Linyi

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Linyi
临沂市
Lini
Clockwise from top: A view of the Beicheng New Area skyline, Mount Meng, Cathedral of Linyi, Linyi People's Square, The Library of Linyi University, and The Memorial Tower of Revolutionary Martyrs
Clockwise from top: A view of the Beicheng New Area skyline, Mount Meng, Cathedral of Linyi, Linyi People's Square, The Library of Linyi University, and The Memorial Tower of Revolutionary Martyrs
Location of Linyi City jurisdiction in Shandong
Location of Linyi City jurisdiction in Shandong
Coordinates (Linyi municipal government): 35°06′14″N 118°21′23″E / 35.1038°N 118.3564°E / 35.1038; 118.3564Coordinates: 35°06′14″N 118°21′23″E / 35.1038°N 118.3564°E / 35.1038; 118.3564
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShandong
County-level divisions12
Township-level divisions181
Municipal seatLanshan District
Government
 • CPC SecretaryRen Gang (任刚)
 • MayorRen Gang (任刚)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city17,192 km2 (6,638 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,293.3 km2 (885.4 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,293.3 km2 (885.4 sq mi)
Elevation
74 m (244 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city11,018,365
 • Density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Urban
3,651,868
 • Urban density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
 • Metro
3,651,868
 • Metro density1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code(s)0539
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-13
License Plate Prefix鲁Q
Administrative division code371300
Línyí
Simplified Chinese临沂
Traditional Chinese臨沂
Literal meaningclose to the Yi River [zh]

Linyi (simplified Chinese: 临沂; traditional Chinese: 臨沂; pinyin: Línyí) is a prefecture-level city in the south of Shandong province, China. As of 2011, Linyi is the largest prefecture-level city in Shandong, both by area and population, Linyi borders Rizhao to the east, Weifang to the northeast, Zibo to the north, Tai'an to the northwest, Jining to the west, Zaozhuang to the southwest, and the province of Jiangsu to the south. The name of the city Linyi (临沂) literally means "close to the Yi River".

The city recently expanded along the Yi River to Nanfang, now called the Beicheng New Area, under the slogan "Grand Linyi, Beautiful Linyi, New Linyi". Multiple recreational parks were built, along with new school campuses etc. The development is a consequence of a series of governmental projects, including relocate the city government, which is expected to stimulate the economy.

The population was 11,018,365 at the 2020 census, of which 3,651,868 lived in the built-up area made up of Lanshan District, Luozhuang District and Hedong District, as well as Linyi National Hi-Tech Zone.[3]

Administration[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Linyi administers 12 county-level divisions, including three districts and nine counties.

Map
Subdivision Chinese Pinyin
Lanshan District 兰山区 Lánshān Qū
Luozhuang District 罗庄区 Luózhuāng Qū
Hedong District 河东区 Hédōng Qū
Yinan County 沂南县 Yínán Xiàn
Tancheng County 郯城县 Tánchéng Xiàn
Yishui County 沂水县 Yíshuǐ Xiàn
Lanling County 兰陵县 Lánlíng Xiàn
Fei County 费县 Fèixiàn
Pingyi County 平邑县 Píngyì Xiàn
Junan County 莒南县 Jǔnán Xiàn
Mengyin County 蒙阴县 Méngyīn Xiàn
Linshu County 临沭县 Línshù Xiàn

The city is further divided into 181 township-level divisions.

History[edit]

Linyi has a history of 2400 years. It is home to many historical figures, notably Zhuge Liang and Wang Xizhi. In 1972, the Sun Tzu's Art of War was first discovered here,[4][5] along with other classics on hand written bamboo slips. Sun Tzu's Art of War is currently in display at Shandong Provincial museum.

On July 25, 1668, an earthquake that had an estimated magnitude of Ms  8.5,[6] occurred just northeast of Linyi, making it the largest historical earthquake in Eastern China,[7] and one of the largest in the world on land. In Linyi, no house was left standing, and black water was said to emerge from ground fissures that opened up after the earthquake.[8]

In the spring of 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the scene of fierce fighting between Chinese and Japanese troops. The civilians were encouraged by army victory in the Battle of Tai'erzhuang, which was nearby, defended Linyi fiercely, but Japanese soldiers breached the walls on April 19, 1938. The defenders withdrew the next day to another contested area 30 miles away.

In 1946, during the Chinese Civil War, the communist Directorate General of Shandong Wartime Posts was moved from the Yimeng Mountains to Linyi and renamed the Shandong Provincial Postal Administration.[9]

After the People's Republic of China was founded in October 1949, the administrative division was adjusted.

In 2005, Linyi drew international attention as a center of human rights abuses related to the enforcement of China's controversial family planning policies. Following widespread allegations of violence and coercion in excess of Chinese law, local human rights defender Chen Guangcheng filed a class action lawsuit on behalf of the victims. The local Chinese courts refused to hear the case and imprisoned Chen Guangcheng on charges of fomenting state resistance.[10] Due in part to the severity and scope of these abuses Linyi has been used by activists to criticize China's violation of women's rights.[11]

Geography[edit]

Linyi is in the south of Shandong province, not far from the ports of Rizhao, Lanshan District, Rizhao and Lianyungang. It is along the G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway as well as the Eurasian Land Bridge. The urban area lies on mostly flat land that gives way to more rugged terrain in the west and northwest of the city's administrative area, which covers 17,184 km2 (6,635 sq mi).

Climate[edit]

Linyi has a monsoon-influenced climate with generous summer precipitation, cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Under the Köppen climate classification, it is in the transition from the humid subtropical zone (Cwa) to the humid continental zone (Dwa), though favouring the former. More than half of the annual precipitation of 833 mm (32.8 in) falls in July and August alone, and the frost-free period is above 200 days.

Climate data for Linyi (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
7.5
(45.5)
13.0
(55.4)
20.3
(68.5)
25.8
(78.4)
29.4
(84.9)
30.7
(87.3)
30.0
(86.0)
26.5
(79.7)
21.2
(70.2)
13.4
(56.1)
6.6
(43.9)
19.1
(66.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
2.2
(36.0)
7.2
(45.0)
14.2
(57.6)
19.9
(67.8)
23.9
(75.0)
26.4
(79.5)
25.7
(78.3)
21.4
(70.5)
15.6
(60.1)
8.1
(46.6)
1.7
(35.1)
13.8
(56.9)
Average low °C (°F) −4.3
(24.3)
−2.0
(28.4)
2.4
(36.3)
8.9
(48.0)
14.6
(58.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23.0
(73.4)
22.3
(72.1)
17.4
(63.3)
11.1
(52.0)
3.7
(38.7)
−2.2
(28.0)
9.5
(49.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.0
(0.47)
16.0
(0.63)
24.1
(0.95)
32.7
(1.29)
77.1
(3.04)
94.5
(3.72)
235.1
(9.26)
193.1
(7.60)
72.0
(2.83)
41.2
(1.62)
24.5
(0.96)
10.5
(0.41)
832.8
(32.78)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.1 4.7 5.4 6.5 7.0 8.5 14.6 11.0 7.5 5.6 5.1 3.6 82.6
Average relative humidity (%) 61 60 59 59 64 70 82 82 74 68 65 63 67
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[12]
Source 2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000)[13]

Economy[edit]

Linyi's economy is based around its wholesale markets.[14] The Linyi Wholesale City is ranked 3rd in its category in China with an annual trade volume of 40 billion RMB (~US$5 billion). The Linyi prefecture has developed more than 1,500 specialized villages, over 80 specialized towns and nearly 800 industrialized agricultural enterprises.

In 2014 the prefecture's GDP was 369 billion RMB. Main industrial products are: textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, electronics, chemicals, building materials, coal, medicines, gold and porcelain. Machinery is exported to Europe, the Americas and south-east Asia. Linyi prefecture has an annual capacity of three million tons of compound fertilizers.

The city is served by Linyi Qiyang Airport.

Notable people[edit]

Cultural Attractions[edit]

Linyi's focal point is the People's Square (Renmin Guangchang). It was built in the early 1990s on the site of an old army barracks. It is about 500 metres (1,600 ft) east-west, and about 300 m (980 ft) north-south. Underneath it is a shopping centre and entertainment facilities.

Just north of the city centre is a park dedicated to Wang Xizhi. For a small entrance fee tourists can enjoy a pleasant walk and try Chinese calligraphy.

Near the center of Linyi city is a museum which houses some original bamboo strips from the Warring States period.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  2. ^ "China: Shāndōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ "临沂市第七次全国人口普查公报(Bulletin of the Seventh National Census of Linyi)" (in Chinese).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Yinqueshan Han Bamboo Slips" (in Chinese). Shandong Provincial Museum. 24 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  5. ^ Jonathan Clements (21 June 2012). The Art of War: A New Translation. Constable & Robinson Ltd. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-78033-131-7.
  6. ^ "25 July 1668 Tancheng (Shandong)". Global Historical Earthquake Archive. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  7. ^ Zhou, C., Diao, G., Geng, J. et al. Fault plane parameters of Tancheng M8½ earthquake on the basis of present-day seismological data. Earthq Sci 23, 567–576 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11589-010-0756-0
  8. ^ "CHINA: SHANDONG PROVINCE". NGDC. Retrieved 9 Dec 2020.
  9. ^ The Postage Stamp Catalogue of the Chinese People's Revolutionary War Period, published by the China Postage Stamp Museum
  10. ^ Pan, Philip P. (July 8, 2006). "Chinese to Prosecute Peasant Who Resisted One-Child Policy". Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  11. ^ "Transcript: An Evaluation of 30 Years of the One-Child Policy in China" (PDF). Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  12. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  13. ^ "临沂 - 气象数据 -中国天气网".
  14. ^ From a booklet compiled by the Linyi Municipal People's Government (2003)

External links[edit]