List of Subaru transmissions
Subaru motor vehicles have used manual, conventional automatic, and continuously variable (CVT) transmissions. Subaru manufactures its own manual and CVT transmissions (for non-Kei cars). Since the 1970s, all Subaru conventional automatic transmissions have been Jatco designs adapted to Subaru specifications. Since the 2014 model year, the conventional automatic transmissions in North American-spec Subaru vehicles have been replaced with Lineartronic CVTs (with some exceptions such as Outbacks with the 3.6 liter engine).
- 1 Automatic
- 2 Continuously variable
- 3 Manual
- 3.1 Four-speed
- 3.2 Five-speed
- 3.3 Six-speed
- 4 Notes
- 5 Sources
- 6 See also
All of Subaru's three speed automatic transmissions were made by Jatco.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 4.100
- Usage: 1975–1979 Subaru Leone
3AT 1st revision
- Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.166
- Usage: 1980–1982 Subaru Leone
The 3EAT was an electronically controlled 3AT with available Single-Range 4WD.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 2.821 2nd 1.559 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.257
- Usage: 1983–,19841994 Subaru Leone 1985–1989 Subaru XT and Subaru BRAT
Subaru built their own four-speed automatic transmission based on the old Jatco design. It was available in FWD and Full-time awd.
ACT-4 or VTD
Subaru uses two types of traction delivery systems, called Active Torque Split, or the performance oriented Variable Torque Distribution, called VTD. Active Torque Split has a front axle bias of 60:40 (90:10 in 1993-2009 4EAT Legacys/Libertys), and sends torque to the rear wheels when front traction loss is detected. The first system is the more commonly used setup used on most Subaru products. VTD has more of a rear axle bias varying in deployment ratios of 45:55. VTD is usually found in performance models equipped with a turbocharger and VDC models. Active Torque Split and VTD are utilized on transmissions with at least 4 gears, or the 4EAT and 5EAT.
This transmission was released in 1988 for use in the Subaru XT6 and Leone Touring Wagon. The bellhousing and input shaft were changed for the Subaru EJ engine, but this transmission was used up until MY2008 with only minor changes.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 2.785 2nd 1.545 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272
- Some versions had gear ratios of 1st 3.030 2nd 1.620 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272
- Usage: 1988–1991 Subaru XT, 1990–2004 Subaru Legacy, 1992–1997 Subaru Alcyone SVX, and all Subarus 1995–2007
The Ford Motor Company also uses a transmission on some Ford, Kia Motors, Mercury, and Mazda products called the F-4EAT, which shares some similarities with the Subaru, since they are both manufactured by Jatco. The Nissan Pathfinder has also used this transmission in the past with an external transfer case attached.
Subaru released the 5EAT w/ SportShift in 2003 based on the Jatco JR507E transmission.
- Gear Ratios:
1st 3.540 2nd 2.264 3rd 1.471 4th 1.000 5th 0.834 Rev 2.370
Subaru made a one off paddle-shift AWD transmission for their B11S Concept car built off of the 5EAT platform.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 2.264 3rd 1.471 4th 1.000 5th 0.834 6th 0.700 Rev 3.272
- Usage: B11S Concept Car Only
1989–1994 Subaru Justy ECVT/Justy 4WD ECVT
Subaru developed a CVT for the Subaru Justy to gain reasonable acceleration and fuel economy from its small three cylinder engine. It employs a push-belt system and comes with an optional 4WD unit that engages the rear wheels when a button on the shifter is depressed. It also has a 'sport mode' that when activated nearly doubles engine RPM for better torque distribution when towing or going uphill. The Shift Indicator reads P-R-N-D-Ds, Ds stands for Drive Sport, which doubles engine RPM. The CVT transmission proved unreliable after accumulating high mileage, causing Subaru to stop exporting cars with CVTs to North America until the fifth generation Legacy/Outback. Subaru did continue to build Kei cars with CVTs, only for sale in Japan. In addition to improving the design of the transmission over the years, Subaru also supplies other companies with CVTs, as well. The Justy ECVT was also available with hydraulically actuated 4WD (unlike the 5sp manual Justy, which has pneumatic actuation) in November 1988, this model was called the Justy 4WD ECVT.
- Gear Ratios: Infinite
- Usage: 1989–1994 Subaru Justy
Subaru Lineartronic CVT
The fifth generation Legacy/Outback and the JDM Subaru Exiga received a newly revised CVT under the Lineartronic name. It is a metal chain, pulley-based CVT, which is considered the most reliable, due to the simplicity of the pulley system and durability of the metal chain. In addition, the metal chain pulley system is generally quieter than other CVT designs.
In the US, the Lineartronic is available with the 2.5i engine in the Outback, Legacy and Forester(2014), and the 2.0 FB engine in the Impreza and slightly modified for the XV Crosstrek. In SE Asia this transmission is also available for the 2.0i engine for the 2010 and later Legacy Legacy Asia spec. Subaru claims that the transmission provides "uninterrupted power that maximizes fuel efficiency while keeping the engine at the optimal rev range". EPA mileage estimates for the CVT with the 2.5i, naturally aspirated based engine, claim 30 MPG highway (29 Outback, 31 Legacy).
Lineartronic uses a specially modified torque converter to connect the engine to the transmission. It can slip like a traditional torque converter, but remains locked under all conditions except when coasting or traveling at very low speed. The persistent lockup condition under acceleration provides the efficiency and control of a clutch while still behaving much like a traditional planetary automatic transmission. The transmission can also be manually controlled by the driver by providing the ability to select 6 or 7 (if paired with a Diesel engine) different "virtual" gears, where the transmission will hold a particular ratio.
- Gear Ratios: 6.32:1
- Usage: 2008–current Subaru Legacy / Outback / Exiga / Impreza / Levorg / Forester / XV and 2015 Subaru Impreza WRX Premium and Limited Editions.
Subaru made several four speed transmissions from 1970–1989, they are listed below.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.307 2nd 1.944 3rd 1.344 4th 0.942 Rev 4.100
- Usage: All 1970–1982 FWD
T71A 1st revision
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.193 4th 0.769 Rev 3.583
- Usage: All 1983–1989 Subaru Leone FWD 1600cc
- Gear Ratios: 1st 4.090 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.379 4th .971 Rev 4.100, Low Range 1.462
- Usage: 1975–1980 Subaru Leone and 1978–1981 Subaru BRAT
T71W 4WD 1st revision
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.666 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 Rev 4.100, Low Range 1.462
- Usage: 1981 Subaru Leone 1600cc
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.266 4th .885 Rev 3.583, Low Range 1.462
- Usage: 1981 Subaru Leone 1800cc
T81W 4WD 1st revision
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.193 4th .769 Rev 3.583, Low Range 1.462
- Usage: 1982–1989 Subaru Leone 1800cc and 1982–1993 Subaru BRAT (EA-81 engine only)
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.666 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 4.100
- Usage: 1975–1982 Subaru Leone
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 2.157 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 3.583
- Usage: 1983–1989 Subaru Leone 1600cc
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.371 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.266 4th .885 5th .725, Rev 3.583
- Usage: 1983–1989 Subaru Leone 1800cc (EA-81 Engine ONLY)!
1st 3.636 2nd 1.950 3rd 1.344 4th .971 5th .783, Rev 3.583
- Usage: 1985–1994 Subaru Leone
This was the only five-speed 4WD transmission made for the Subaru Leone
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 1.947 3rd 1.366 4th .972 5th .780, Rev 3.416 Low Range 1.59
- Usage: 1985–1994 Subaru Leone and 1985–1989 Subaru XT 1800cc
This transmission was Subaru's first full-time 4WD transmission, only used in the Alcyone/XT6 and 3 door RX.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 2.111 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th .871, Rev 3.416 Low Range 1.196
- Usage: 1988–1991 Subaru XT-6
The Justy used a transaxle, rather than a conventional Subaru transmission. This transmission was dropped in 1994 when you could only get a 4WD unit.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.071 2nd 1.695 3rd 1.137 4th .823 5th .675, Rev 3.461 Final 4.437
- Usage: 1984–1993 Subaru Justy
5MT Justy 4WD
After its introduction in 1984, the Justy was also available with 4WD and thus a different gearbox. The gear ratios for this gearbox were altered slightly. In 1994 the normal/FWD gearbox was dropped; one could only get a 4WD gearbox by then.
- Gear ratios: 1st 3.071 2nd 1.695 3rd 1.137 4th .771 5th .631, Rev 3.461 Final 5.200
- Usage: 1984–1994 Subaru Justy
It is notable to mention that only Turbo vehicles received a hydraulic clutch until 1995. Also, in 1998 Subaru changed from a push-style clutch to a pull-style, on turbo models, requiring minor bellhousing and fork changes.
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.785 2nd 1.945 3rd 1.500 4th 0.994 5th 0.780/(0.735 WRX) – Final 4.11 (3.90 WRX)
- Usage: All 1990–2003 with EJ-Engine
MY 96-99 Transmission specs (and possibly other years)
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.545 2nd 2.111 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th 0.825 (FWD) / 0.780 (AWD) / 0.871 (Outback AWD) --- Final 3.454 (FWD) / 3.900 (AWD) / 4.111 (Forester, Outback AWD)
Source: 1996 Subaru Legacy Service Manual/1999 Subaru Forester Service Manual
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.454 2nd 2.062 3rd 1.448 4th 1.088 5th 0.871 Rev 3.545
- Usage: All 2003–2011 Subaru Non-Turbo
5MT revised 2012+
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.454 2nd 1.888 3rd 1.296 4th 0.972 5th 0.738 Rev ? Final 4.111
- Usage: All 2012–Present Subaru Non-Turbo
5MT turbo (32000AG970)
- Gear Ratios: 1st 3.166 2nd 1.882 3rd 1.296 4th 0.972 5th 0.738 Rev 3.545
- Usage: All 2003–Present Subaru Turbo
Per my Subaru Service Manual, page 5MT-2, for 2005 Turbo Baja 1st through 5th gear ratios are: 3.454, 1.947, 1.366, 0.972, 0.738 with a final drive ratio of 4.444. The gear ratios for reverse are not provided. Gear ratios for the non-turbo Baja Sport are 3.454, 2.062, 1.488, 1.088, 0.871 with a final drive ratio of 4.111 which agree with those listed on the current web page.
Impreza WRX STi and Legacy spec. B
There are several six speed manual transmissions currently available for USDM Subarus, found in the STi, Legacy Spec B, and 2015 WRX. The STi's 6MT has undergone various changes throughout the years, but have always had a limited slip front differential with Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD). In 2006, The STi's 6MT underwent some changes that included making the center differential a limited slip unit and a slight lengthening of some gears. The Spec. B's 6MT has different gear ratios (specifically 6th gear being longer) than the STi's unit, does not have DCCD, and neither the front nor center differentials are limited slip units. The Spec B's 6MT is still highly prized; however, because of its longer ratios than those found in the STi, while still retaining much of the STi unit's robustness.
- Gear Ratios : 1st 3.636 2nd 2.375 3rd 1.761 4th 1.346 5th 0.971 6th 0.756 Rev 3.545 (This only applies to either the 04-05 STi or the 06+ STi, not both, and not the Spec B.).
- Usage: 2004+ Subaru WRX STi and 2007+ Subaru Legacy spec. B
- Early 2004 WRX STi models came with axle stubs inserted in the transmission with female front axles. Late 2004 WRX STi models came without the stubs and instead had male front axles.
- The 2004 and 2005 model WRX STi 6MT was a final drive of 3.90. In 2006 and 2007 the 6MT came with a final drive of 3.545 which made the 2006 and 2007 much sought after for the non-STi WRX owners as a transmission swap. This is due to the R160 rear differential 3.545 final drive of most of the non-STi WRXs.
|Model||1st||2nd||3rd||4th||5th||6th||Reverse||Final Drive||DCCD||Front Diff||Center Diff|
|US Impreza WRX STi MY04 TY856WH3MA||3,636||2,375||1,761||1,346||0,971||0,756||3,545||3,900||35/65||A.P. Suretrac||automatic DCCD system|
|US Impreza WRX STi MY04 late TY856WH4MA||3,636||2,375||1,761||1,346||0,971||0,756||3,545||3,900||35/65||A.P. Suretrac||automatic DCCD system|
|US Impreza WRX STi MY05 TY856WW6MA||3,636||2,375||1,761||1,346||0,971||0,756||3,545||3,900||35/65||Helical LSD||automatic DCCD system|
The 2010 Legacy and Outback models offer a six-speed manual as one of the two transmission options in the base 2.5i, and is the only option for the Legacy GT model. This transmission is an evolution of the 5MT split-case design, and does not share any parts with the STI's 6MT transmission. The transmission uses a cable shifter, unlike previous designs that use a direct mechanical linkage.
The 2015 WRX has a new 6-speed cable-shifted manual transmission behind the new FA20DIT boxer engine. This transmission uses a viscous limited slip center differential with a 50/50 torque split similar to the 5MT found in previous WRX's. Reverse is located to the right of 6th gear, and is accessed by lifting a lockout ring below the shift knob, similar to the STi 6MT.
Gear Ratios are: 1st: 3.454 2nd: 1.947 3rd: 1.296 4th: 0.972 5th: 0.780 6th: 0.666 Reverse: 3.636 Final Drive: 4.11
Gear Ratios are: 1st 3.818 2nd 1.947 3rd 1.296 4th 1.029 5th 0.825 6th 0.738 Final Drive 4.44:1
- Subaru of America main website
- "Subaru Transmission Specs". Archived from the original on 1 August 2008.
- 1977 Subaru Factory Service Manual
- 1983 Subaru Factory Service Manual
- 1984 Subaru Factory Service Manual
- 1979–2002 Subaru Owner's Manuals
- "Rallispec LTD. – Subaru Gearbox Chart". Sports Performance Drivers Association. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 2009-11-29.