Linear A

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Linear A
Linear A cup.png
Script type
(presumed syllabic and ideographic)
Time period
MM IB to LM IIIA 1800–1450 BC[1]
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
Languages'Minoan' (unknown)
Related scripts
Child systems
Linear B, Cypro-Minoan syllabary[2]
Sister systems
Cretan hieroglyphs
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Lina (400), ​Linear A
Unicode alias
Linear A
"U+10600–U+1077F" (PDF).
"Final Accepted Script Proposal" (PDF).

Linear A is a writing system that was used by the Minoans of Crete from 1800 to 1450 BC to write the hypothesized Minoan language or languages. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was succeeded by Linear B, which was used by the Mycenaeans to write an early form of Greek. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. No texts in Linear A have yet been deciphered.

The term linear refers to the fact that the script was written using a stylus to cut lines into a tablet of clay, as opposed to cuneiform, which was written by using a stylus to press wedges into the clay.

Linear A belongs to the group of scripts that evolved independently of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian systems. During the second millennium BC, there were four major branches: Linear A, Linear B, Cypro-Minoan, and Cretan hieroglyphic.[3] In the 1950s, Linear B was deciphered as Mycenaean Greek. Linear B shares many symbols with Linear A, and they may notate similar syllabic values, but neither those nor any other proposed readings lead to a language that scholars can read. The only part of the script that can be read with any certainty is the signs for numbers – which are, however, only known as numerical values; the words for those numbers remain unknown.


Most hypotheses about the Linear A script and Minoan language start with Linear B.

Linear A has hundreds of signs, believed to represent syllabic, ideographic, and semantic values in a manner similar to Linear B. While many of those assumed to be syllabic signs are similar to ones in Linear B, approximately 80% of Linear A's logograms are unique;[4][3] the difference in sound values between Linear A and Linear B signs ranges from 9% to 13%.[5] It primarily appears in the left-to-right direction, but occasionally appears as a right-to-left or boustrophedon script.

Linear A signs may be divided into four categories:

  1. numerals and metrical signs;
  2. phonetic signs;
  3. ligatures and composite signs;
  4. ideograms.


Linear A: signary and numbering according to E. Bennett. Reading of signs is based on Linear B analogs.
*01-*20 *21-*30 *31-*53 *54-*74 *76-*122 *123-*306
Linear A Sign A001.svg DA


Linear A Sign A021.svg QI


Linear A Sign A031.svg SA


Linear A Sign A054.svg WA


Linear A Sign A076.svg RA2 (RJA)


Linear A Sign A123.svg


Linear A Sign A002.svg RO


Linear A Sign A021f.svg


Linear A Sign A034.svg


Linear A Sign A055.svg NU


Linear A Sign A077.svg KA


Linear A Sign A131a.svg


Linear A Sign A003.svg PA


Linear A Sign A021m.svg


Linear A Sign A037.svg TI


Linear A Sign A056.svg PA3


Linear A Sign A078.svg QE


Linear A Sign A131b.svg


Linear A Sign A004.svg TE


Linear A Sign A022.svg MI?


Linear A Sign A038.svg E


Linear A Sign A057.svg JA


Linear A Sign A079.svg WO2?


Linear A Sign A131c.svg


Linear A Sign A005.svg TO


Linear A Sign A022f.svg


Linear A Sign A039.svg PI


Linear A Sign A058.svg SU


Linear A Sign A080.svg MA


Linear A Sign A164.svg


Linear A Sign A006.svg NA


Linear A Sign A022m.svg


Linear A Sign A040.svg WI


Linear A Sign A059.svg TA


Linear A Sign A081.svg KU


Linear A Sign A171.svg


Linear A Sign A007.svg DI


Linear A Sign A023.svg MU


Linear A Sign A041.svg SI


Linear A Sign A060.svg RA


Linear A Sign A082.svg SWA?


Linear A Sign A180.svg


Linear A Sign A008.svg A


Linear A Sign A023m.svg MU


Linear A Sign A044.svg KE


Linear A Sign A061.svg O


Linear A Sign A085.svg AU


Linear A Sign A188.svg


Linear A Sign A009.svg SE


Linear A Sign A024.svg NE


Linear A Sign A045.svg DE


Linear A Sign A065.svg JU


Linear A Sign A086.svg


Linear A Sign A191.svg


Linear A Sign A010.svg U


Linear A Sign A026.svg RU


Linear A Sign A046.svg JE


Linear A Sign A066.svg TA2 (TJA)


Linear A Sign A087.svg TWE


Linear A Sign A301.svg


Linear A Sign A011.svg PO


Linear A Sign A027.svg RE


Linear A Sign A047.svg


Linear A Sign A067.svg KI


Linear A Sign A100.svg


Linear A Sign A302.svg


Linear A Sign A013.svg ME


Linear A Sign A028.svg I


Linear A Sign A049.svg


Linear A Sign A069.svg TU


Linear A Sign A118.svg


Linear A Sign A303.svg


Linear A Sign A016.svg QA2


Linear A Sign A028b.svg


Linear A Sign A050.svg PU


Linear A Sign A070.svg KO


Linear A Sign A120.svg


Linear A Sign A304.svg


Linear A Sign A017.svg ZA


Linear A Sign A029.svg PU2


Linear A Sign A051.svg DU


Linear A Sign A073.svg MI


Linear A Sign A120b.svg


Linear A Sign A305.svg


Linear A Sign A020.svg ZO


Linear A Sign A030.svg NI


Linear A Sign A053.svg RI


Linear A Sign A074.svg ZE


Linear A Sign A122.svg


Linear A Sign A306.svg



Numbers follow a decimal system: units are represented by vertical dashes, tens by horizontal dashes, hundreds by circles, and thousands by circles with rays. The highest number recorded in known Linear A texts is 3000.[citation needed] There are special symbols to indicate fractions and weights. Specific signs that coincide with numerals are regarded as fractions;[6] these sign combinations are known as klasmatograms.

Integers can be read and the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are quite straightforward, similarly to Roman numerals.[7]

Aegean numerals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
𐄇 𐄈 𐄉 𐄊 𐄋 𐄌 𐄍 𐄎 𐄏
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
𐄐 𐄑 𐄒 𐄓 𐄔 𐄕 𐄖 𐄗 𐄘
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
𐄙 𐄚 𐄛 𐄜 𐄝 𐄞 𐄟 𐄠 𐄡
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900


There is a lack of scholarly agreement on fractions.[8][9][10] Corazza et al. (2020) proposed the following values, most of which had been previously proposed:[11]

Proposed values of fraction glyphs[11]
Abbreviation Glyph Value
J 𐝆 12
E 𐝃 14
B 𐝁 15
D 𐝂 16
F 𐝄 18
K 𐝇 110
H 𐝅 116?
L2 𐝉 120
A 𐝀 124?
L3 𐝊 130
L4 𐝋 140
L6 𐝌 160
W 𐝍 = BB? (25)
X 𐝎 = AA? (112)
Y 𐝏 ?[a]
Ω 𐝐 ?[a]

Other fractions are composed by addition: the common 𐝕 JE and 𐝓 DD are 34 and 13 (26), 𐝒 BB = 25, EF = 38, etc. (and indeed B 15 looks like it might derive from KK 210). Corazza et al. (2020) propose that the hapax legomenon, glyph L 𐝈, is spurious.

Several of these values are supported by Linear B. Although Linear B used a different numbering system, several of the Linear A fractions were adopted as fractional units of measurement. For example, Linear B 𐝓 DD and 𐝎 (presumably AA) are 13 and 112 of a lana, while 𐝇 K is 110 of the main unit for dry weight.[11]


Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini.
Linear A tablet, Chania Archaeological Museum.

Linear A has been unearthed chiefly on Crete, but also at other sites in Greece, as well as Turkey and Israel. The extant corpus, comprising some 1,427 specimens totalling 7,362 to 7,396 signs, if scaled to standard type, would fit easily on two sheets of paper.[12] Linear A has been written on various media, such as stone offering tables and vessels, gold and silver hairpins, roundels, and ceramics.[13][14][15] A number of the inscriptions, primarily on tables and vessels, contain a "libation formula" which has been much studied.[16][17] A similar construct in Cretan Hieroglyphics, the "Archanes Formula", is the main proposed link to Linear A.[18] The earliest inscriptions of Linear A come from Phaistos, in a layer dated at the end of the Middle Minoan II period: that is, no later than c. 1700 BC. Linear A texts have been found throughout the island of Crete and also on some Aegean islands (Kythera, Kea, Thera, Melos), in mainland Greece (Ayos Stephanos), on the west coast of Asia Minor (Miletus, Troy), and in the Levant (Tel Haror).[19]


The main discoveries of Linear A tablets, many fragmentary, have been at Hagia Triada, Zakros, and Khania on Crete:[20]

Inscriptions have been discovered at the following locations on Crete:[21]

Outside Crete[edit]

Linear A tablet from the palace of Zakros, Archeological Museum of Sitia.

Until 1973, only one Linear A tablet had been found outside Crete (on Kea).[25] Since then, other locations have yielded inscriptions.

Most—if not all—inscriptions found outside Crete appear to have been made locally, as indicated by the composition of the substrate and other indications.[25] Also, close analysis of the inscriptions found outside Crete indicates the use of a script that is somewhere between Linear A and Linear B, combining elements from both.

Other Greek islands[edit]

Mainland Greece[edit]

Anatolian Mainland[edit]

A Linear A inscription was said to have been found in southeast Bulgaria.[30] Another, somewhat more solid, find was at Tel Lachish[31] A Minoan graffito found at Tel Haror on a vessel fragment is either Linear A or Cretan hieroglyphs.[32]


Linear A became prominent during the Middle Minoan Period, specifically from 1625 to 1450 BC. It was contemporary with and possibly derived from Cretan hieroglyphs, and may be an ancestor of Linear B. The sequence and the geographical spread of Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A, and Linear B, the three overlapping but distinct writing systems on Bronze Age Crete and the Greek mainland, can be summarized as follows:[33]

Writing system Geographical area Time span[b]
Cretan Hieroglyphic Crete, Samothrace c. 2100 – 1700 BC
Linear A Crete, Aegean islands (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera), and Greek mainland (Laconia) c. 1800 – 1450 BC
Linear B Crete (Knossos), and mainland (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns) c. 1450 – 1200 BC


Archaeologist Arthur Evans named the script "Linear" because its characters consisted simply of lines inscribed in clay, in contrast to the more pictographic characters in Cretan hieroglyphs that were used during the same period.[34]

Several tablets inscribed in signs similar to Linear A were found in the Troad in northwestern Anatolia. While their status is disputed, they may be imports, as there is no evidence of Minoan presence in the Troad. Classification of these signs as a unique Trojan script (proposed by contemporary Russian linguist Nikolai Kazansky) is not accepted by other linguists.

Comparison of Linear A and Linear B[edit]

Minoan inscriptions, Linear A script

In 1945, E. Pugliese Carratelli first introduced the classification of Linear A and Linear B parallels. However, in 1961, W. C. Brice modified the Carratelli system that was based on a wider range of Linear A sources, but Brice did not suggest Linear B equivalents to the Linear A signs. Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier introduced in the 1985 Recueil des inscriptions en linéaire A (GORILA), based on E.L Bennett's standard numeration of the signs of Linear B, introduced a joint numeration of the Linear A and B signs.[35]


The majority of signs in the Linear A script appear to have graphical equivalents in the Linear B syllabary. Comparison of the Hagia Triada tablets HT 95 and HT 86 shows that they contain identical lists of words and some kind of phonetic alteration. Scholars who approached Linear A with the phonetic values of Linear B produced a series of identical words. The Linear B–Linear A parallels: ku-ku-da-ra, pa-i-to, ku-mi-na, di-de-ro →di-de-ru, qa-qa-ro→qa-qa-ru, a-ra-na-ro→a-ra-na-re.[35] Though identical, some of these words, such as ka-pa, are used in much different ways.[36]

Theories regarding the language[edit]

Linear A incised on a jug, also found in Akrotiri.

It is difficult to evaluate a given analysis of Linear A as there is little point of reference for reading its inscriptions. The simplest approach to decipherment may be to presume that the values of Linear A match more or less the values given to the deciphered Linear B script, used for Mycenaean Greek.[37]


In 1957, Bulgarian scholar Vladimir I. Georgiev published his Le déchiffrement des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The decipherment of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A") stating that Linear A contains Greek linguistic elements.[38] Georgiev then published another work in 1963, titled Les deux langues des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The two languages of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A"), suggesting that the language of the Hagia Triada tablets was Greek but that the rest of the Linear A corpus was in Hittite-Luwian.[38][39] In December 1963, Gregory Nagy of Harvard University developed a list of Linear A and Linear B terms based on the assumption "that signs of identical or similar shape in the two scripts will represent similar or identical phonetic values"; Nagy concluded that the language of Linear A bears "Greek-like" and Indo-European elements.[40] Michael Ventris' decipherment of Linear B in 1952 suggests an old form of Greek: it is derived from Linear A. Therefore, we can assume that the signs related to the Linear A express the same value as the Linear B. In all Linear B values for related words give a large number of identical forms or identical root forms, but alternate with the final vowel, or almost identical forms among linear texts, mainly those of Hagia Triada.

Extracting conclusions or arguments from a simple morphology can hardly be considered methodologically satisfactory. Yves Duhoux in the "Linear A as Greek" discussion at AEGEANET in March 1998:[35]

I would like to remind you of some basic facts related to the Greekness of Linear A's language: (1) The word for "total" is different in Linear A and in Linear B: LB to - so(- de); LA > B ku-ro. (2) The Linear B language is significantly less "prefixing" than Linear A. (3) Votive Linear A texts, where we are pretty sure to have variant forms of the same "word", show morphological (I mean: grammatical) features totally different from Linear B. The conclusion must be that even if one can find some casual resemblances between words in both languages (remember this MUST statistically happen: e.g. English and Persian use the same word "bad" to express the meaning of BAD, although it is proven that both words have no genetic relation at all), they are probably structurally different.

Anatolian languages[edit]

Since the late 1950s, some scholars have suggested that the Linear A language could be an Anatolian language.[41]


Luwian Hieroglyphs

Palmer (1958) put forward a theory, based on Linear B phonetic values, suggesting that Linear A language could be related closely to Luwian.[41] The theory, however, failed to gain universal support for the following reasons:[according to whom?]

  • There is no remarkable resemblance between Minoan and Hitto-Luwian morphology.
  • None of the existing theories of the origin of Hitto-Luwian peoples and their migration to Anatolia (either from the Balkans or from the Caucasus) are related to Crete.
  • There was a lack of direct contact between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete; the latter was never mentioned in Hitto-Luwian inscriptions. Small states located along the western coast of ancient Asia Minor were natural barriers between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete.
  • There were major differences in material culture between the Hitto-Luwian and Minoan civilizations.

There are recent works focused on the Luwian connection, not in terms of the Minoan language being Anatolian, but rather in terms of possible borrowings from Luwian, including the origin of the writing system itself.[42] It has been suggested that "Hittite and Luwian cognates often reappear in Linear A".[43]


In an article from 2001, Margalit Finkelberg, Professor of Classics emerita at Tel Aviv University, suggested a "high degree of correspondence between the phonological and morphological system of Minoan and that of Lycian" and proposed that "the language of Linear A is either the direct ancestor of Lycian or a closely related idiom."[35][44]

Semitic languages[edit]

Cyrus H. Gordon, having earlier pointed out that some Linear A words had Semitic roots, first proposed in 1966–1969 that the texts contained Semitic vocabulary that was based on the lexical items such as kull-, meaning 'all' (Akkadian kalu, kullatu, Hebrew kol).[45][46][3] Gordon uses morphological evidence to suggest that u- serves as a prefix in Linear A like Semitic copula u-. However, Gordon's copula u- is based on an incomplete word, and even if some of Gordon's identifications were true, a complete case for a Semitic language has not yet been built.[3]


In 2001, the journal Ugarit-Forschungen published the article "The First Inscription in Punic—Vowel Differences in Linear A and B" by Jan Best, claiming to demonstrate how and why Linear A notates an archaic form of Phoenician.[47] This was a continuation of attempts by Cyrus Gordon in finding connections between Minoan and West Semitic languages.


Another recent interpretation, based on the frequencies of the syllabic signs and on complete palaeographic comparative studies, suggests that the Minoan Linear A language belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages. Studies by Hubert La Marle include a presentation of the morphology of the language, avoid the complete identification of phonetic values between Linear A and B, and also avoid comparing Linear A with Cretan hieroglyphs.[48] La Marle uses the frequency counts to identify the type of syllables written in Linear A, and takes into account the problem of loanwords in the vocabulary.[48]

However, La Marle's interpretation of Linear A has been subject to some criticism; it was rejected by John Younger of the University of Kansas who showed that La Marle had invented at will erroneous and arbitrary new transcriptions, based on resemblances with many different script systems (as Phoenician, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Hieroglyphic Hittite, Ethiopian, Cypro-Minoan, etc.), ignoring established evidence and internal analysis, while for some words La Marle proposes religious meanings inventing names of gods and rites.[49] La Marle made a rebuttal in "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A" in 2010.[50]


Italian scholar Giulio M. Facchetti attempted to link Linear A to the Tyrrhenian language family comprising Etruscan, Rhaetic, and Lemnian. This family is reasoned to be a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substratum of the 2nd millennium BC, sometimes referred to as Pre-Greek. Facchetti proposed some possible similarities between the Etruscan language and ancient Lemnian, and other Aegean languages like Minoan.[51]

Michael Ventris, who (with John Chadwick) successfully deciphered Linear B, also believed in a link between Minoan and Etruscan.[52] The same perspective is supported by S. Yatsemirsky in Russia and Raymond A. Brown.[53][54]

Other languages[edit]

Monti put forward a Hurrian-Urartian hypothesis based on morphematic elements.[55] An Indo-European hypothesis was proposed by Witczak and Zawiasa based on an analysis of the combinatory data, mostly in libation formulas.[56][57]

Attempts at decipherment of single words[edit]

Some researchers suggest that a few words or word elements may be recognized, without (yet) enabling any conclusion about relationship with other languages. In general, they use analogy with Linear B in order to propose phonetic values of the syllabic sounds.[58] John Younger, in particular, thinks that place names usually appear in certain positions in the texts, and notes that the proposed phonetic values often correspond to known place names as given in Linear B texts (and sometimes to modern Greek names). For example, he proposes that three syllables, read as KE-NI-SO, might be the indigenous form of Knossos.[59] Likewise, in Linear A, MA+RU is suggested to mean wool, and to correspond both to a Linear B pictogram with this meaning, and to the classical Greek word μαλλός with the same meaning (in that case a loan word from Minoan).[4]


The Linear A alphabet (U+10600–U+1077F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

Linear A[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1060x 𐘀 𐘁 𐘂 𐘃 𐘄 𐘅 𐘆 𐘇 𐘈 𐘉 𐘊 𐘋 𐘌 𐘍 𐘎 𐘏
U+1061x 𐘐 𐘑 𐘒 𐘓 𐘔 𐘕 𐘖 𐘗 𐘘 𐘙 𐘚 𐘛 𐘜 𐘝 𐘞 𐘟
U+1062x 𐘠 𐘡 𐘢 𐘣 𐘤 𐘥 𐘦 𐘧 𐘨 𐘩 𐘪 𐘫 𐘬 𐘭 𐘮 𐘯
U+1063x 𐘰 𐘱 𐘲 𐘳 𐘴 𐘵 𐘶 𐘷 𐘸 𐘹 𐘺 𐘻 𐘼 𐘽 𐘾 𐘿
U+1064x 𐙀 𐙁 𐙂 𐙃 𐙄 𐙅 𐙆 𐙇 𐙈 𐙉 𐙊 𐙋 𐙌 𐙍 𐙎 𐙏
U+1065x 𐙐 𐙑 𐙒 𐙓 𐙔 𐙕 𐙖 𐙗 𐙘 𐙙 𐙚 𐙛 𐙜 𐙝 𐙞 𐙟
U+1066x 𐙠 𐙡 𐙢 𐙣 𐙤 𐙥 𐙦 𐙧 𐙨 𐙩 𐙪 𐙫 𐙬 𐙭 𐙮 𐙯
U+1067x 𐙰 𐙱 𐙲 𐙳 𐙴 𐙵 𐙶 𐙷 𐙸 𐙹 𐙺 𐙻 𐙼 𐙽 𐙾 𐙿
U+1068x 𐚀 𐚁 𐚂 𐚃 𐚄 𐚅 𐚆 𐚇 𐚈 𐚉 𐚊 𐚋 𐚌 𐚍 𐚎 𐚏
U+1069x 𐚐 𐚑 𐚒 𐚓 𐚔 𐚕 𐚖 𐚗 𐚘 𐚙 𐚚 𐚛 𐚜 𐚝 𐚞 𐚟
U+106Ax 𐚠 𐚡 𐚢 𐚣 𐚤 𐚥 𐚦 𐚧 𐚨 𐚩 𐚪 𐚫 𐚬 𐚭 𐚮 𐚯
U+106Bx 𐚰 𐚱 𐚲 𐚳 𐚴 𐚵 𐚶 𐚷 𐚸 𐚹 𐚺 𐚻 𐚼 𐚽 𐚾 𐚿
U+106Cx 𐛀 𐛁 𐛂 𐛃 𐛄 𐛅 𐛆 𐛇 𐛈 𐛉 𐛊 𐛋 𐛌 𐛍 𐛎 𐛏
U+106Dx 𐛐 𐛑 𐛒 𐛓 𐛔 𐛕 𐛖 𐛗 𐛘 𐛙 𐛚 𐛛 𐛜 𐛝 𐛞 𐛟
U+106Ex 𐛠 𐛡 𐛢 𐛣 𐛤 𐛥 𐛦 𐛧 𐛨 𐛩 𐛪 𐛫 𐛬 𐛭 𐛮 𐛯
U+106Fx 𐛰 𐛱 𐛲 𐛳 𐛴 𐛵 𐛶 𐛷 𐛸 𐛹 𐛺 𐛻 𐛼 𐛽 𐛾 𐛿
U+1070x 𐜀 𐜁 𐜂 𐜃 𐜄 𐜅 𐜆 𐜇 𐜈 𐜉 𐜊 𐜋 𐜌 𐜍 𐜎 𐜏
U+1071x 𐜐 𐜑 𐜒 𐜓 𐜔 𐜕 𐜖 𐜗 𐜘 𐜙 𐜚 𐜛 𐜜 𐜝 𐜞 𐜟
U+1072x 𐜠 𐜡 𐜢 𐜣 𐜤 𐜥 𐜦 𐜧 𐜨 𐜩 𐜪 𐜫 𐜬 𐜭 𐜮 𐜯
U+1073x 𐜰 𐜱 𐜲 𐜳 𐜴 𐜵 𐜶
U+1074x 𐝀 𐝁 𐝂 𐝃 𐝄 𐝅 𐝆 𐝇 𐝈 𐝉 𐝊 𐝋 𐝌 𐝍 𐝎 𐝏
U+1075x 𐝐 𐝑 𐝒 𐝓 𐝔 𐝕
U+1076x 𐝠 𐝡 𐝢 𐝣 𐝤 𐝥 𐝦 𐝧
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Ω is a hapax legomenon, and no researcher has yet determined a value for Y.
  2. ^ Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.


  1. ^ Daniels & Bright 1996, pp. 132.
  2. ^ Palaima 1997, pp. 121–188.
  3. ^ a b c d Packard 1974, Chapter 1: Introduction.
  4. ^ a b Younger, John (2000). "7b. The Script". Linear A texts in phonetic transcription. University of Kansas.
  5. ^ Owens 1999, pp. 23–24 (David Packard, in 1974, calculated a sound-value difference of 10.80% ± 1.80%, Yves Duhoux, in 1989, calculated a sound-value difference of 14.34% ± 1.80% and Gareth Owens, in 1996, calculated a sound-value difference of 9–13%).
  6. ^ Packard 1974, pp. 23–24
  7. ^ Anderson, W. French. “Arithmetical Procedure in Minoan Linear A and in Minoan-Greek Linear B.” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 62, no. 3, 1958, pp. 363–68
  8. ^ Billigmeier, Jon C. “Linear A Fractions: A New Approach.” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 77, no. 1, Archaeological Institute of America, 1973, pp. 61–65,
  9. ^ Bennett, Emmett L.. "Linear A fractional retractation" Kadmos, vol. 19, no. 1, 1980
  10. ^ Schrijver, Peter. "Fractions and food rations in Linear A" Kadmos, vol. 53, no. 1-2, 2014, pp. 1-44
  11. ^ a b c Corazza, Michele; Ferrara, Silvia; Montecchi, Barbara; Tamburini, Fabio; Valério, Miguel (2020). "The mathematical values of fraction signs in the Linear A script: A computational, statistical and typological approach". Journal of Archaeological Science. 125 (105214): 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2020.105214. S2CID 225229514.
  12. ^ Younger, John (2000). "5. Basic statistics". Linear A texts in phonetic transcription. University of Kansas. If there are 4,002 characters (font Times, pitch 12, no spaces) on an 812 × 11 inch sheet of paper with 1 inch margins, all extant Linear A would take up 1.84 pages. ... (14.34 pages for Linear B).
  13. ^ Erik Hallager, "The Minoan Roundel and Other Sealed Documents in the Neopalatial Linear A Administration", Peeters Publishers, 31 Dec 1996 ISBN 9789042924130
  14. ^ Winterstein, Gregoire; Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono; Petrolito, Ruggero; Petrolito, Tommaso (2015). "Minoan linguistic resources: The Linear A digital corpus". Proceedings of the 9th SIGHUM Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH) – via
  15. ^ Brent Davis, Minoan Stone Vessels with Linear A Inscriptions. AEGAEUM, 36. Leuven; Liège: Peeters, 2014. xxiv, 421. ISBN 9789042930971
  16. ^ W. C. Brice, "The Minoan “Libation Formula”", Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 48.1 (1965)
  17. ^ Thomas, Rose. "Some reflections on morphology in the language of the Linear A libation formula" Kadmos, vol. 59, no. 1-2, 2020, pp. 1-23
  18. ^ Ferrara, S., Montecchi, B., & Valério, M. (2021). WHAT IS THE ‘ARCHANES FORMULA’? DECONSTRUCTING AND RECONSTRUCTING THE EARLIEST ATTESTATION OF WRITING IN THE AEGEAN. The Annual of the British School at Athens, 116, pp. 43-62
  19. ^ Woudhuizen, Fred C. (2016). Documents in Minoan Luwian, Semitic, and Pelasgian. Amsterdam: Nederlands Archeologisch Historisch Genootschap. ISBN 9789072067197. OCLC 1027956786.
  20. ^ Schoep 1999, pp. 201–221.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono (January 2014). Linear A and Minoan. The riddle of unknown origins. Linear a and Minoan. The Riddle of Unknown Origins (slides). pp. 3–4. Retrieved 13 July 2020 – via
  22. ^ Hallager, Erik and Andreadaki-Vlazaki, Maria. "Some unpublished Linear A documents from Khania" Kadmos, vol. 57, no. 1-2, 2018, pp. 33-44
  25. ^ a b Finkelberg 1998, pp. 265–272.
  27. ^ Pullen, Daniel J. (2009). "[Review of] W.D. Taylour & R. Janko, Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia. British School at Athens, 2008". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Its location on the Laconian coast, easily accessible from Kythera, undoubtedly encouraged early contacts with Crete whether directly or indirectly (see the Linear A sign catalogued in chapter 11).
  28. ^ NIEMEIER, WOLF-DlETRICH. "A LINEAR A INSCRIPTION FROM MILETUS (MIL Zb 1)", KADMOS, vol. 35, no. 2, 1996, pp. 87-99.
  29. ^ L. Godart, La scrittura di Troia. Rendicontidella Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche dell'Ac-cademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Ser. IX, 5, 1994, pp. 457-460, 1994
  30. ^ Fol, Alexander, Schmitt, Sofia and Schmitt, Rüdiger. "A Linear A Text on a Clay Reel from Drama, South-East Bulgaria?" , Praehistorische Zeitschrift, vol. 75, no. 1, 2000, pp. 56-62
  31. ^ Finkelberg et al. 1996: M. Finkelberg/A. Uchitel/D. Ussishkin,A Linear A Inscription from Tel Lachish (LACH Za 1). TelAviv 23, 1996, 195-207
  32. ^ Olivier, Jean-Pierre. "A Minoan graffito from Tel Haror (Negev, Israel)." Cretan studies 5 (1996): 98-109
  33. ^ Olivier 1986, pp. 377f.
  34. ^ Robinson 2009, p. 54.
  35. ^ a b c d Finkelberg, Margalit (2001). "The Language of Linear A: Greek, Semitic, or Anatolian?". In Drews, Robert (ed.). Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite Language Family. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series. Vol. 38. p. 81-105. ISBN 978-0941694773 – via
  36. ^ Uchitel, A. (2003). "HT 94.", Minos, 37/38, pp. 81-88
  37. ^ Younger, John (2000). "1. List of Linked Files". Linear A texts in phonetic transcription. University of Kansas. A comprehensive list of known texts written in Linear A.
  38. ^ a b Nagy 1963, p. 210 (Footnote #24).
  39. ^ Georgiev 1963, pp. 1–104.
  40. ^ Nagy 1963, pp. 181–211.
  41. ^ a b Palmer 1958, pp. 75–100.
  42. ^ Marangozis, John (2006). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa.
  43. ^ [1]Janke, Richard Vallance, and X. V. I. Sonnet. "The influence of Hittite and digraphia on Minoan Linear A proto-Greek libation invocations.
  44. ^ [2] Kazansky N.N., 2012. The Evidence for Lycian in the Linear A Syllabary
  45. ^ Gordon, C. (1957). Notes on Minoan Linear A. Antiquity, 31(123), 124-130
  46. ^ Rendsburg, Gary A. (2001). "Cyrus H. Gordon (1908-2001): A Giant among Scholars". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 92 (1/2): 137–143. ISSN 0021-6682. JSTOR 1455617.
  47. ^ Dietrich & Loretz 2001.
  48. ^ a b La Marle, Hubert. Linéaire A, la première écriture syllabique de Crète. Paris: Geuthner, 4 Volumes, 1997–1999, 2006; Introduction au linéaire A. Geuthner, Paris, 2002; L'aventure de l'alphabet: les écritures cursives et linéaires du Proche-Orient et de l'Europe du sud-est à l'Âge du Bronze. Paris: Geuthner, 2002; Les racines du crétois ancien et leur morphologie: communication à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 2007.
  49. ^ Younger, John (2009). "Linear A: Critique of Decipherments by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun". University of Kansas. According to Younger, La Marle "assigns phonetic values to Linear signs based on superficial resemblances to signs in other scripts (the choice of scripts being already prejudiced to include only those from the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa), as if C looks like O so it must be O."
  50. ^ La Marle, Hubert (September 2010). An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A (Report) – via
  51. ^ Facchetti & Negri 2003.
  52. ^ Yatsemirsky 2011.
  53. ^ Brown 1985, p. 289.
  54. ^ Monti O. 2002, "Observations sur la langue du linéaire A", Kadmos 41, pp. 117- 120
  55. ^ Witczak K.T. 2000: "Minojska Wielka Bogini - istniaía czy nie?", Do-so-mo 1, pp. 37-51
  56. ^ Witczak K.T. - Zawiasa D. 2002-2003: "Tor All the Gods'. Studies in the Votive Sentences in Three Cretan Scripts (Hieroglyphic, Linear A and Linear B)", Do-so-mo 2-3, pp. 37-57
  57. ^ Hooker, J. T. "Problems and Methods in the Decipherment of Linear A.", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 2, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1975, pp. 164–72
  58. ^ Younger, John (2000). "10c. Place names". Linear A texts in phonetic transcription. University of Kansas.

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Best, Jan G. P. (1972). Some Preliminary Remarks on the Decipherment of Linear A. Amsterdam: Hakkert.
  • Davis, S. “New Light on Linear A.” Greece & Rome, vol. 6, no. 1, 1959, pp. 20–30
  • Facchetti, G. M. (2003). "ON SOME RECENT ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY LINEAR A MINOAN LANGUAGE.", Minos, 37/38, pp. 89-94
  • Gordon, Cyrus H. “Minoan Linear A.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 17, no. 4, 1958, pp. 245–55
  • Ferrara, Silvia; Valério, Miguel; Montecchi, Barbara (2022). "The Relationship between Cretan Hieroglyphic and Linear A: a palaeographic and structural approach". Pasiphae - Journal of Aegean Philology and Antiquity. 26 (16): 81–109. doi:10.19272/202233301006.
  • A. P. Judson, "The Undeciphered Signs of Linear B. Interpretation and Scribal Practices", Cambridge, 2020
  • Marangozis, John (2007). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa, ISBN 3-89586-386-6
  • Montecchi, Barbara (January 2010). "A Classification Proposal of Linear A Tablets from Haghia Triada in Classes and Series". Kadmos. 49 (1): 11–38. doi:10.1515/KADMOS.2010.002. S2CID 124902710.
  • Nagy, Gregory (October 1965). "Observations on the Sign-Grouping and Vocabulary of Linear A". American Journal of Archaeology. 69 (4): 295–330. doi:10.2307/502181. JSTOR 502181. S2CID 191385596.
  • Palmer, Ruth (1995). "Linear A Commodities: A Comparison of Resources" (PDF). Aegeum. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  • Salgarella, Ester (2020). Aegean Linear Script(s): Rethinking the Relationship between Linear A and Linear B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108479387.
  • E. Salgarella, "Aegean Linear Script(s). Rethinking the Relationship Between Linear A and Linear", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. ISBN 978-1-108-47938-7
  • Salgarella, Ester (2022). "Linear A". Oxford Classical Dictionary. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.013.8927 (inactive 26 August 2022).{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2022 (link)
  • Ilse Schoep: The Administration of Neopalatial Crete. A Critical Assessment of the Linear A Tablets and their Role in the Administrative Process. Minos Supplementary Volume no. 17. Salamanca 2002, OCLC: 52610144
  • Thomas, Helena. Understanding the transition from Linear A to Linear B script. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Supervisor: Professor John Bennet. Thesis (D. Phil.). University of Oxford, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 311–338).
  • Woodard, Roger D. (1997). Greek Writing from Knossos to Homer. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510520-9. (Review Archived 19 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine)

External links[edit]