Many factors have resulted in the expanded use of Linux systems by traditional desktop users as well as operators of server systems, including desires to minimize software costs, increase network security, and support open-source philosophical principles. In recent years several governments, at various levels, have enacted policies shifting state-owned computers to Linux from proprietary software regimes.
In August 2010 Jeffrey Hammond, principal analyst at Forrester Research, declared, "Linux has crossed the chasm to mainstream adoption," a statement attested by the large number of enterprises that had transitioned to Linux during the late-2000s recession. In a company survey completed in the third quarter of 2009, 48% of surveyed companies reported using an open-source operating system.
The Linux Foundation regularly releases publications regarding the Linux kernel, Linux OS distributions, and related themes. One such publication, "Linux Adoption Trends: A Survey of Enterprise End Users," is freely available upon registration.
- 1 Linux adopters
- 2 Hardware platforms with graphical user interface
- 2.1 Desktop and Nettop computers and Laptops
- 2.2 Netbooks
- 2.3 Web thin clients
- 2.4 Mobile devices
- 2.5 Other embedded systems with graphical user interface
- 3 Hardware platforms without graphical user interface
- 4 Advocacy
- 5 History
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Hardware platforms with graphical user interface
Linux is used on desktop computers, servers and supercomputers, as well as a wide range of devices.
Desktop and Nettop computers and Laptops
Measuring desktop adoption
Because Linux desktop distributions are not usually distributed by retail sale, there are no sales numbers that indicate the number of users. One downloaded file may be used to create many CDs and each CD may be used to install the operating system on multiple computers. On the other hand, the file might be used only for a test and the installation erased soon after. Due to these factors estimates of current Linux desktop often rely on webpage hits by computers identifying themselves as running Linux. The use of these statistics has been criticized as unreliable and as underestimating Linux use.
Using webpage hits as a measure, until 2008 Linux accounted for only about 1% of desktop market share, while Microsoft Windows operating systems held more than 90%. This might have been because Linux was not seen at that time as a direct replacement for Windows.
The Linux Counter uses an alternate method of estimating adoption, asking users to register and then using a mathematical model to estimate the total number of desktop users. In November 2014 this method estimated 73 million Linux users.
In April 2009 Aaron Seigo of KDE indicated that most web-page counter methods produce Linux adoption numbers that are far too low given the system's extensive penetration into non-North American markets, especially China. He stated that the North American-based web-measurement methods produce high Windows numbers and ignore the widespread use of Linux in other parts of the world. In estimating true worldwide desktop adoption and accounting for the Windows-distorted environment in the USA and Canada he indicated that at least 8% of the world desktops run Linux distributions and possibly as high as 10–12% and that the numbers are rising quickly. Other commentators have echoed this same belief, noting that competitors are expending a lot of effort to discredit Linux, which is incongruent with a tiny market share:
I don't believe that the desktop Linux market share is barely 1%. I think it is a lot higher. I have no good data to share; I base my assessment on experience and knowing the industry. There is something else that is even more persuasive, and that is how Microsoft behaves. If Linux is so insignificant, why do they pay so much attention to it?—Carla Schroder, Linux Today
In May 2009 Preston Gralla, contributing editor to Computerworld.com, in reacting to the Net Applications web hit numbers showing that Linux use was over 1%, said that "Linux will never become an important desktop or notebook operating system". He reasoned that the upsurge in Linux desktop use recently seen was due to Linux netbooks, a trend he saw as already diminishing and which would be further eroded when Windows 7 became available (and indeed, Linux netbooks did fall by the wayside, though whether they were solely responsible for the upsurge in Linux usage is open to question). He concluded: "As a desktop operating system, Linux isn't important enough to think about. For servers, it's top-notch, but you likely won't use it on your desktop – even though it did finally manage to crack the 1% barrier after 18 years".
In 2009 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer indicated that Linux had a greater desktop market share than Mac, stating that in recent years Linux had "certainly increased its share somewhat". Just under a third of all Dell netbook sales in 2009 had Linux installed.
Caitlyn Martin, researching retail market numbers in the summer of 2010 also concluded that the traditional numbers mentioned for Linux desktop adoption were far too low:
It seems like almost every day someone in the tech press or someone commenting in a technical forum will claim that Linux adoption on the desktop (including laptops) is insignificant. The number that is thrown around is 1%. These claims are even repeated by some who advocate for Linux adoption. Both the idea that Linux market share on the desktop is insignificant and the 1% figure are simply false and have been for many years...Where does the 1% number come from? There are two sources: very old data and web counters. The problem with using web counters to try and ascertain market share is that they generally only include websites that have paid to be counted. That pretty much guarantees that Windows will be overcounted.—Caitlyn Martin
Reasons for adoption
Reasons to change from other operating systems to Linux include better system stability, better malware protection, low or no cost, that most distributions come complete with application software and hardware drivers, simplified updates for all installed software, free software licencing, availability of application repositories and access to the source code. Linux desktop distributions also offer multiple desktop workspaces, greater customization, free and unlimited support through forums, and an operating system that doesn't slow down over time. Environmental reasons are also cited, as Linux operating systems usually do not come in boxes and other retail packaging, but are downloaded via the Internet. The lower system specifications also mean that older hardware can be kept in use instead of being recycled or discarded. Linux distributions also get security vulnerabilities patched much more quickly than non-free operating systems and improvements in Linux have been occurring at a faster rate than those in Windows.
A report in The Economist in December 2007 said:
|“||"Linux has swiftly become popular in small businesses and the home. That’s largely the doing of Gutsy Gibbon, the code-name for the Ubuntu 7.10 from Canonical. Along with distributions such as Linspire, Mint, Xandros, OpenSUSE and gOS, Ubuntu (and its siblings Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu) has smoothed most of Linux’s geeky edges while polishing it for the desktop. No question, Gutsy Gibbon is the sleekest, best integrated and most user-friendly Linux distribution yet. It’s now simpler to set up and configure than Windows."||”|
Investments have been made to improve desktop Linux usability since 2007.
Indian bulk computer purchaser the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT) started recommending only Linux in June 2008. Following testing they stated: "ELCOT has been using SUSE Linux and Ubuntu Linux operating systems on desktop and laptop computers numbering over 2,000 during the past two years and found them far superior as compared to other operating systems, notably the Microsoft Operating System."
In many developing nations, such as China, where, due to widespread software piracy, Microsoft Windows can be easily obtained for free, Linux distributions are gaining a high level of adoption. Hence in these countries where there is essentially no cost barrier to obtaining proprietary operating systems, users are adopting Linux based on its merit, rather than on price.
Our most potent Operating System competitor is Linux and the phenomena around Open Source and free software. The same phenomena fuels competitors to all of our products. The ease of picking up Linux to learn it or to modify some piece of it is very attractive. The academic community, start up companies, foreign governments and many other constituencies are putting their best work into Linux.
Barriers to adoption
The greatest barrier to Linux desktop adoption is probably that few desktop PCs come with it from the factory. A.Y. Siu asserted in 2006 that most people use Windows simply because most PCs come with Windows pre-installed; they didn't choose it. Linux has much lower market penetration because in most cases users have to install it themselves, a task that is beyond the capabilities of many PC users: "Most users won’t even use Windows restore CDs, let alone install Windows from scratch. Why would they install an unfamiliar operating system on their computers?"
Why would anyone choose Windows over Linux?...In my seriously biased opinion, I think this question is answered with a simple conspiracy theory: Microsoft is doing everything it can to keep the public blind to Linux. Think about it? Remember the whole Wintel conspiracy where MS and Intel played off of each other to continue their strangle-hold monopoly in the PC industry? That era played a huge part in the blinding of consumers. Top that with the business practices MS forces upon big box shops to ensure their operating system is sold on nearly every PC sold and you can see that conspiracy is more of a reality than one might think.
Linus Torvalds stated, in his June 2012 interaction with students at Aalto University, that although Linux was originally conceived as a desktop system, that has been the only market where it has not flourished. He suggested that the key reason that keeps Linux from getting a substantial presence in the desktop market is that the average desktop user does not want to install an operating system, so getting manufacturers to sell computers with Linux pre-installed would be the missing piece to fulfill the vision of Linux in the desktop market. He added that Chromebooks, by shipping with the Linux-based Chrome OS, could provide the key turning point in such a transition, much like Android allowed Linux to spread in the mobile space.
In September 2012 GNOME developer Michael Meeks also indicated that the main reason for the lack of adoption of Linux desktops is the lack of manufacturers shipping computers with it pre-installed, supporting Siu's arguments from six years earlier. Meeks also indicated that users wouldn't embrace desktop Linux until there is a wider range of applications and developers won't create that wider range of applications until there are more users, a classic Catch-22 situation.
In an openSUSE survey conducted in 2007, 69.5% of respondents said they dual booted a Microsoft Windows operating system in addition to a Linux operating system. In early 2007 Bill Whyman, an analyst at Precursor Advisors, noted that "there still isn't a compelling alternative to the Microsoft infrastructure on the desktop."
Application support, the quality of peripheral support, and end user support were at one time seen as the biggest obstacles to desktop Linux adoption. According to a 2006 survey by The Linux Foundation, these factors were seen as a "major obstacle" for 56%, 49%, and 33% of respondents respectively at that time.
The November 2006 Desktop Linux Client Survey identified the foremost barrier for deploying Linux desktops was that users were accustomed to Windows applications which had not been ported to Linux and which they "just can't live without". These included Microsoft Office, Adobe Photoshop, Autodesk AutoCAD, Microsoft Project, Visio and Intuit QuickBooks. In a DesktopLinux.com survey conducted in 2007, 72% of respondents said they used ways to run Windows applications on Linux.
51% of respondents to the 2006 Linux Foundation survey believed that cross-distribution Linux desktop standards should be the top priority for the Linux desktop community, highlighting the fact that the fragmented Linux market is preventing application vendors from developing, distributing and supporting the operating system. In May 2008, Gartner predicted that "version control and incompatibilities will continue to plague open-source OSs and associated middleware" in the 2013 timeframe.
By 2008 the design of Linux applications and the porting of Windows and Apple applications had progressed to the point where it was difficult to find an application that did not have an equivalent for Linux, providing adequate or better capabilities.
An example of application progress can be seen comparing the main productivity suite for Linux, OpenOffice.org, to Microsoft Office. With the release of OpenOffice.org 3.0 in October 2008 Ars Technica assessed the two:
Although OpenOffice.org has not yet reached full parity with Microsoft Office, it is maturing at a rapid pace and is already capable of meeting the basic needs of many average computer users. It is an ideal choice for schools and is an increasingly viable choice for small businesses and home users that don't rely on the more advanced capabilities of Microsoft's office suite.
In the past the availability and quality of open source device drivers were issues for Linux desktops. Particular areas which were lacking drivers included printers as well as wireless and audio cards. For example, in early 2007, Dell did not sell specific hardware and software with Ubuntu 7.04 computers, including printers, projectors, Bluetooth keyboards and mice, TV tuners and remote controls, desktop modems and Blu-ray disc drives, due to incompatibilities at that time, as well as legal issues.
By 2008 most Linux hardware support and driver issues had been adequately addressed. In September 2008 Jack Wallen's assessment was:
Years ago, if you wanted to install Linux on a machine you had to make sure you hand-picked each piece of hardware or your installation would not work 100 percent...This is not so much the case now. You can grab a PC (or laptop) and most likely get one or more Linux distributions to install and work nearly 100 percent. But there are still some exceptions; for instance, hibernate/suspend remains a problem with many laptops, although it has come a long way.
Some critics have stated that compared to Windows, Linux is lacking in end-user support. Linux has traditionally been seen as requiring much more technical expertise. Dell's website describes open source software as requiring intermediate or advanced knowledge to use. In September 2007, the founder of the Ubuntu project, Mark Shuttleworth, commented that "it would be reasonable to say that this is not ready for the mass market."
In October 2004 Chief Technical Officer of Adeptiva Linux, Stephan February, noted at that time that Linux was a very technical software product, and few people outside the technical community were able to support consumers. Windows users are able to rely on friends and family for help, but Linux users generally use discussion boards, which can be uncomfortable for consumers.
In 2005 Dominic Humphries summarized the difference in user tech support:
Windows users are more or less in a customer-supplier relationship: They pay for software, for warranties, for support, and so on. They expect software to have a certain level of usability. They are therefore used to having rights with their software: They have paid for technical support and have every right to demand that they receive it. They are also used to dealing with entities rather than people: Their contracts are with a company, not with a person.
Linux users are in more of a community. They don't have to buy the software, they don't have to pay for technical support. They download software for free & use Instant Messaging and web-based forums to get help. They deal with people, not corporations.
More recently critics have found that the Linux user support model, using community-based forum support, has greatly improved. In 2008 Jack Wallen stated:
With Linux, you have the support of a huge community via forums, online search, and plenty of dedicated websites. And of course, if you feel the need, you can purchase support contracts from some of the bigger Linux companies (Red Hat and Novell, for instance).
However, when you use the peer support inherent in Linux, you do take a chance with time. You could have an issue with something, send out email to a mailing list or post on a forum, and within 10 minutes be flooded with suggestions. Or these suggestions could take hours or days to come in. It seems all up to chance sometimes.
Yet generally speaking, most problems with Linux have been encountered and documented, so the chances are good you'll find your solution fairly quickly.
In addressing the question of user support, Manu Cornet said:
One of the great assets of the Open Source community (and Linux in particular), is that it's a real community. Users and developers really are out there, on web forums, on mailing lists, on IRC channels, helping out new users. They're all happy to see more and more people switch to Linux, and they're happy to help them get a grip on their new system...you'll find literally thousands of places where nice people will answer you and walk you out of your problem most of the time
Linux's credibility has also been under attack at times, but as Ron Miller of LinuxPlanet points out:
...the fact that Linux is being criticized is probably a good thing.
First of all, it shows that Linux is making headway in the enterprise and beginning to have an impact on competitors and they are reacting to that. Secondly, it's healthy to take a long look at any solution and analyze its strengths and weaknesses and the economic ramifications of one choice over another.
Ultimately, consumers and decision makers need to look carefully at the data including the sources of the data and the criticism and decide if Linux is the right decision, but as more people choose Linux and it finds its place in the market, it is bound to wear a target. That's simply the price you pay for success in the marketplace.
There is continuing debate about the total cost of ownership of Linux, with Gartner warning in 2005 that the costs of migration may exceed the cost benefits of Linux. Gartner reiterated the warning in 2008, predicting that "by 2013, a majority of Linux deployments will have no real software total cost of ownership (TCO) advantage over other operating systems." However, in the Comes v. Microsoft lawsuit, Plaintiff's exhibit 2817 revealed that Microsoft successfully lobbied Gartner for changing their TCO model in favour of Microsoft in 1998. Organizations that have moved to Linux have disagreed with these warnings. Sterling Ball, CEO of Ernie Ball, the world's leading maker of premium guitar strings and a 2003 Linux adopter, said of total cost of ownership arguments: "I think that's propaganda...What about the cost of dealing with a virus? We don't have 'em...There's no doubt that what I'm doing is cheaper to operate. The analyst guys can say whatever they want."
In the SCO-Linux controversies, the SCO Group had alleged that UNIX source code donated by IBM was illegally incorporated into Linux. The threat that SCO might be able to legally assert ownership of Linux initially caused some potential Linux adopters to delay that move. The court cases bankrupted SCO in 2007 after it lost its four-year court battle over the ownership of the UNIX copyrights. SCO's case had hinged on showing that Linux included intellectual property that had been misappropriated from UNIX, but the case failed when the court discovered that Novell and not SCO was the rightful owner of the copyrights. During the legal process, it was revealed that SCO's claims about Linux were fraudulent and that SCO's internal source code audits had showed no evidence of infringement.
The US Army does not agree that Linux is a security problem. Brigadier General Nick Justice, the Deputy Program Officer for the Army's Program Executive Office, Command, Control and Communications Tactical (PEO C3T), said in April 2007:
Our job is to provide accurate and timely information to the soldier in the field so they can perform their mission. Open source software is part of the integrated network fabric which connects and enables our command and control system to work effectively, as people's lives depend on it.
When we rolled into Baghdad, we did it using open source. It may come as a surprise to many of you, but the U.S. Army is "the" single largest install base for Red Hat Linux. I'm their largest customer.
In 2008 Gartner analysts predicted that mobile devices like Netbooks with Linux could potentially break the dominance of Microsoft's Windows as operating system provider, as the netbook concept focuses on OS-agnostic applications built as Web applications and browsing. Until 2008 the netbook market was dominated by Linux-powered devices; this changed in 2009 after Windows XP became available as option. One of the reasons given was that many customers returned Linux-based netbooks as they were still expecting a Windows-like environment, despite the netbook vision: a web-surfing and web-application device.
Web thin clients
|This section requires expansion. (September 2013)|
In 2011, Google introduced the Chromebook, a web thin client running the Linux-based Chrome OS, with the ability to use web applications and remote desktop in to other computers running Windows, Mac OS X, a traditional Linux distribution or Chrome OS, using Chrome Remote Desktop. In 2012 Google and Samsung introduced the first version of the Chromebox, a small-form-factor desktop equivalent to the Chromebook.
By 2013, Chromebooks had captured 20-25% of the sub-$300 US laptop market.
Note: The term "mobile devices" in the computing context refers to cellphones and tablets; as of 2013[update], the term does not include regular laptops, despite the fact that they have always been designed to be mobile.
Android, which is based on Linux and is open source, is the most popular mobile platform. During the second quarter of 2013, 79.3% of smartphones sold worldwide were running Android. Android tablets are also available.
Firefox OS is another open source Linux-based mobile operating system.
Other embedded systems with graphical user interface
Smartphones are gradually replacing these kinds of embedded devices, but they still exist. An example are the Portable media players. Some of the OEM firmware is Linux based. A community-driven fully free and open-source project is Rockbox.
In-vehicle infotainment hardware usually involves some kind of display, either built into the Dashboard or additional displays. The GENIVI Alliance works on a Linux-based open platform to run the IVI. It may have an interface to some values delivered by the Engine control unit but is albeit completely separate system. E.g. AF BUS is by them; it didn't make it into the mainline Linux kernel and is thus separately maintained. There will be a special variant of Tizen for IVI, different for the Tizen for smartphones in several regards.
Hardware platforms without graphical user interface
Embedded systems without graphical user interface
Customer-premises equipment are a group of devices that are embedded and have no graphical user interface in the common sense. Some are remotely operated via Secure Shell or via some Web-based user interface running on some lightweight web server software. Most of the OEM firmware is based on the Linux kernel and other free and open-source software, e.g. Das U-Boot and Busybox. There are also a couple of community driven projects, e.g. OpenWrt.
Linux became popular in the Internet server market particularly due to the LAMP software bundle. In September 2008 Steve Ballmer (Microsoft CEO) claimed 60% of servers run Linux and 40% run Windows Server. According to IDC's report covering Q2 2013, Linux was up to 23.2% of worldwide server revenue although this does compensate for the potential price disparity between Linux and non-Linux servers. In May 2014, W3Techs estimated that 67.5% of the top 10 million (according to Alexa) websites run some form of Unix, and Linux is used by at least 57.2% of all those websites which use Unix.
Linux-based solution stacks come with all the general advantages and benefits of free and open-source software. Some more commonly known examples are:
The LAMP stack is probably one of the primary reasons for the very high Linux adoption rate among web servers. In the meantime there are several variations of the LAMP stack available and also completely new ones, such as, e.g. the LYME stack, which is written in Erlang (programming language) and implements functional programming. According to the Netcraft the Apache HTTP Server has the highest market share.
There are various freely available implementations of LDAP servers. Additionally, Univention Corporate Server, as an integrated management system based on Debian, supports the functions provided by Microsoft Active directory for the administration of computers running Microsoft Windows.
Free routing software available for Linux includes BIRD, B.A.T.M.A.N., Quagga and XORP. Whether on Customer-premises equipment, on Personal computer hardware or on server-hardware, the mainline Linux kernel or an adapted highly optimized Linux kernel is capable of doing routing at rates that are limited by the hardware bus throughput. E.g. PacketShader is a high-performance software router platform for PC-hardware that accelerates the core packet processing with Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Based on observations that the CPU is the typical performance bottleneck in high-speed software routers, a group at KAIST scaled the computing power in a cost-effective manner with massively parallel GPU. PacketShader offloads computation and memory-intensive router applications to GPUs while optimizing the packet reception and transmission path on Linux. With extensive batch processing and pipelining, PacketShader achieves an unprecedented IP packet forwarding performance of 40 Gbit/s on an eight-core Nehalem server even for 64-byte packet size.
Linux is the most popular operating system among supercomputers due to the general advantages and benefits of free and open-source software, like superior performance, flexibility, speed and lower costs. In November 2008 Linux held an 87.8 percent share of the world's top 500 supercomputers.
As of June 2013 the operating systems used on the world's top 500 supercomputers were:
In January 2010 Weiwu Hu, chief architect of the Loongson family of CPUs at the Institute of Computing Technology, which is part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, confirmed that the new Dawning 6000 supercomputer will use Chinese-made Loongson processors and will run Linux as its operating system. The most recent supercomputer the organization built, the Dawning 5000a, which was first run in 2008, used AMD chips and ran Windows HPC Server 2008.
Linux is often used in various single- or multi-purpose computer appliances and embedded systems. For instance Google's Android mobile operating system, Google's Chrome OS, Nokia's Maemo and HP's WebOS mobile operating system run on the Linux kernel.
Many organizations advocate for Linux adoption. The foremost of these is the Linux Foundation which hosts and sponsors the key kernel developers, manages the Linux trademark, manages the Open Source Developer Travel Fund, provides legal aid to open source developers and companies through the Linux Legal Defense Fund, sponsors kernel.org and also hosts the Patent Commons Project.
The International Free and Open Source Software Foundation (iFOSSF) is a nonprofit organization based in Michigan, USA dedicated to accelerating and promoting the adoption of FOSS worldwide through research and civil society partnership networks.
Other advocates for Linux include:
- IBM through its Linux Marketing Strategy
- Linux User Groups
- Asian Open Source Centre (AsiaOSC)
- The Brazilian government, under president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
- Software Livre Brasil, a Brazilian organization promoting Linux adoption in schools, public departments, commerce, industry and personal desktops.
- FOSS: Free and Open Source Software Foundations of India and China.
Gartner claimed that Linux-powered personal computers accounted for 4% of unit sales in 2008. However, it is common for users to install Linux in addition to (as a dual boot arrangement) or in place of a factory-installed Microsoft Windows operating system.
|This article or section may be slanted towards recent events. (September 2011)|
- 1983 (September): GNU project announced publicly
- 1991 (September): first version of the Linux kernel released to the Internet
- mid-1990s: Linux runs on cluster computers at NASA and elsewhere
- late 1990s: Dell, IBM and Hewlett-Packard offer commercial support for Linux on their hardware; Red Hat and VA Linux have initial public offerings
- 1999 EmperorLinux started shipping specially configured laptops running modified Linux distributions to ensure usability
- 2001 (second quarter): Linux server unit shipments recorded a 15% annual growth rate
- 2004: Linux shipped on approximately 50% of the worldwide server blade units, and 20% of all rack-optimized servers
- 2005 System76, a Linux-only computer OEM, starts selling Ubuntu pre-installed on laptops and desktops.
- Dell announced it would ship select models with Ubuntu Linux pre-installed
- ZaReason is founded as a Linux only hardware OEM.
- Lenovo announced it would ship select models with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop pre-installed
- HP announced that it would begin shipping computers preinstalled with Red Hat Enterprise Linux in Australia
- ASUS launched the Linux-based ASUS Eee PC
- Dell announced it would begin shipping Ubuntu-based computers to Canada and Latin America
- Dell began shipping systems with Ubuntu pre-installed in China
- Acer launched the Linux-based Acer Aspire One
- In June 2008 the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT), a bulk computer buyer for students in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, decided to switch entirely to supplying Linux after Microsoft attempted to use its monopoly position to sell the organization Windows bundled with Microsoft Office. ELCOT declined the offer stating "Any such bundling could result in serious exploitation of the consumer."
- In August 2008 IBM cited market disillusionment with Microsoft Vista in announcing a new partnership arrangement with Red Hat, Novell and Canonical to offer "Microsoft-free" personal computers with IBM application software, including Lotus Notes and Lotus Symphony.
- In January 2009 the New York Times stated: "More than 10 million people are estimated to run Ubuntu today".
- In mid-2009 Asus, as part of its It's better with Windows campaign, stopped offering Linux, for which they received strong criticism. The company claimed that competition from other netbook makers drove them to offer only Windows XP. Writing in May 2010 ComputerWorld columnist Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols said "I'm sure that the real reason is Microsoft has pressured Asus into abandoning Linux. On ASUS' site, you'll now see the slogan 'ASUS recommends Windows 7' proudly shown. Never mind that, while Windows 7 is a good operating system, Windows 7 is awful on netbooks."
- In May 2009, Fedora developer Jef Spaleta estimated on the basis of IP addresses of update downloads and statistics from the voluntary user hardware registration service Smolt that there are 16 million Fedora systems in use. No effort was made to estimate how much the Fedora installed base overlaps with other Linux distributions (enthusiasts installing many distributions on the same system).
- In June 2009 ZDNet reported "Worldwide, there are 13 million active Ubuntu users with use growing faster than any other distribution."
- In April 2010 Chris Kenyon, vice president for OEM at Canonical Ltd., estimated that there were 12 million Ubuntu users.
- In June 2010 a Quebec Superior Court Judge Denis Jacques ruled that the provincial government broke the law when it spent Cdn$720,000, starting in the fall of 2006 to migrate 800 government workstations to Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 without carrying out a "serious and documented search" for alternatives. The search for alternatives was legally required for any expenditures over Cdn$25,000. The court case was brought by Savoir Faire Linux, a small Montreal-based company that had hoped to bid Linux software to replace the government's aging Windows XP. The judge dismissed the government's contention that Microsoft software was chosen because employees were already familiar with Windows and that switching to a different operating system would have cost more.
- In October 2010 a statistics company stated that Android, Google's version of Linux for smartphones, had become the most popular operating system among new buyers.
- In November 2012 Top500.org's November 2012 list has all Top 10 Supercomputers as running a distribution of Linux as their Operating System.
- In February 2013 Dice and the Linux Foundation released a survey that showed Linux skills in high demand among employers.
- Valve Corporation announces its Linux-based SteamOS for video game consoles.
- Supercomputers, Japan's bullet trains, traffic control, Toyota IVI, NYSE, CERN, FAA air traffic control, nuclear submarines and top websites all use Linux.
- In December 2013 the city of Munich announced that it successfully migrated 12,000 of its 15,000 computers to LiMux Linux and that the savings in 2013 alone were about 10 million euros.
- In March 2014 Ubuntu claimed 22,000,000 users.
- In September 2014 the Italian city of Turin and capital of Piedmont decided to switch to Linux.
- In October 2014 the city of Gummersbach announced that their IT infrastructure now is based on 300 thin-clients and 6 servers that run SuSe Linux.
- Cornet, Manu (n.d.). "Why Linux is Better". Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- Kerner, Sean Michael (August 2010). "LinuxCon Analysts: Linux Is Winning". Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- "Publications of the Linux Foundation". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- "Linux Adoption Trends: A Survey of Enterprise End Users". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- Paul, Ryan (3 September 2007). "Linux market share set to surpass Win 98, OS X still ahead of Vista". Ars Technica (Ars Technica, LLC). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Linux Counter (March 2005). "The Linux Counter Project". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Galli, Peter (8 August 2007). "Vista Aiding Linux Desktop, Strategist Says". eWEEK (Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Beer, Stan (23 January 2007). "Vista to play second fiddle to XP until 2009: Gartner". iTWire (iTWire). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Operating System Marketshare for Year 2007". Market Share. Net Applications. 19 November 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Vista slowly continues its growth; Linux more aggressive than Mac OS during the summer". XiTiMonitor (AT Internet/XiTi.com). 24 September 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.[dead link]
- "Global Web Stats". W3Counter. Awio Web Services LLC. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "June 2004 Zeitgeist". Google Press Center. Google Inc. 12 August 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Brockmeier, Joe (15 November 2007). "Is 2008 the Year of the Linux Desktop?". Linux Magazine. QuarterPower Media. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Global Web Stats". W3Counter. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Linux Counter (March 2009). "The Linux Counter". Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- Byfield, Bruce (May 2009). "Linux Desktop Market Share: Greater Than One Percent?". Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- Schroder, Carla (May 2009). "Tiny 1% Linux = Big Microsoft Terror". Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Gralla, Preston (May 2009). "Opinion: Why you shouldn't care about Linux on the desktop". Retrieved 20 May 2009.
- Martin, Caitlyn (September 2010). "Debunking the 1% Myth". Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- Siu, A.Y. (July 2006). "The Linux Desktop Myth". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Wallen, Jack. (September 2008). "Ten key differences between Linux and Windows". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Wallen, Jack (August 2008). "Why would anyone choose Windows over Linux?". Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- The Economist (December 2007). "Technology in 2008". Retrieved 1 April 2008 (publicly available December 2007 – May 2009, rendered members only in May 2009, quoted at http://web.ncf.ca/fn352/ubuntu.html#Economist). Check date values in:
- Kingman, Henry (June 2008). "Microsoft tactics push India toward Linux". Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- Dawson, Christopher (June 2009). "Ubuntu a minor player? Not outside the States". Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Gates, Bill (January 2001). "Comes vs Microsoft E-mail Exhibit" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- "Q&A session with Linus Torvalds: Why is Linux not competitive on desktop?". 15 June 2012.
- Leo Kelion (13 June 2012). "Linus Torvalds: Linux succeeded thanks to selfishness and trust". BBC.
- McAllister, Neil (11 September 2012), GNOME hacker: Culture isn't holding desktop Linux back, The Register, retrieved 12 August 2013
- "openSUSE 10.2 Survey Results" (PDF). openSUSE. openSUSE. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.[dead link]
- Guth, Robert A. (13 March 2007). "Linux Starts to Find Home on Desktops". The Wall Street Journal Online (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Machlis, Sharon (22 March 2007). "Living (and dying) with Linux in the workplace". Computerworld. IDG Communications. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian (21 May 2007). "Five crucial things the Linux community doesn’t understand about the average computer user". ZDNet. CNET Networks, Inc. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (3 January 2007). "Why Windows wins and Linux loses". DesktopLinux.com. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Decrem, Bart (May 2004). "Desktop Linux: Where Art Thou?". ACM Queue 2 (3): 48–56. doi:10.1145/1005062.1005067. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (6 May 2007). "Who are the Linux desktop users?". DesktopLinux.com. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Dell to use Ubuntu on Linux PCs". BBC News (BBC). 1 May 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Gonsalves, Antone (1 December 2005). "Study: Lack Of App Support Stunting Linux". TechWeb (CMP Media LLC). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Ubuntu". Dell Home & Home Office. Dell. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "2006 Desktop Linux Client Survey: Analysis" (PDF). OSDL Desktop Linux Working Group. Linux Foundation. 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (23 October 2007). "Where are the American Linux desktop users?". DesktopLinux.com (Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "2007 Desktop Linux Market survey". DesktopLinux.com. Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
- Rooney, Paula (1 April 2008). "Gartner report forecasts bad news, good news for open source". ZDNet. CNET Networks, Inc. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Linux App Finder (2008). "Windows and OS X Software Alternatives". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- TuxSoftware.com (n.d.). "Linux Software Search". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Paul, Ryan (October 2008). "OpenOffice.org 3.0 officially released". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "2005 Desktop Linux Client Survey Report" (PDF). OSDL Desktop Linux Working Group. Linux Foundation. 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Hardware and Software Not Sold on Dell Ubuntu 7.04 Computers". Dell USA. Dell. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Mossberg, Walter S. (13 September 2007). "Linux's Free System Is Now Easier to Use, But Not for Everyone". The Wall Street Journal Online (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Ohlhorst, Frank J. (21 July 2006). "A Linux OS For All". CRN. CMP Media LLC. Retrieved 19 November 2007.[dead link]
- Ramos, Geoffrey P. (29 October 2004). "Linux not ready for mass market". Techworld (IDG). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian (23 May 2007). "Three more things that the Linux community doesn’t get". ZDNet. CNET Networks, Inc. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Humphries, Dominic (December 2005). "Linux is Not Windows". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Miller, Ron (20 May 2004). "Linux Criticism Revs Up". LinuxPlanet. Jupitermedia Corporation. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Ryan, Vincent (19 June 2003). "Anti-Linux Comments Rile Supporters". NewsFactor.com (NewsFactor Network). Retrieved 19 November 2007.[dead link]
- Mears, Jennifer (13 March 2006). "Novell boosts its Linux desktop". Network World (Network World, Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- McCue, Andy (9 September 2005). "Gartner sounds desktop Linux warning". silicon.com (CNET Networks, Inc.). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Plaintiff's exhibit 2817
- Rockin' on without Microsoft | Newsmakers | CNET News.com
- Paul, Ryan (January 2009). "SCO aims to reorganize, fight on with corporate garage sale". Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Wolfe, Alexander (4 September 2004). "Green Hills calls Linux 'insecure' for defense". EE Times (CMP Media LLC). Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Linux.com (April 2007). "Open Technology within DoD, Intel Systems". Retrieved 18 October 2008.[dead link]
- Keizer, Gregg (10 April 2008). "Windows is 'collapsing,' Gartner analysts warn - The researchers damn Windows in current form, urge radical changes". Computer World. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
And increasingly, users work with "OS-agnostic applications," the two analysts said in their presentation. [...] Microsoft [...]it's going to have trouble competing with Web applications and small, specialized devices.
- Beer, Stan (2008-12-17). "Windows crushing Linux in netbook market: Acer". itwire.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
[…] Acer and other leading vendors have confirmed that Microsoft Windows XP now dominates the emerging sub-notebook market with more than 90% of new sales. Meanwhile, Linux, which had the netbooks market to itself until April this year, has seen its share of the space eroded to less than 10% in a breath-taking decline.
- McDougall, Paul (2009-04-06). "Microsoft: 96% Of Netbooks Run Windows - Gains in PC market's hottest category come at the expense of Linux, Redmond says.". InformationWeek. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
[…] United Kingdom's Car phone Warehouse dropped Linux-based netbooks after seeing return rates as high as 20%.
- Ubuntu Confirms Linux Netbook Returns Higher than Anticipated on Laptopmag.com (Joanna Stern, 6 Oct 2008)
- Williams, Rhiannon (11 July 2013). "Google Chromebook sales soar in face of PC decline". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Android Nears 80% Market Share In Global Smartphone Shipments, As iOS And BlackBerry Share Slides, Per IDC".
- Niccolai, James (September 2008). "Ballmer Still Searching for an Answer to Google". Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- Brodkin, Jon (2013-10-22). "Linux is king *nix of the data center—but Unix may live on forever". Retrieved 2013-11-01.
- "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Unix for Websites, May 2014". W3Techs. May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Netcraft, Survey May, June, July 2013
- "PacketShader - GPU-accelerated Software Router". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Operating system Family share for 11/2009 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites[dead link]
- Image:Top500 OS.png
- Vaughn-Nichols, Steven J. (June 2009). "Linux: It doesn't get any faster". Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Practical Technology (June 2009). "Linux Computer Smashes Petaflop Supercomputer Barrier". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- Strothman, Jim (September 2003). "Linux elbows into super-computer turf". Retrieved 15 October 2009.[dead link]
- "Top500 - List Statistics - June 2013". Top500.org. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Mims, Christopher (January 2010). "China Details Homemade Supercomputer Plans". Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "The Linux Devices Showcase". Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.
- "Overview of webOS". Palm, Inc. Retrieved 25 August 2010.[dead link]
- "A lei é digitalizar". softwarelivre.gov.br. Retrieved 23 March 2008. (Portuguese)
- "Portal do Projeto Software Livre Brasil". Retrieved 14 April 2012. (Portuguese)
- Womack, Brian (August 2008). "Netbooks A Linux Stronghold?". Retrieved 12 August 2008.
- Garfinkel, Simson; Spafford, Gene; Schwartz, Alan (2003). Practical UNIX and Internet Security. O'Reilly. p. 21.
- EmperorLinux (2009). "Why?". Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=fr2004_11_02_093312[dead link]
- "System76". Facebook. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Dell to use Ubuntu on Linux PCs". BBC News. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- ZaReason (October 2011). "Our Story". Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Lenovo – News – Lenovo, bilgisayarlarını Linux ile donatacak – DEFAULT
- HP launches RedHat Linux desktop PC | APC Magazine[dead link]
- iTWire – The top Linux/FOSS events of 2007
- Dell Will Ship Ubuntu in Canada and Latin America – Inspiron 1525n will ship with Ubuntu 7.10 – Softpedia
- Dell Is Shipping Systems with Ubuntu Pre-installed, in China – ... due to the high number of requests from the customers – Softpedia
- Ubuntu 7.10 Now Available to Customers in China on the Inspiron 530 Desktop[dead link]
- – Acer bets big on Linux
- Paul, Ryan (August 2008). "IBM targets Microsoft with desktop Linux initiative". Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- Vance, Ashlee (January 2009). "A Software Populist Who Doesn’t Do Windows". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
- Pope, Alan (May 2009). "Asus, a fair weather friend". Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- Asus (May 2009). "It's Better With Windows – Here's Why". Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- Gedda, Rodney (May 2009). "Has ASUS all but given up on Linux?". Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Judge, Peter (July 2009). "Asus Dumps Linux From The Eee". Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (May 2010). "Has ASUS abandoned netbook Linux?". Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Spaleta, Jef (May 2009). "Giving accurate Fedora client counting the 115% effort it deserves.". Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- Kerner, Michael (April 2010). "Ubuntu Claims 12 Million Users as Lucid Linux Desktop Nears". Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Nowak, Peter (June 2010). "Quebec broke law in buying Microsoft software". CBC News. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Hachman, Mark (2010-10-05). "Nielsen: Android Is Most Popular Smartphone OS | News & Opinion". PCMag.com. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- "November 2012". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Survey: Bosses are DESPERATE and GAGGING for Linux skills". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "9 Powerful Things Powered By Linux!". 8 November 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Projekt "Limux" in München: Umstieg auf Linux abgeschlossen". Der Standard. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (12 March 2014). "Ubuntu Phones to Cost $200 to $400 — Can they be a Success at this Price?". OMG Ubuntu. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Guerrini, Federico. "City of Turin decides to ditch Windows XP for Ubuntu and €6m saving". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Gummersbach: Deutsche Stadt stellt auf Linux um". Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- O/S market share monthly estimations, based on internet traffic
- LinuxWorld: What's Driving Global Linux Adoption?
- OSDL Desktop Linux Client Survey
- Canadian Provincial Medical Association To Use Open Source Platform For EMR Project[dead link]
- IDC: Latin America Linux Migration Trends 2005[dead link]
- OSDL Claims Linux Making Major Gains in Global Retail Sector
- Linux Advocacy mini-HOWTO
- Measuring total cost of ownership
- Gartner: Open source will quietly take over
- IDC: Linux-Related Spending Could Top $49B by 2011
- Red Hat – Open Source Activity Map[dead link]
- October 2004 interview with Linus Torvalds on commercial potential of Linux software