Laemophloeidae

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Laemophloeidae
Laemophloeus germaini Montage.jpg
Laemophloeus germaini
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Polyphaga
Infraorder: Cucujiformia
Superfamily: Cucujoidea
Family: Laemophloeidae
Ganglbauer, 1899
Genera

Acompsophloeus Thomas, 2010
Blubos Lefkovitch, 1962
Brontolaemus Sharp, 1885
Carinophloeus Lefkovitch, 1961
Caulonomus Wollaston, 1862
Charaphloeus Casey, 1916
Cryptolestes Ganglbauer, 1899
Cucujinus Arrow, 1920
Deinophloeus Sharp, 1899
Dysmerus Casey, 1884
Gannes Lefkovitch, 1962
Heterojinus Sengupta & Mukhopadhyay, 1978
Laemophloeus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840
Lathropus Erichson, 1845
Lepidophloeus Thomas, 1984
Leptophloeus Casey, 1916
Magnoleptus Lefkovitch, 1962
Mariolaemus Lefkovitch, 1962
Mestolaemus Lefkovitch, 1962
Metaxyphloeus Thomas, 1984
Microbrontes Reitter, 1874
Microlaemus Lefkovich, 1962
Narthecius J.LeConte, 1861
Nipponophloeus Sasaji, 1983
Notolaemus Lefkovitch, 1959
Odontophloeus Thomas, 1984
Parandrita J.LeConte & Horn, 1880
Paraphloeolaemus Thomas, 2018
Passandrophloeus Kessel, 1921
Phloeipsius Casey, 1916
Phloeolaemus Casey, 1916
Placonotus MacLeay, 1871
Planolestes Lefkovitch, 1958
Pseudophloeus Yablokov-Khnzoryan, 1977
Rhabdophloeus Sharp, 1899
Rhinolaemus Steel, 1954
Rhinomalus Gemm, 1870
Rhinophloeus Sharp, 1899
Sinuatophloeus Kessel, 1921
Xylolestes Lefkovitch, 1962
Xylophloeus Lefkovitch, 1962

Laemophloeidae, "lined flat bark beetles," is a family in the superfamily Cucujoidea characterized by predominantly dorso-ventrally compressed bodies, head and pronotal discs bordered by ridges or grooves, and inverted male genitalia.[1][2] Size range of adults is 1–5 mm (0.04–0.2 in) in length. Currently, it contains 40 genera and about 450 species,[3] and is represented on all continents except Antarctica; species richness is greatest in the tropics.

Classicification[edit]

Historically, Laemophloeidae was treated as a subfamily of Cucujidae, but starting in the middle of the 20th century,[4] most of what had been treated as subfamilies of the Cucujidae were considered to be families.

Habitat and behaviour[edit]

Most laemophloeids, adults and larvae, are found under bark of dead trees, where they apparently are primarily fungivores,[5] although some genera with adults having subcylindrical bodies (e.g., Leptophloeus, Dysmerus) occur in the galleries of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), upon which they may feed.[6] A few genera, but most particularly Cryptolestes, contain some species that are pests of stored grain products. The most important of these are Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr), and Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle).[7]

Characteristics[edit]

Several genera exhibit unusual modifications to male antennae (especially Cryptolestes, Dysmerus, and Microbrontes), with the scape expanded into hook-like or blade-like structures.[8][9] Several other genera (Rhinomalus, Rhinophloeus, and Metaxyphloeus) related to Laemophloeus are atypical in that the adults are rostrate to varying degrees.[10] Photographs of most world genera are available at,[11] and most North American species are pictured at:[12]

Leaping larvae[edit]

According to an article published by PLOS ONE, a discovery has been made regarding the larvae of laemophloeidae. Studies show that when the larvae is in the open, the larvae will straighten themselves out and jump curling up into a ball in the process. It has also been discovered that the larvae can bounce when they are curled up.[13][14]

Gallery[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas MC (2002). "Family 83. Laemophloeidae Ganglbauer 1899.". In Arnett Jr R, Thomas MC, Skelley PE, Frank JH (eds.). American Beetles. Volume 2: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 331–334. xiv + 861pp.
  2. ^ Thomas MC, Leschen RA (2010). "Laemophloeidae, Ganglbauer, 1899.". In Leschen RA, Beutel RG, Lawrence JF (eds.). Handbook of Zoology. Coleoptera, Beetles. Volume 2: Morphology and Systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 376–380.
  3. ^ "Laemophloeidae Species List". Joel Hallan’s Biology Catalog. Texas A&M University. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  4. ^ Crowson RA (1955). The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera. London: Nathaniel Lloyd. p. 187.
  5. ^ Lawrence JF (December 1977). "Coleoptera associated with an Hypoxylon species (Ascomycetes: Xylariaceae) on oak". The Coleopterists' Bulletin. 31 (4): 309–312. JSTOR 3999883.
  6. ^ Thomas MC (1993). "The flat bark beetles of Florida (Laemophloeidae, Passandridae, Silvanidae).". Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Vol. 15. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. pp. i-viii and 1–93.
  7. ^ Halstead DG (June 1993). "Keys for the identification of beetles associated with stored products—II. Laemophloeidae, Passandridae and Silvanidae". Journal of Stored Products Research. 29 (2): 99–197. doi:10.1016/0022-474X(93)90030-8.
  8. ^ Lefkovitch LP (July 1958). "Unusual antennal characters in some Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and their taxonomic importance". Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series B, Taxonomy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 27 (5–6): 93–100. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1958.tb00419.x.
  9. ^ Thomas MC (May 2009). "A review of the genus Dysmerus Casey (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)". Insecta Mundi. 74: 1–30.
  10. ^ Thomas MC (March 1984). "A new Neotropical genus and species of rostrate Laemophloeinae (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) with discussion of the systematic position of the subfamily". The Coleopterists' Bulletin. 38 (1): 67–83. JSTOR 4008144.
  11. ^ Thomas MC. "Photographic Atlas of Laemophloeid Genera". Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  12. ^ Thomas MC. "Laemophloeidae of Florida". Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  13. ^ Bergquist C, Flatow I. "These Beetles Go Boing". Science Friday. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  14. ^ Bertone MA, Gibson JC, Seago AE, Yoshida T, Smith AA (2022-01-19). "A novel power-amplified jumping behavior in larval beetles (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)". PLOS ONE. 17 (1): e0256509. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0256509. PMC 8769368. PMID 35045081.