Drum Tower of Linfen
Location of Linfen City in Shanxi and the PRC
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Yaodu District|
|• Type||Prefecture-level city|
|• CPC Linfen Secretary||Luo Qingyu ( 罗清宇)|
|• Mayor||Yuo Puyu (岳普煜)|
|• Prefecture-level city||20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,304 km2 (503 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,304 km2 (503 sq mi)|
|Elevation||452 m (1,483 ft)|
|Highest elevation||2,346.8 m (7,699.5 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||385.1 m (1,263.5 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,316,612|
|• Density||210/km2 (550/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Administrative division code||141000|
Linfen (simplified Chinese: 临汾; traditional Chinese: 臨汾; pinyin: Línfén) is a prefecture-level city in southern Shanxi province, People's Republic of China. It is situated along the banks of the Fen River. It has an area of 20,275 square kilometres (7,828 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 4,316,612 inhabitants of which 944,050 live in the built-up (or metro) area made up of Yaodu urban district. It was known as Pingyang (平阳) during the Spring and Autumn Period. In 2006, New York based Blacksmith Institute listed Linfen as one of the ten most polluted cities in the world.
Prior to 1978, Linfen was famous for its spring water, greenery and rich agriculture and therefore nicknamed "The Modern Fruit and Flower Town". Since then it has been developing into a main industrial center for coal mining, which has been seriously damaging the city's environment, air quality, farming, health and its past status as a green village.
The name of its central district, the Yaodu district, indicates that it was the capital (du, 都) of Yao who lived about 4,200 years ago. He is an extremely important person in Chinese history because the Confucian classics depict him and his successors Shun and Yu as exceptionally praiseworthy. The Confucian Book of History begins with Yao and these two successors. In April 2015, the Xinhua news agency reported that as a result of recent excavations, Chinese archaeologists have confirmed that Yao's capital was in the city now called Linfen.
The Xiongnu Chanyu Liu Cong made Pingyang his residence in the fourth century. "He kept court at Pingyang in Shansi and ruled over central and southern Shansi, over Shensi (except for the Han basin), northern Honan (except for Kaifeng), southern Hopei, and northern Shantung."
In the 1980s, Linfen was nicknamed "The Modern Fruit and Flower Town".
Linfen is located in the southwestern part of Shanxi, on the lower reaches of the Fen River, bounded by Changzhi and Jincheng to the east, the Yellow River to the west (which also forms the border with Shaanxi), Jinzhong and Lüliang to the north, and Yuncheng to the south. The prefecture ranges in latitude from 35° 23′ N to 36° 37′ N, spanning 170 kilometres (110 mi), and in longitude from 110° 22′ E to 112° 34′ E, spanning 200 km (120 mi). In all, the city's administrative area, at 20,275 square kilometres (7,828 sq mi), covers 13% of the province's area.
Within its borders Linfen City has a variety of topographical features. It can generally be characterised as having a "U" shape, with its mountains, covering 29.2% of the prefectural area, on all four cardinal directions, a basin, the Linfen Basin (临汾盆地), covering 19.4%, in the middle, and intervening hills, covering 51.4%, in between. In the east, from north to south, are Mount Huo (霍山) and the Zhongtiao Mountains; in the west are the Lüliang Mountains, with elevations mostly above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The highest point in the prefecture is the main peak of Mount Huo, at 2,347 metres (7,700 ft), and the lowest is in Xiangning County, at 385 metres (1,263 ft). Important rivers in the area include the Yellow, Fen, Xinshui (昕水河), Qin (沁河), Hui (浍河), E (鄂河), and Qingshui Rivers (清水河).
The whole prefecture-level city features a great variety of terrain. The city itself sits in a basin, which aggravates the pollution.
Linfen has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with moderately cold, but dry winters, and hot, somewhat humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) in January to 26.1 °C (79.0 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). The annual precipitation stands at 470 millimetres (18.5 in), with close to 70% of this total falling from June to September. The frost-free period lasts on average 190 days per year. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.5 °C (−8.5 °F) to 40.5 °C (104.9 °F).
|Climate data for Linfen (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.8
|Average high °C (°F)||4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−22.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.2||2.8||4.6||5.6||6.4||8.8||12.0||10.0||8.6||6.4||3.8||2.0||73.2|
|Source: Weather China|
China's rapid industrialization and urbanization beginning in the 1990s led to increased energy demand causing a dramatic increase in the price of coal. This led to a rapid expansion of loosely regulated private mines. Mining,coking, smelting and other heavy industries which developed around the city have led to catastrophic environmental damage.
In 2006, the Blacksmith Institute included Linfen in its annual "10 worst" report, calling the city the most polluted city in China. It has also been listed as one of the world's ten dirtiest cities by the Popular Science website. The city has ranked at the bottom of the World Bank's air quality rankings.
From its low point, in 2004, with only fifteen days out of the year with an acceptable level of air pollution, the environmental situation has improved. After a series of negative reports on the extreme level of pollution in the city, efforts were made to clean up Linfen. Substandard mines were closed. Coal trucks were kept from entering the city, resulting in much less coal dust. The city has also switched much of its heating source from coal to gas. 197 large coal-fired boilers and more than 600 smaller, family-size boilers were decommissioned. As of 2007, 85 percent of population uses natural gas rather than coal for their heating. The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) has forced many of the less-efficient smaller factories to close and enforced stricter standards for larger factories including mandating the installation of sulfur scrubbers.
Since 2006, the government has taken a series of measures to modify industrial structure and economic development mode. Relevant policies was issued such as emission threshold of industrial pollution. Over the last few years the Ministry of Environmental Protection has been closely monitoring Linfen's environment conditions. Now it has been listed as a model city for environmental protection in Shanxi Province. Linfen has paid a high cost for the improvement, the regional GDP dropped by RMB 36 billion and fiscal income decreased by RMB 7.2 billion. Compared with the shrinking economy, the environment in Linfen has improved dramatically. On February 23, 2014, Linfen was reported by China Youth Daily as a city experiencing the great change from the "most polluted city" to "model city of environmental protection".
|1||Yaodu District||尧都区||堯都區||Yáodū Qū||1,316||944,050||717|
|2||Houma City||侯马市||侯馬市||Hóumǎ Shì||274||240,005||876|
|3||Huozhou City||霍州市||霍州市||Huòzhōu Shì||765||282,907||370|
|4||Quwo County||曲沃县||曲沃縣||Qǔwò Xiàn||438||237,033||541|
|5||Yicheng County||翼城县||翼城縣||Yìchéng Xiàn||1,163||311,471||268|
|6||Xiangfen County||襄汾县||襄汾縣||Xiāngfén Xiàn||1,304||442,614||339|
|7||Hongtong County||洪洞县||洪洞縣||Hóngtóng Xiàn||1,563||733,421||469|
|8||Gu County||古县||古縣||Gǔ Xiàn||1,193||91,798||77|
|9||Anze County||安泽县||安澤縣||Ānzé Xiàn||1,965||82,012||42|
|10||Fushan County||浮山县||浮山縣||Fúshān Xiàn||946||127,831||135|
|11||Ji County||吉县||吉縣||Jí Xiàn||1,777||106,407||60|
|12||Xiangning County||乡宁县||鄉寧縣||Xiāngníng Xiàn||2,029||233,162||115|
|13||Pu County||蒲县||蒲縣||Pú Xiàn||1,508||107,339||71|
|14||Daning County||大宁县||大寧縣||Dàníng Xiàn||967||64,501||67|
|15||Yonghe County||永和县||永和縣||Yǒnghé Xiàn||1,219||63,649||52|
|16||Xi County||隰县||隰縣||Xí Xiàn||1,415||103,617||73|
|17||Fenxi County||汾西县||汾西縣||Fénxī Xiàn||880||144,795||165|
Linfen prefecture is home to several notable tourist attractions including the Hukou Waterfall which is the largest waterfall on the Yellow River and the second largest in China. Hukou Waterfall is located 150 km (93 mi) west of Linfen city in Jinshan Gorge.
Other attractions are located in Hongtong county. Most notable among these is Guangsheng Temple, built in 147 CE. Located in the upper Guangsheng temple is the Feihong Pagoda, the largest and best preserved glazed Chinese pagoda. Also in Hongdong county is the Su San Prison (苏三监狱), a restored Ming dynasty prison made famous by the Peking opera titled Yu Tang Chun (玉堂春). It is China's oldest surviving prison.
Linfen has rich mineral resources including coal, iron ore, copper, and lead. Hedong Coal Field, Huoxi Coal Field and Qinshui Coal Field together comprise 62.9 billion tons of coal reserves. Iron ore reserves exceed 420 million tons. Coal mining and dressing, coking, metallurgy, non-ferrous metal smelting, and chemicals are the principle industries.
Linfen Qiaoli Airport, in Yaodu district, was built in 1958 and closed in 1965. The airport has been under renovation since September 2010, but as of January 2013 is not operational.
- "2010年临汾市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报（Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China）". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Geography of Linfen" (in Chinese). Lifen People's Government. Retrieved 2008-09-09.
- (Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
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- Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
- "China's 'most polluted city' breathes cleaner air". China Daily. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "Top 10 Most Polluted Places" (Adobe Portable Document Format). Blacksmith Institute. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- The World's 10 Dirtiest Cities
- Johnathan Watts; Randeep Ramesh (March 26, 2007). "Fighting for air: frontline of war on global warming". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- FUnk, McKenzie (July 7, 2007). "China's Green Evolution". Popular Science Magazine. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- China Youth Daily Feb 23, 2014
- David Leffman, Simon Lewis, Jeremy Atiyah (2003). The Rough Guide to China. p. 263.
- "Feihong Pagoda in Hongtong County of Shanxi Province". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
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- Official website of Linfen Government
- LinFen Photo Essay
- A canary in the Chinese coal mine (published 2007-03-02; accessed 2007-04-01)
- BBC article Blacksmith Institute list