 phone models[9] with over 1.7 million active installs,[10] having doubled its user base in the months February–March 2017.[11]

Background[edit]

CyanogenMod (often abbreviated "CM") was a popular[12] open-source operating system for smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. Although only a subset of total CyanogenMod users elected to report their use of the firmware,[13] as of 23 March 2015, some reports indicated over 50 million people running CyanogenMod on their phones.[12][14] It was also frequently used as a starting point by developers of other ROMs.[citation needed]

In 2013, the founder, Steve Kondik, obtained venture funding under the name Cyanogen Inc. to allow commercialization of the project.[15][16] In his view, the company did not capitalize on the project's success and in 2016 he either left or was forced out[17][18] as part of a corporate restructure which involved a change of CEO, closure of offices and projects, and cessation of services.[19] The code itself, being both open source and popular, was quickly forked under the new name LineageOS and efforts began to resume development as a community project.

CyanogenMod offered a number of features and options not available in the official firmware distributed by most mobile device vendors. Features supported by CyanogenMod included native theme support,[20] FLAC audio codec support, a large Access Point Name list, Privacy Guard (per-application permission management application), support for tethering over common interfaces, CPU overclocking and other performance enhancements, root access, soft buttons and other "tablet tweaks," toggles in the notification pull-down (such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and satellite navigation), and other interface enhancements. Many of the features from CyanogenMod were later integrated into the official Android code base. Its developers said that CyanogenMod did not contain spyware or bloatware.[21][22] CyanogenMod was also said to perform better and be more reliable than official firmware releases.[23]

Development[edit]

As CyanogenMod, the LineageOS project is developed by many device-specific maintainers and uses Gerrit for its code review process. It also retained the old versioning format (for example, Android 7.1 is LineageOS 14.1).

Prior to the official launch of LineageOS, many developers from XDA had already developed unofficial versions of LineageOS from the source code.

  • On 22 January 2017, the first 14.1 and 13.0 official builds started to be made available, following the official announcement in a blog post.[24]
  • On 11 February 2018, the 13.0 builds were stopped,[25] while the source code remains available and security fixes are still accepted on Gerrit.
  • On 26 February 2018, the first 15.1 official builds started to be available on certain devices, following official announcement in a blog post.[26] The 14.1 versions of Lineage OS were to remain in active development, but without feature advancements.
  • On 24 February 2019, the 14.1 builds were stopped and 15.1 builds moved to a weekly cadence[27]
  • On 1 March 2019, the first 16.0 official builds started to be available, following official announcement[28]. The 15.1 branch remains in active development, but without feature advancements.

All the released builds are signed with LineageOS' private keys.[24]

Builds were released on a weekly basis until 12 November 2018, when the release cycle for devices has changed: the latest LineageOS branch is built daily, with devices receiving a "nightly" OTA update, while devices on the older branch are were moved to a weekly release cycle.[29]

Community[edit]

LineageOS allows the community to get involved with the development in various ways. Gerrit is used for the code review process of both the operating system and the infrastructure.

The wiki, containing information regarding installation, support, and development of LineageOS, is also open to contributions through Gerrit. Other Lineage platforms include Crowdin for managing translations, Gitlab Issues for bug tracking, and a stats page, which displays the number of active installations from users which opt-in to report this statistic. There is also an official subreddit, r/lineageos, and two IRC channels hosted on Freenode (#lineageos and #lineageos-dev).

During August 2017 the LineageOS team held a Summer Survey[30] in which they asked users for feedback to improve the development of the operating system. The results were published[31] in October and, according to the team, they used the gathered data to improve the upcoming LineageOS 15 release. The second Summer Survey was conducted in August 2018.[32]

As a response to one of the main suggestions received during their first public survey, LineageOS launched a section on their blog titled "LineageOS Engineering Blog" where Lineage maintainers and developers can contribute articles discussing advanced technical information pertaining to Android development.[33]

LineageOS is also known for posting a "regularly irregular review"[34] on its blog in which the active development of the work is discussed.

Version history[edit]

Version AOSP version First build release date Last build release date Support
Old version, no longer supported: 13.0 6.0.1
(Marshmallow)
20 December 2016 as CM
22 January 2017 as LOS
11 February 2018 Unsupported
Old version, no longer supported: 14.1 7.1.2
(Nougat)
9 November 2016 as CM
22 January 2017 as LOS
24 February 2019[35] Unsupported
Older version, yet still supported: 15.1 8.1.0
(Oreo)
26 February 2018 (Current) Supported
Current stable version: 16.0 9.0.0
(Pie)
1 March 2019[36] (Current) Supported
Future release: 17.0 10.0.0
(Android 10)
Unofficially Released for limited devices (N/A) (N/A)

Preinstalled apps[edit]

LineageOS includes many essential and useful apps, but like its predecessor, CyanogenMod, it is free from unnecessary software often pre-installed by a phone's manufacturer or carrier that is considered to be bloatware.[37][21]

Current

  • AudioFX – Audio optimizer with presets to alter the listening experience.
  • Browser – A lightweight browser that relies on the System Webview, for low-end devices, also known as Jelly.
  • Calculator – which resembles a four-function calculator and offers some more advanced functions.
  • Calendar – Calendar functionality with Day, Week, Month, Year or Agenda views.
  • Camera – Dependent on device specification will take video or photos, including panoramic. It can also be used to read QR codes. This app is also known as Snap.
  • Clock – World clock, countdown timer, stopwatch and alarms.
  • Contacts – Phonebook for numbers and email addresses.
  • cLock - A weather widget.
  • Email – Email client that handles POP3, IMAP and Exchange.
  • Files – A simple file manager to move, copy and rename files on internal storage or SD card.
  • FlipFlap – An app for smart flip covers, only included on select devices.
  • FM Radio - An app for listening to FM radio broadcasts, included on devices with an FM tuner.
  • Gallery – Organize photos and videos into a timeline or albums for easy viewing.
  • Messaging – SMS messaging.
  • Music – A simple music player, also known as Eleven.
  • Phone – for making calls: includes speed dial, phone number lookups and call blocking.
  • Recorder – A screen and/or sound recorder.
  • Trebuchet – A customizable launcher.
  • Terminal - A simple and standard terminal app.

Former

  • Gello - A browser based on Chromium and developed by CyanogenMod. This app is now replaced by Jelly.
  • Yahoo Weather Provider- A weather provider
  • WeatherUnderground Weather Provider- A weather provider
  • Themes - Originally an app by itself, now integrated into the settings app.

Although they are not included in LineageOS as such due to legal issues,[38] users can flash the normal Google apps, including the Google Play Store and Play Apps, with a Zip package, usually referred to as gapps, while installing LineageOS.

Unique features[edit]

LineageOS offers several features that Android Open Source Project (AOSP) does not include. Some of these features are:

Customization features[edit]

  • Button customization – Set custom location for buttons on the navigation bar, or enable on-screen buttons for devices with hardware buttons.
  • Custom Quick-Setting tiles – Quick Setting Tiles such as "Caffeine" preventing the device from sleeping, enabling/disabling Heads Up notifications, "Ambient Display" and "ADB over network" are present to easily toggle frequently accessed settings.
  • Expanded Desktop – Force "immersive mode" in apps that do not enable it initially.
  • LiveDisplay – Adjust color temperature for the time of day.
  • Lock screen customization – The lock screen allows all sorts of customizations, including media cover art, a music visualizer, and double-tap to sleep.
  • Styles – Set a global dark or light theme mode and customize accent colors. This functionality can also be managed automatically by the system based on wallpaper or time of day (in line with LiveDisplay).
  • System Profiles – Enable or disable common settings based on the selected profile (For example, a "Home" profile and a "Work" profile). The profile can be selected either manually or through the use of a "trigger", such as upon connecting to a specific WiFi access point, connecting to a Bluetooth device, or tapping an NFC tag.

Security & privacy features[edit]

  • Custom pattern sizes – In addition to Android's 3x3 pattern size, a 4x4, 5x5 or 6x6 size can be used.
  • PIN scramble – For users securing their device with a PIN, the layout can be scrambled each time the device locks to make it difficult for people to figure out your lock by looking over your shoulder.
  • Privacy guard – Allow the user to fine-tune what permissions are granted to each application. For some permissions, it's possible to set a manual approval each time the permission is requested. It's also possible to find out how often apps use a specific permission.
  • Protected Apps – Hide specific apps behind a secure lock. This works hand-in-hand with Trebuchet; the app's icon is removed from the launcher, and "secure folders" can be created to easily access these applications. A pattern is used to lock these apps.
  • Some "sensitive numbers", such as abuse support numbers, are not included in the call log for privacy.[39]
  • Trust - helps to keep the device secure and protects privacy.

Developers & power user features[edit]

  • Lineage platform SDK – a set of APIs for app developers to integrate their apps with LineageOS specific features such as System Profiles, Styles and Weather.[40]
  • (Optional) Root – Permit apps to function with root access to perform advanced tasks. This requires flashing from Recovery either LineageOS's root add-on or a third-party implementation such as Magisk.
  • Telephone call recorder, not available in all countries, due to legal restrictions.
  • Weather providers – Display the weather in widgets or apps using a weather provider. This functionality is not included by default; a weather provider must be downloaded from the LineageOS Downloads website. App developers can create both providers and consumers of weather data.

Trust interface[edit]

As LineageOS evolved through development, the Trust interface was introduced for all the LineageOS 15.1 builds released since 12 June 2018.[41] The interface can be found on supported devices under Security and Privacy tab under the Settings option, and enables the user to "get an overview of the status of core security features and explanations on how to act to make sure the device is secure and the data is private".

Additionally, while carrying out any action on the device, the trust icon is displayed, notifying the user that the action is safe.

Supported devices[edit]

The number of devices supported by LineageOS increases with time, being 105 for v15.1 and v16 as of August 25, 2019.[9][42] Official builds on currently supported development branches are labeled as either "nightly", "weekly", or "monthly". For the first two months of the project, parallel experimental builds were also produced, allowing in-place upgrades from previous CyanogenMod installations and easing migration to LineageOS.[42][43][44][45]

Criticism and reception[edit]

2018 April Fools' prank[edit]

LineageOS was criticized for a deceptive April Fool's prank included with some April 2018 builds.[46]

During the first week of April 2018 LineageOS released new builds with the "LOSGenuine" prank that informed unaware users of the software possibly being counterfeit via a persistent notification (which could not be disabled unless the user ran the following command in a root shell):

setprop persist.lineage.nofool true

When the notification was tapped, the software claimed that the device was "uncertified" and needed to mine "LOSCoins", which were a virtual currency and could not actually be spent. Affected builds also had a preinstalled "Wallet" app that showed the current balance of LOSCoins.[46]

Many users mistook the prank for actual malware, and others reportedly found it to be in "poor taste". It was especially criticized for being too "late" for an April Fool's joke, since many users didn't receive the update until days later, making the jest less obvious. On 10 April 2018, LineageOS team director ciwrl issued an official apology for the deceptive prank.[47][48]

Forks[edit]

Replicant is a completely free software variant of LineageOS, with all kernel blobs and non-free drivers removed.

As a response to the refusal for several reasons of support for signature spoofing in official builds,[49] a LineageOS fork with microG[50] services included, known as "LineageOS for microG", was created. The project ships custom builds of LineageOS with the required patch and native F-Droid support, bundled with the MicroG project's free re-implementation of proprietary Gapps.[51][52] In other respects it follows upstream, shipping OTA updates every seven days.[53]

/e/ is a fork of LineageOS created by Gaël Duval that is intended to be "free from Google". It replaces Google Play Services with MicroG, a free and open-source implementation of Google APIs.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ LineageOS. "Changelog 22 - Pushing Pie, Bracing Builds and Careful Calculator". lineageos.org.
  2. ^ "android_vendor_lineage_LICENSE". LineageOS. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  3. ^ "www_LICENSE at master · LineageOS/www". LineageOS. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Other licenses can be viewed per repo on GitHub under NOTICE/LICENSE files". LineageOS. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  5. ^ Heater, Brian (24 December 2016). "After having its infrastructure shuttered, CyanogenMod will live on as Lineage". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  6. ^ "A fork in the road". CyanogenMod. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  7. ^ Levy, Nat (26 December 2016). "Open-source Lineage project rises from Cyanogen's ashes as Android maker abruptly shuts down services". GeekWire. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  8. ^ Gallagher, Sean Gallagher (27 December 2016). "Cyanogen Inc. shuts down CyanogenMod in Christmas bloodbath". Ars Technica. Ars Technica.
  9. ^ a b "LineageOS/hudson build targets". GitHub. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  10. ^ "LineageOS Statistics". Stats.lineageos.org. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  11. ^ "LineageOS now has one million users, OnePlus One is the most popular device". Androidauthority.com. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  12. ^ a b Helft, Miguel. "Meet Cyanogen, The Startup That Wants To Steal Android From Google". Forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  13. ^ Soyars, Chris (21 March 2011). "CM Stats explanation". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  14. ^ CyanogenMod [@CyanogenMod] (12 January 2012). "CyanogenMod just passed 1 million active users" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter.
  15. ^ "Lineage Android Distribution". LineageOS. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  16. ^ Reed, Brad (18 September 2013). "With $7 million in funding, Cyanogen aims to take on Windows Phone". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  17. ^ Tal, Lior (30 November 2016). "Update on Cyanogen". Cyanogen Inc. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  18. ^ Ruddock, David (28 November 2016). "Cyanogen Inc. will shutter Seattle office by end of year, more layoffs happening, Kondik could be out". Android Police. Retrieved 24 January 2017. Kondik was removed from the company's board, allegedly
  19. ^ CyanogenMod [@CyanogenMod] (25 December 2016). "UPDATE: As of this morning we have lost DNS and Gerrit is now offline — with little doubt as a reaction to our blog post yesterday. Goodbye" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 December 2016 – via Twitter.
  20. ^ "Themes Support". CyanogenMod. 19 February 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  21. ^ a b "Cyanogenmod promises to never include apps like Carrier IQ". Computer-Howto. 5 December 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016.
  22. ^ "Video: CyanogenMod founder Steve Kondik talks Android". UnleashThePhones.com. 6 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  23. ^ "About". CyanogenMod.org. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  24. ^ a b OS, Lineage. "Update & Build Prep". Lineageos.org. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Gerrit Code Review". review.lineageos.org. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  26. ^ LineageOS. "Changelog 16 - Smart Styles, Treble is trouble and Omfg Oreo". www.lineageos.org. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  27. ^ "Prepare for 16.0". review.lineageos.org. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  28. ^ LineageOS. "Changelog 22 - Pushing Pie, Bracing Builds and Careful Calculator". lineageos.org. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  29. ^ "Changelog 21 - Nightlies Now, Improved Infrastructure and Precious Pie".
  30. ^ LineageOS. "Summer Survey". Lineageos.org. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  31. ^ LineageOS. "Summer Survey - Results". Lineageos.org. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  32. ^ LineageOS. "Summer Survey 2 - Attack of the feedbacks". lineageos.org. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  33. ^ "Trust me, I'm an engineer". LineageOS. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  34. ^ LineageOS. "Changelog 13 - Wonderful Webviews, Pedantic Permissions and Disappearing Dates". Lineageos.org. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Prepare for 16.0 · LineageOS/hudson@b8cf202". GitHub. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  36. ^ "The real lineage-16.0 ship commit".
  37. ^ Siddharth Chauhan (7 February 2017). "How to: Install Lineage OS on your smartphone". In.pcmag.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017. As far as user interface goes, Lineage OS presents a clean and bloatware free stock Vanilla Android experience but still has some tricks up its sleeve.
  38. ^ "Google hits Android ROM modder with a cease-and-desist letter". Engadget. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  39. ^ LineageOS. "Changelog 10 - Sensitive numbers and our CVE Tracker". lineageos.org.
  40. ^ LineageOS. "Introducing the LineageSDK". lineageos.org. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  41. ^ LineageOS. "Trust me, I'm an engineer". lineageos.org.
  42. ^ a b "Devices". LineageOS Wiki. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  43. ^ "LineageOS Downloads". Archived from the original on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  44. ^ "Update & Build Prep". LineageOS. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  45. ^ Rigg, Jamie (24 January 2017). "The first builds of CyanogenMod successor LineageOS are out". Engadget. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  46. ^ a b "Don't freak out: LineageOS has a very bad and very late April Fools' joke in latest builds". Android Police. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  47. ^ LineageOS. "An April Apology". lineageos.org. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  48. ^ "LineageOS apologizes for late and 'bad taste' April Fools' joke". Android Police. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  49. ^ "Gerrit Code Review". review.lineageos.org. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  50. ^ "microG provides a free version of the set of APIs equivalent to Google’s proprietary core libraries and applications."
  51. ^ online, heise. "LineageOS-Ableger vermeidet Google-Code". heise online.
  52. ^ "What is MicroG? How to Install MicroG?". 26 November 2017.
  53. ^ "LineageOS for microG, FAQ".
  54. ^ Filippone, Dominique (19 September 2018). "Eelo : l'OS mobile open source de Gaël Duval sort en bêta - Le Monde Informatique". LeMondeInformatique (in French). Retrieved 4 September 2019.

External links[edit]