July 20, 1964 |
|Institution||Duke University Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions|
|Alma mater||Yale University
College of William & Mary
Linwood Pendleton (born July 20, 1964) is an American environmental economist and a Senior Scholar of Ocean and Coastal Policy at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. Since October 2014, he holds the International Chair in Marine Ecosystem Services at LabexMER and European Institute for Marine Studies (IUEM - University of Western Brittany). Pendleton is also an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Duke University Marine Laboratory, part of the Nicholas School of the Environment. Previously, Pendleton served as the Director of Ocean and Coastal Policy for the Nicholas Institute from 2009-2013, and was the Acting Chief Economist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from 2011-2013.
His interests are now on international initiatives, which include projects focussing on marine ecosystem services, ocean acidification, blue carbon, and deep sea management.
Pendleton was born in Richmond, Virginia.
Before joining Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions in September 2009 as the Director of Ocean and Coastal Policy, Pendleton was senior fellow and director of economic research at The Ocean Foundation in Washington, D.C., and director of the Coastal Ocean Values Center in North Sandwich, New Hampshire. Prior to that, he held the position of associate professor of environmental science and engineering at UCLA, assistant professor of economics and finance at the University of Wyoming, and assistant professor of economics at the University of Southern California. In addition to a master's degrees in Public Administration from Harvard University and Ecology from Princeton University, Pendleton received a doctoral degree in Forestry and Environmental Studies from Yale University in 1997. Pendleton has served on (and currently serves on) several government and scholarly advisory boards and committees, including the California Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, where he served on the statewide Science Advisory Team and Central Coast Subteam.  He currently sits on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics (JOCE).
Pendleton's work is focused in the field of marine and coastal economics where he studies the effects of environmental change on the economics of ocean and coastal use.
In 2002, Pendleton published a report titled “A Preliminary Study of the Value of Coastal Tourism in Rincon, Puerto Rico” assessing the percentage of Rincon's income that has coastal tourism as its source. Pendleton stated that "should the quality of the coastal and ocean resources of the area become impaired, it is likely that a large portion of Rincon's economy will be lost" and estimated the annual income generated by tourism related to coastal and ocean resources to be greater than $51.9 million. The information from this 2002 report has been cited as instrumental to the designation of the Tres Palmas Marine Reserve (in 2008) as a marine protected area, resulting in the protection of “one of the last remaining elkhorn coral reefs in the Caribbean” and the continued status of Rincon as a “surfing epicenter”.
Pendleton worked with NOAA in 2005 on the National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP) as a nonmarket research specialist. The goal of this program was to determine the value of ocean and coastal resources to give coastal managers a “better understanding of the value of an area’s resources and how important they are to local and national economies.”
In the United States Pendleton has studied water quality off the beaches of Southern California, looking at the “economic contributions” of beaches and the impact that water quality has on that “contribution” including the “costs associated with pollution of coastal waters and the economic benefits associated with cleaning them.” His studies have included an investigation (in 2006) of the costs of health care and time missed from work by beachgoers due to illness related to low water quality at several South California beaches.
Also in Southern California, Pendleton’s research on behalf of the Santa Monica Bay Restoration Foundation played a role in instituting the Marine Life Protection Act, creating marine reserves off Westward Beach, Point Dume and Paradise Cove (in 2009). Pendleton’s study surveyed California residents about their visits to the coast and determined that “more than 90 percent of visits to the Southern California coast are for ‘non consumptive’ activities such as scuba diving, tide-pooling and surfing, and that such ‘non-take’ activities bring more money to coastal economies than ‘consumptive activities’ like fishing.” Data collected related to the impact visits to the coast have on coastal economies showed that consumptive visits brought $2.5 million to these economies while non-consumptive visits were the source of an almost $115 million.
During his time at The Ocean Foundation’s Coastal Ocean Values Center in 2008, Pendleton coauthored and edited the published book “The Economic and Market Value of Coasts and Estuaries: What’s At Stake?” which presented the findings of a study assessing “the economic value of the nation’s coastal areas in excess of hundreds of billions of dollars”. The study also found that although estuaries and coasts cover a small percentage of the total land area of United States (only 13%) they are home to 43% of the United States’ population and produce 49% of the its economic output. In discussion of the findings of the study, Pendleton said “We are only now coming to grips with the enormity of the economic value and potential from sustainable uses of our coastal resources, and more importantly, the potential economic losses we suffer each year because of underinvestment in coastal protection and restoration.”
Also during his time at The Coastal Ocean Values Center, Pendleton collaborated on a reference guide titled “Coral Reefs, Mangroves and Seagrass Economic Values: A Global Compilation” (2008) which compiled statistics on the economic value of marine resources with the goal of providing that information to managers and planners of marine and coastal development to promote sustainable development of coastal and marine areas. Regarding the contents and purpose of the guide, Pendleton said “This guide will give planners and conservationists scientific evidence of the economic importance of the other values provided by coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grasses.”
In 2010, Pendleton's work focused on rethinking the operation, maintenance, and management funding of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. As part of this work he undertook an expedition aboard his personal vessel, Indicator, travelling up the waterway from the Duke Marine Lab in Beaufort, NC to the Chesapeake Bay in July 2010. At the end of the expedition, Pendleton convened a policy lab in Washington, DC to bring together stakeholders interested in the Waterway’s future such as governmental agency officials, commercial and recreational waterway users, environmental scientists and economists. The policy lab was convened at the request of Congressman Mike McIntyre and was planned as the first of a series of three meetings to discuss the Waterway. Pendleton’s purpose in planning an expedition prior to the policy lab was to gain a “sea level perspective” of the challenges the waterway faced. He stated: “I don’t think you can speak credibly about managing the waterway without spending time on it. When you’re at the helm, it’s a completely different story.”
As the LabexMer International Chair in Marine Ecosystem Services, Pendleton is gathering a new research team whose goal is to develop the use of ecosystem services' theoretical framework and data to improve the management of coastal and marine areas. This includes the following projects:
- Using Impact Analysis and the Vulnerability Framework to understand the impact of Ocean Acidification on human communities ;
- Applying an Ecosystem Services Approach to Marine Management (VALMER) ;
- Blue Forests and Blue Carbon (Global Environmental Facility program) ;
- Extra-Local Ecosystem Services (Mapping Ocean Wealth Program) ;
- Combining Earth Observations and Ecosystem Data to Monitor the Impact of Protected Areas on Ecosystem Services (European Commission's H2020 program).
- 22 February 2017, "From Caimans to Carbon," Marine Lab Seminar Series
Pendleton comments frequently in newspapers and online media, referenced below.
- May 2016, "Where’s all the sand in La Jolla's beaches?" in La Jolla Light (interviewed)
- May 2015, Op-Ed, "Don't weaken America's fisheries law" The News&Observer, Raleigh, NC (author).
- May 2015, Stirn, A. "Goldgrund" Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazin (quoted).
- April 2015, podcast, "You Say Conservation is Good for People Well, Prove It" on Apple itunes (writer and narrator)
- February 2015, Spotts, P. "Mussels, clams hit by ocean acidification: how effects could be forestalled" The Christian Science Monitor (quoted).
- February 2015, Profeta, T., Duke NIEPS, "The Climate Post" National Geographic (quoted).
- September 2014, "Marine Ecosystem Services: How Is That Valuation Thing Treating You?" MESP website (author)
- November 2014, Barrett, K. "Pendleton Highlights Need to Communicate The Value of Marine Ecosystem Services to Wider Audience" Ecosystem Marketplace (interview).
- April 2014, Junida, A.I. "Kawasan pesisir Indonesia punya potensi tinggi" antaranews.com (quoted).
- April 2014 Tanggal, P. "Penumpukan Sampah Ancam Pesisir Indonesia" Harian Terbit (quoted).
- March 2014 Amberger, M. "Tagbau am Meeresgrund steht vor der Tür" futurezone (quoted).
- February 2014, Santini, J. "Científicos advierten por la explotación de fondos marinos" El Observador (quoted).
- February 2014 Laperche, D. "L'appel de scientifiques pour préserver les fonds marins d'une exploitation intensive" ActuEnvironnement.com (quoted).
- February 2014 "Les fonds marins sont en grand danger, clament les scientifiques" RTBF.BE (quoted).
- February 2014 "Negli oceani ci sono molti più pesci del previsto?" Greenreport (quoted).
- February 2014, "Des scientifiques sonnent l'alarme sur l'exploitation des fonds marins" godillante.info (quoted).
- February 2014, McCauley, L. "Scientists Warn Against Mass Industrialization of Deep Sea" Mint Press News (quoted).
- February 2014, Smith, B. "Deep Ocean Management Needed to Protect Earth's Last Frontier" redOrbit (quoted).
- April 2014, Conathan, M., Buchanan, J. and Polka, S. "The Economic Case for Restoring Coastal Ecosystems" Center for American Progress (quoted).
- February 2014, Cookson, C. "Experts call for improved 'stewardship' for deep sea mining" Financial Times ft.com/globaleconomy (quoted).
- February 2014, Kennedy, N. "Scientists call for tougher treaty to protect the deep ocean" SciDevNet (quoted).
- June 2013, Wall, T. "Investments in Clean Beaches Pay Off" Discovery News (quoted).
- June 2013 Usheroff, M. "Surfonomics: What's the value of a wave?" The Orange County Register (quoted).
- October 2012, "La destrucción de hábitats costeros promueve de forma importante ele fecto invernadero" Noticias de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (quoted).
- September 2012, Live Science Staff "Wetland Destruction May Be Major Carbon Culprit" livescience.com (quoted).
- September 2012, provided by Duke University "Destroyed coastal habitats produce significant greenhouse gas" Phys.Org (quoted).
- September 2012 Armstrong, D. "Blue Carbon estimates up!" The Earth Times (quoted).
- August 2012, Thomas, G. "Surfonomics quantifies the worth of waves" The Washington Post (quoted).
- July 2012, Jarful, D. "DC Service Transforms Faculty Research and Teaching" DukeToday (quoted).
- March 2012, Miles, K. "California Rising Sea Levels Threaten Southern California Beaches" The Huffington Post (quoted).
- February 2012, "Climate effects on Calif. beaches studied" UPI.com (quoted).
- February 2012, Barboza, T. "California beach towns: Who wins, who loses as sea levels rise" Los Angeles Times (quoted).
- February 2012 Johnson, R. "Blue Economy Can Protect Mediterranean Sea" Global Perspectives (quoted).
- January 2012, UNEP. "Green investment needed in marine sector to trigger economic, social benefits - UN" UN News Centre (quoted).
- January 2012, Barringer, F. "Home, Home... on Less Range" NY Times (green blog) (quoted).
- January 2012, "La inversión en el secgtor marino crea empleo" (quoted).
- January 2012, "Pnuma: sustentabilidade pode alavancar produtividade marinha" Terra Brasil (quoted).
- January 2012, Mazzantini, U. "Green economy nel mare blu: una marea di benefici economici e sociali" Greenreport (quoted).
- May 2010 Hargreaves, S. "Oil spill: How much is a pelican worth?" CNNMoney (quoted).
Pendleton is the editor or co-author of 2 books and several peer-reviewed scientific papers, several of which are referenced below.
Selected marine and coastal articles:
- 2015, Pendleton, L., Krowicki, F., Strosser, P., and Hallett-Murdoch, J. "Assessing the Economic Contribution of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Sargasso Sea. NI R 14-05. Durham, NC: Duke University.
- 2015, Wasson, K., Suarez, B., Akhavan, A., McCarthy, E., Kildow, J., Johnson, K.S., Fountain, M.C., Woolfolk, A., Silberstein, M. Pendleton, L., Feliz, D. "Lessons learned from an ecosystem-based management approach to restoration of a California estuary" In Marine Policy.
- 2015, Clark, N.A., Ardron, J.A., Pendleton, L.H. "Evaluating the basic elements of transparency of regional fisheries management organizations" In Marine Policy.
- 2015, Pendleton, L.H. "Signed Peer Reviews as a Means to Improve Scholarly Publishing" In Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics.
- 2015, Ekstrom, J.A., Suatoni, L., Cooley, S.R., Pendleton, L.H., Waldbusser, G.G., Cinner, J.R., Langdon, C., van Hooidonk, R., Gledhill, D., Wellman, K., Beck, M.W., Brander, L.M., Rittschof, D., Doherty, C., Edwards, P.E.T., Portela, R. "Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification" In Nature Climate Change.
- 2014, Vegh, T., Jungwiwattanaporn, M., Pendleton, L., Murray, B. "Mangrove Ecosystem Services Valuation: State of the Literature" NI WP 14-06.
- 2014, Svensson, L.E. and Pendleton, L. "Transitioning to a New Blue Economy: Proceedings of the December 2013 Economics of the Ocean Summit" NI CP 14-01.
- 2014, Svensson, L.E. and Pendleton, L. "Working toward a More Valuable Ocean: Concepts and Ideas from Thinkers and Doers" NI WP14-01.
- 2014, 2. Börger, T., Beaumont, N., Pendleton, L., Boyle, K. Cooper, P. Fletcher, S. Haab, T., Hanemann, M. Hooper, T., Hussain, S., Portela, R., Stithou, M., Stockhill, J. Taylor, T. and M. Austen. "Incorporating Ecosystem Services in Marine Planning: The Role of Valuation" In Marine Policy.
- 2014, Barbier, E. Moreno-Mateos, D., Rogers, A., Aronoson, J. Pendleton, L. Danovaro, R., Henry, L., Morato, T., Ardron, J. and C. van Dover "Ecology: Protect the Deep Sea". In Nature.
- 2013, Baker, E., Beaudoin, Y. and Pendleton, L. "Deep Sea Minerals and the Green Economy" (Eds.) Ch. 8, Vol. 2, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.
- 2013, Pendleton, L., Solgaard, A., Hoagland, P., Holland, P., Hanley, N., Jobstvogt, N. "Sustainable Economic Development and Deep Sea Mining" (Eds.) Ch. 4, Vol. 2, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.
- 2013, Van Dover, C., Aronson, J., Pendleton, L. et al. "Ecological Restoration in the Deep Sea: Desiderata" In Marine Policy.
- 2013, 3. Aminzadeh, S., Pendleton, L., Bothwell, S., Pickle, A. and A. Boehm. "U.S. Coastal and Estuarine Stormwater Management Approaches" In Choices.
- 2013, Pendleton L. et al. "Considering Coastal Carbon in Existing U.S. Federal Statutes and Policies" In Coastal Management Journal.
- 2013, Pendleton, L., Lotker, M. "Enabling Conditions and Outstanding Challenges in Marine Protection and Management" NI PB 13-02.
- 2013, Pendleton L. et al. "Growing the U.S. Economy in the Face of Weather and Climate Extremes: A Call for Better Data" Eos, Journal of the American Geophysical Union. Volume 94, Issue 25, pages 225–226.
- 2012, Pendleton L. "Amicus Curiae Brief of Dr. Linwood Pendleton Regarding Economic Impacts of Storm Water Runoff in Support of Respondents" Supreme Court of the United States: Los Angeles County Flood District v. Natural Resources Defense Council.
- 2013, Atiyah, P., Pendleton, L., Vaughn, R., Lessem, N. "Measuring the effects of stormwater mitigation on beach attendance" In Marine Pollution Bulletin.
- 2013, Honey-Rosés, J. and Pendleton, L.H. "A Demand Driven Research Agenda for Ecosystem Services" In Ecosystem Services.
- 2012, Pendleton, L. et al. "Estimating Global “Blue Carbon” Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems" Volume 7, No. 9. PLOS ONE.
- 2012, Murray, B. et al. "Coastal Blue Carbon and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" NI-PB 12-01, Nicholas Institute of Environmental Solutions.
- 2013, Pendleton, L., Gordon, D., Murray, B., Victor, B., Griffis, R., Sutton-Grier, A., Lechuga, J. "Considering 'Coastal Carbon' in Existing U.S. Federal Statutes and Policies" In Coastal Management.
- 2012, International Seabed Authority, et al. "Environmental Management Needs for Exploration and Exploitation of Deep Sea Minerals" ISA TECHNICAL STUDY: No.10.International Seabed Authority
- 2012, Gopnik, M. et al. "Coming to the table: Early stakeholder engagement in marine spatial planning" Volume 36, Issue 5. Marine Policy
- 2012, Beaudoin, Y. & Pendleton, L. "Why Value the Oceans?" UNEP-GRID Arendal and Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2012 United Nations Environment Programme, et al."Green Economy in a Blue World" UNEP/GRID-Arendal.
- 2011, Pendleton, L. et al. "Estimating the potential economic impacts of climate change on Southern California beaches" Volume 109, Issue 1. Climatic Change.
- 2011, Shaw, R. et al. "The impact of climate change on California’s ecosystem services" Volume 109, Issue 1. Climatic Change.
- 2011, Gordan, D. et al. "Financing Options for Blue Carbon: Opportunities and Lessons from the REDD+ Experience" NI R 11-11 Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2011, International Seabed Authority, et al. "Environmental Management of Deep-Sea Chemosynthetic Ecosystems: Justification of and Considerations for a Spatially-Based Approach" ISA Technical Study No. 9.
- 2011, Sifleet, A. et al. "State of the Science on Coastal Blue Carbon: A Summary for Policy Makers" NI R 11-06 Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2011, Murray, B., et al. "Green Payments for Blue Carbon: Economic Incentives for Protecting Threatened Coastal Habitats" NI R 11-04 C.
- 2011, Pendleton, L. et al "Size Matters: The Economic Value of Beach Erosion and Nourishment in Southern California" Volume 30, Issue 2. Contemporary Economic Policy.
- 2010, Pendleton, L. & Giles, S. "Measuring and Monitoring the Economic Effects of Restoration: Recommendations from a Blue Ribbon Panel" Volume 32, Issue 5. National Wetlands Newsletter.
- 2010, Pendleton, L. "Rethinking the Funding and Management of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway: Policy Lab 1 Executive Summary" Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2010, Murray, B. et al "Payments for Blue Carbon: Potential for Protecting Threatened Coastal Habitats" NI PB 10-05 Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2010, Pendleton, L. et al. "Marine Protection in the Gulf of Mexico: Current Policy, Future Options, and Ecosystem Outcomes" NI PB 10-04 Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2010, Pendleton, L. "Measuring and Monitoring the Economic Effects of Habitat Restoration: A Summary of a NOAA Blue Ribbon Panel" Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2009, Cantral, L. et al. "Principles for Marine Spatial Planning: Outcomes of the Ocean Industries MSP Policy Labs" Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2009, Pendleton, L. & Orbach, M. "Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning in North Carolina" NI PB 09-15 Nicholas Institute of Environmental Policy Solutions.
- 2008, Pendleton, L. "The Economics of Using Ocean Observing Systems to Improve Beach Closure Policy" Volume 36, No. 2. Coastal Management Journal.
- 2008, Pendleton, L. Are We Collecting the Right Economic Data for Conservation Needs? Indicators of Human Uses of Ecosystems in Economics and Conservation in the Tropics: A Strategic Dialogue, Resources for the Future.
- 2007, Pendleton, L. et al. Is the Non-Market Literature Adequate to Support Coastal and Marine Management? Volume 50, Issues 5-6, Pages 363-378.
- 2006, Given, S., Pendleton, L. and A. Boehm. Public Health Costs of Contaminated Coastal Waters: A Case Study of Gastroenteritis at Southern California Beaches Volume 40, No. 16, Pages 4851 -4858.
- 2006, Pendleton, L and J. Kildow. The Non-Market Value of California’s Beaches Shore and Beach (Journal of the American Shore and Beach Preservation Association), Volume 74, No. 2, Pages 34-37.
- 2004, T. Emerson and L. Pendleton. Income, Environmental Disamenity, and Toxic Releases Economic Inquiry.
- 2001, Pendleton, L. Managing Beach Amenities to Reduce Exposure to Coastal Hazards: Stormwater Coastal Management Journal, Volume 29, Pages 239-252.
- 2001, Pendleton, L., Martin, N. and D.G. Webster. Public Perceptions of Environmental Quality: A Survey Study of Beach Use and Perceptions in Los Angeles County Marine Pollution Bulletin Volume 42, Pages 1155-1160.
- 2001, Murray, C., Sohngen, B. and L. Pendleton. 2001. Valuing Water Quality Advisories and Beach Amenities in the Great Lakes Water Resources Research Volume 37, Pages 2583 – 25
- 1998, Pendleton, L. and R. Mendelsohn. Estimating the Economic Impact of Climate Change on The Freshwater Sportsfisheries of the Northeastern United States Land Economics Volume 74, Pages 483-497.
- "Pendleton Appointed Director". jdnews.com. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "Marine Policy Takes Off At ESE" (PDF). Newsletter of the UCLA Environmental Science and Engineering Program. UCLA Environmental Science and Engineering Program. p. 1. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "Class of 1997". Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "Linwood Pendleton (Fellows Directory Page)". Switzer Foundation. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "ESE Program News" (PDF). Newsletter of the UCLA Environmental Science and Engineering Program. UCLA Environmental Science and Engineering Program. p. 3. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- "State of the Beach/State Reports/PR/Beach Access". beachapedia.org. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- ""The Good The Bad & The Ugly"]". surfingmagazine.com. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Coastal and Ocean Economics" (PDF). Coastal Connections. NOAA. February–March 2005. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Costs of Closure: Public lecture explores the impacts of bacterial contamination at swimming beaches.". The Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Technology, University of New Hampshire. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Troubled Waters: Science, Policy and the Fight to Preserve Our Natural Resources". UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Fishermen, enviros butt heads over MLPA survey results". Malibu Times. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Experts Say U.S. Coasts and Estuaries Contribute Billions to Economy, but Much is at Risk". Conservation Law Foundation. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "How Much are Ocean Resources Worth?". Conservation International. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Lydecker, Ryck (April–May 2011). "Rethinking a Waterway at Eight Knots". BoatU.S. Magazine. BoatU.S. pp. 40–42. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Beamon, Cindy (August 16, 2010). "Duke prof studying Intracoastal Waterway". The Daily Advance. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "LabexMER" (PDF). LabexMer 2012-2014 Report.
- "Summary Modern Marvels Episode Guide". Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Modern Marvels - Commercial Fishing Episode Transcript". Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Surf's Up, But So Is The Bacteria Count". CBSNews.com. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Video: "Waves Of Bacteria Hanging Ten"". CBSNews.com. Retrieved 10 May 2011.