Lions Clubs International

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Lions Clubs International
Lions clubs international logo.jpg
Lions Clubs International Logo
Motto "We Serve"
Formation June 7, 1917
Founder Melvin Jones
Type Secular service club
Headquarters Oak Brook, Illinois, United States
Membership
1,400,000
President
Dr. Jitsuhiro Yamada
Website http://www.lionsclubs.org

Lions Clubs International (LCI) is a secular, non-political service organization founded by Melvin Jones in 1917. As of April 2015, it had over 46,000 local clubs and more than 1.4 million members in over 200 countries around the world.[1] Headquartered in Oak Brook, Illinois, United States, the organization aims to meet the needs of communities on a local and global scale.

History[edit]

Bust of Melvin Jones in Madrid, Spain.

Lions Clubs International, a service membership organization of over 1.4 million members world-wide (as of April 2015), was founded in the United States on June 7, 1917, by Melvin Jones,[2] a Chicago businessman. Jones asked, with regard to his colleagues, "What if these men who are successful because of their drive, intelligence and ambition, were to put their talents to work improving their communities?" Jones' personal code, "You can't get very far until you start doing something for somebody else," reminds many Lions of the importance of community service.[3]

The Lions motto is "We Serve." Local Lions Club programs include sight conservation, hearing and speech conservation, diabetes awareness, youth outreach, international relations, environmental issues, and many other programs.[4]

Purpose[edit]

The stated purposes of Lions Clubs International are:

  • To Organize, charter and supervise service clubs to be known as Lions clubs.
  • To Coordinate the activities and standardize the administration of Lions clubs.
  • To Create and foster a spirit of understanding among the peoples of the world.
  • To Promote the principles of good government and good citizenship.
  • To Take an active interest in the civic, cultural, social and moral welfare of the community.
  • To Unite the clubs in the bonds of friendship, good fellowship and mutual understanding.
  • To Provide a forum for the open discussion of all matters of public interest; provided, however, that partisan politics and sectarian religion shall not be debated by club members.
  • To Encourage service-minded people to serve their community without personal financial reward, and to encourage efficiency and promote high ethical standards in commerce, industry, professions, public works and private endeavors.[4]

Charitable work[edit]

Much of the focus of Lions Clubs International work as a service club organization is to raise money for worthy causes. All funds raised by Lions Clubs from the general public are used for charitable purposes, and administrative costs are kept strictly separate and paid for by members. Some of the money raised for a club’s charity account goes toward projects that benefit the local community of an individual club.

Service projects[edit]

Lions Clubs plan and participate in a wide variety of service projects that meet the international goals of Lions Clubs International as well as the needs of their local communities. Examples include donations to hospices,[5] or community campaigns such as Message in a bottle, a United Kingdom and Ireland initiative which places a plastic bottle with critical medical information inside the refrigerators of vulnerable people.[6] Money is also raised for international purposes. Some of this is donated in reaction to events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Other money is used to support international campaigns, coordinated by the Lions Clubs International Foundation (LCIF), such as Sight First and Lions World Sight Day, which was launched in 1998 to draw world media attention to the plight of sight loss in the third world.[7] Lions take on all sorts of various fundraisers to fund these projects. For example, the Dublin, Virginia Lions Club host two flea markets a year, and sell their famous Lion Dog, a fresh prepared variation of a corn dog.[8]

Lions focus on work for the blind and visually impaired began when Helen Keller addressed the international convention at Cedar Point, Ohio, on 30 June 1925 and charged Lions to be Knights of the Blind.

Lions also have a strong commitment to community hearing- and cancer-screening projects. In Perth, Western Australia, they have conducted hearing screening for over 30 years and provided seed funding for the Lions Ear and Hearing Institute established September 9, 2001, a center of excellence in the diagnosis, management, and research of ear and hearing disorders.[9] In Perth, Lions have also been instrumental in the establishment of the Lions Eye Institute. In Brisbane, Queensland, the Lions Medical Research Foundation provides funding to a number of researchers. Ian Frazer's initial work, leading to the development of a HPV vaccine for the human papillomavirus which could lead to cervical cancer, was funded by the Lions Medical Research Foundation.

Lions Clubs International has supported the work of the United Nations since that organization's inception in 1945, when it was one of the non-governmental organizations invited to assist in the drafting of the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, California.

Lions Club Bridge, a symbol for International Friendship and Cooperation (location: Aachen-Lichtenbusch, German-Belgian Border checkpoint)

Lions Clubs International Foundation[edit]

Lions Clubs International Foundation is "Lions helping Lions serve the world".[10] Donations provide funding in the form of grants to financially assist Lions districts with large-scale humanitarian projects that are too expansive and costly for Lions to finance on their own.[11] The Foundation aids Lions in making a greater impact in their local communities, as well as around the world. Through LCIF, Lions ease pain and suffering and bring healing and hope to people worldwide. Major initiatives of the foundation include the following:

  • SightFirst programs
    • Childhood Blindness Project
    • Lions Eye Health Program (LEHP, pronounced "leap")
    • River blindness/Trachoma
    • SightFirst China Action
    • Sight for Kids
  • Other sight programs
    • Core 4 Preschool
    • Vision Screening
  • Disability programs
  • Youth Programs
    • LEO Clubs
    • Lions Quest [12]
    • Lion Cubs [13]

SightFirst[edit]

Upon endorsing the biggest ever collaborative disease eradication programme called the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases launched on 30 January 2012 in London, the organization has implemented SightFirst program by which it aims to eradicate blindness due to trachoma, one of the neglected tropical diseases. It has allocated over US$11 million in 10 countries for eye surgeries, medical training, distribution of Zithromax and tetracycline, and sanitary services. It has also announced US$6.9 million funding to support the Government of China for the same cause.[14][15]

Membership[edit]

Membership is by "invitation only" as mandated by its constitution and by-laws. All member applicants need a sponsor who is an active member and of good standing in the club they intend to join. Membership applications, moreover, are subject to the approval of the Club's Board of Directors. Attendance at meetings is encouraged on a monthly or fortnightly basis. Due to the hierarchical nature of Lions Clubs International, members have the opportunity to advance from a local club to an office at the zone, district, multiple district, and international levels.

In 1987 the constitution of Lions Clubs International was amended to allow for women to become members.[16] Since then many clubs have admitted women, but some all-male clubs still exist. In 2003, 8 out of 17 members at the Lions Club in Worcester, England, resigned when a woman joined the club.[17] Despite this setback the club is now flourishing with 19 members, 7 of whom are women. Women's membership numbers continue to grow throughout the association.

Spread of Lionism[edit]

International Lions Club Hong Kong

Lions Clubs around the world[edit]

Map showing Lions Clubs involvement around the globe.

The organization became international on 12 March 1920, when the first club in Canada was established in Windsor, Ontario. Lions Clubs have since spread across the globe and have a current membership roster of 1,368,683 members worldwide.[18] Listed below are the dates of entry for some countries and regions.

Extensions of the Lions family[edit]

In addition to adult Lions Clubs, the Lions family includes Lioness Clubs, Leo Clubs, Campus Lions Clubs and Lion Cubs. These divisions are important parts of Lions Clubs International. They allow service-minded individuals the opportunity to build better communities at the high school and college or university level.

Lioness Clubs[edit]

Lioness Club Membership is generally for service-minded women, with exceptions of men also becoming Lioness members nowadays. They are formed under a parent Lions Club. The Lions Club thus becomes the Parent Club for the Lioness Club. Naming of the Club is also like that of the Lions Club—e.g., Lions Club of Vadodara (Race Course Circle) Dist 323F-1 forming and sponsoring a Lioness Club of Vadodara (Race Course Circle) Dist 323F-1. In many areas, particularly the United States, Lioness clubs have disbanded and merged into their parent clubs to make a more effective club as a whole.

Leo Clubs[edit]

Main article: Leo clubs

Leo Clubs are an extension of the Lions service organization which aims to encourage community service and involvement from a young age. Leo Clubs much like Lioness Clubs are sponsored by a parent Lions Club. Leo Clubs are a common school-based organization with members between the ages of 12 and 18 from the same school, these are commonly referred to as Alpha Leo Clubs. Community based clubs also exist, these generally cater for 18- to 30-year-olds and are referred to as Omega Leo Clubs. Leo Clubs are required to have a Leo Club Advisor, a member of the sponsoring Lions Club who attends meetings and provides general advice to the club. Lions International includes more than 144,000 Leo club members in 139 countries.[24]

Campus Lions Clubs[edit]

Many Leos join a Campus Lions Club if they attend a university or college after high school graduation. There are more than 600 Campus Lions clubs in the world including nearly 13,000 members on college and university campuses in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, England, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Mongolia, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, United States, Venezuela, Kenya, Zimbabwe,Legon Lions Club in University of Ghana and Ghana-Lions KNUST. Campus Lions Clubs empower their members to create meaningful change in their communities while developing leadership and professional skills.[25]

Lion Cubs[edit]

Lion Cubs is a youth service organization for the elementary aged students (ages eight to twelve). The first club was chartered in the Owen J. Roberts School District in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, United States. It was developed for students in 4th through 6th grade, and therefore too young to be a Leo Club member. The clubs (one club in each of five elementary schools) started their meetings and activities in September 2008 and were officially chartered March 24, 2009. The club is sponsored by the Coventry Lions Club of District 14P. The Lion Cubs first year (2008-09) had 179 charter members.[26]

International convention[edit]

An international convention is held annually in cities across the globe for members to meet other Lions, elect the coming year's officers, and partake in the many activities planned. At the convention, Lions can participate in elections and parades, display and discuss fundraisers and service projects, and trade pins and other souvenirs. The first convention was held in 1917, the first year of the club's existence, in Dallas, Texas. The 2006 convention was due to be held in New Orleans, but damage sustained during Hurricane Katrina meant that the convention had to be relocated to Boston.[27]

Past conventions[edit]

The name of the International President inaugurated at the convention, and their home country, is listed after the location of each convention.

  • 98th 2015 Honolulu, Hawaii, USA - Lion Dr. Jitsuhiro Yamada (Japan)
  • 97th 2014 Toronto, Canada - Lion Joe Preston (USA)
  • 96th 2013 Hamburg, Germany - Lion Barry Palmer (Australia)
  • 95th 2012 Busan, South Korea - Lion Wayne Madden (USA)
  • 94th 2011 Seattle, Washington, USA - Lion Wing-Kun Tam (China)
  • 93rd 2010 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - Lion Sid Scruggs III (USA)
  • 92nd 2009 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA - Lion Eberhard Wirfs (Germany)
  • 91st 2008 Bangkok, Thailand - Lion Al Brandel (USA)
  • 90th 2007 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Mahendra Amarasuriya (Sri Lanka)
  • 89th 2006 Boston, Massachusetts, USA - Lion Jimmy Ross (USA)
  • 88th 2005 Hong Kong - Lion Dr. Ashok Mehta (India)
  • 87th 2004 Detroit, Michigan, USA - Lion Dr. Clement Kusiak (USA)
  • 86th 2003 Denver, Colorado, USA - Lion Dr. Tae-Sup Lee (Republic of Korea)
  • 85th 2002 Osaka, Japan - Lion Kay Fukushima (USA)
  • 84th 2001 Indianapolis, Indiana, USA - Lion Frank Moore III (USA)
  • 83rd 2000 Honolulu, Hawaii, USA - Lion Dr. Jean Behar (France)
  • 82nd 1999 San Diego, California, USA - Lion James Ervin (USA)
  • 81st 1998 Birmingham, England, UK - Lion Kajit Habanananda (Thailand)
  • 80th 1997 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA - Lion Judge Howard Patterson (USA)
  • 79th 1996 Montreal, Quebec, Canada - Lion Augustin Soliva (Brazil)
  • 78th 1995 Seoul, South Korea - Lion Dr. William Wunder (USA)
  • 77th 1994 Phoenix, Arizona, USA - Lion Professor Dr. Giuseppe Grimaldi (Italy)
  • 76th 1993 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA - Lion James Coffey (USA)
  • 75th 1992 Hong Kong - Lion Rohit Mehta (India)
  • 74th 1991 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia - Lion Donald Banker (USA)
  • 73rd 1990 St. Louis, Missouri, USA - Lion William Biggs (USA)
  • 72nd 1989 Miami/Miami Beach, Florida, USA - Lion William Woolard (USA)
  • 71st 1988 Denver, Colorado, USA - Lion Austin Jennings (USA)
  • 70th 1987 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC - Lion Judge Brian Stevenson (Canada)
  • 69th 1986 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA - Lion Sten Akestam (Sweden)
  • 68th 1985 Dallas, Texas, USA - Lion Joseph Wroblewski (USA)
  • 67th 1984 San Francisco, California, USA - Lion Bert Mason (Northern Ireland)
  • 66th 1983 Honolulu, Hawaii, USA - Lion Dr. James Fowler (USA)
  • 65th 1982 Atlanta, Georgia, USA - Lion Everett Grindstaff (USA)[28]
  • 64th 1981 Phoenix, Arizona, USA - Lion Kaoru Murakami (Japan)
  • 63rd 1980 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion William Chandler (USA)
  • 62nd 1979 Montreal, Quebec, Canada - Lion Lloyd Morgan (New Zealand)
  • 61st 1978 Tokyo, Japan - Lion Ralph Lynam (USA)
  • 60th 1977 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA - Lion Joseph McLoughlin (USA)
  • 59th 1976 Honolulu, Hawaii, USA - Lion Professor João Fernando Sobral (Brazil)
  • 58th 1975 Dallas, Texas, USA - Lion Harry Aslan (USA)
  • 57th 1974 San Francisco, California, USA - Lion Johnny Balbo (USA)
  • 56th 1973 Miami, Florida, USA - Lion Tris Coffin (Canada)
  • 55th 1972 Mexico City, Mexico - Lion George Friedrichs (France)
  • 54th 1971 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA - Lion Robert Uplinger (USA)
  • 53rd 1970 Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA - Lion Dr. Robert McCullough (USA)
  • 52nd 1969 Tokyo, Japan - Lion W R Bryan (USA)
  • 51st 1968 Dallas, Texas, USA - Lion David Evans (USA)
  • 50th 1967 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Jorge Bird (Puerto Rico)
  • 49th 1966 New York, New York, USA - Lion Edward Lindsey (USA)
  • 48th 1965 Los Angeles, California, USA - Lion Dr. Walter Campbell (USA)
  • 47th 1964 Toronto, Ontario, Canada - Lion Claude De Vorss (USA)
  • 46th 1963 Miami, Florida, USA - Lion Aubrey Green (USA)
  • 45th 1962 Nice, France - Lion Curtis Lovill (USA)
  • 44th 1961 Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA - Lion Per Stahl (Sweden)
  • 43rd 1960 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Finis Davis (USA)
  • 42nd 1959 New York, New York, USA - Lion Clarence Sturm (USA)
  • 41st 1958 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Dudley Simms (USA)
  • 40th 1957 San Francisco, California, USA - Lion Edward Barry (USA)
  • 39th 1956 Miami, Florida, USA - Lion John Stickley (USA)
  • 38th 1955 Atlantic City New Jersey, USA - Lion Humberto Valenzuela Garcia (Chile)
  • 37th 1954 New York, New York, USA - Lion Monroe Nute (USA)
  • 36th 1953 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion S A Dodge (USA)
  • 35th 1952 Mexico City, Mexico - Lion Edgar Elbert (USA)
  • 34th 1951 Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA - Lion Harold Nutter (USA)
  • 33rd 1950 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion H C Petry, Jr. (USA)
  • 32nd 1949 New York, New York, USA - Lion Walter Fisher (Canada)
  • 31st 1948 New York, New York, USA - Lion Dr. Eugene Briggs (USA)
  • 30th 1947 San Francisco, California, USA - Lion Fred Smith (USA)
  • 29th 1946 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA - Lion Clifford Pierce (USA)
  • ---- 1945 none held - Lion Dr. Ramiro Collazo (Cuba)
  • 28th 1944 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion D A Skeen (USA)
  • 27th 1943 Cleveland, Ohio, USA - Lion Dr. E G Gill (USA)
  • 26th 1942 Toronto, Ontario, Canada - Lion Edward Paine (USA)
  • 25th 1941 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA - Lion George Jordan (USA)
  • 24th 1940 Havana, Cuba - Lion Karl Sorrick (USA)
  • 23rd 1939 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - Lion Alexander Wells (USA)
  • 22nd 1938 Oakland, California, USA - Lion Walter Dexter (USA)
  • 21st 1937 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Frank Birch (USA)
  • 20th 1936 Providence, Rhode Island, USA - Lion Edwin Kingley (USA)
  • 19th 1935 Mexico City, Mexico - Lion Richard Osenbaugh (USA)
  • 18th 1934 Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA - Lion Vincent Hascall (USA)
  • 17th 1933 St. Louis, Missouri, USA - Lion Roderick Beddow (USA)
  • 16th 1932 Los Angeles, California, USA - Lion Charles Hatton (USA)
  • 15th 1931 Toronto, Ontario, Canada - Lion Julen Hyer (USA)
  • 14th 1930 Denver, Colorado, USA - Lion Earle Hodges (USA)
  • 13th 1929 Louisville, Kentucky, USA - Lion Ray Riley (USA)
  • 12th 1928 Des Moines, Iowa, USA - Lion Ben Ruffin (USA)
  • 11th 1927 Miami, Florida, USA - Lion Irving Camp (USA)
  • 10th 1926 San Francisco, California, USA - Lion William Westfall (USA)
  • 9th 1925 Cedar Point, Ohio, USA - Lion Benjamin Jones (USA)
    *At the 9th convention, Lions accepted Helen Keller's challenge to become Knights of the Blind
  • 8th 1924 Omaha, Nebraska, USA - Lion Harry Newman (Canada)
  • 7th 1923 Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA - Lion John Noel (USA)
  • 6th 1922 Hot Springs, Arkansas, USA - Lion Ed Vaught (USA)
  • 5th 1921 Oakland, California, USA - Lion Ewen Cameron (USA)
  • 4th 1920 Denver, Colorado, USA - Lion Dr. C C Reid (USA)
  • 3rd 1919 Chicago, Illinois, USA - Lion Jesse Robinson (USA)
  • 2nd 1918 St. Louis, Missouri, USA - Lion L H Lewis (USA)
  • 1st 1917 Dallas, Texas, USA - Lion Dr. W P Woods (USA)

Upcoming conventions[edit]

Conspiracy theories[edit]

The Lions have been accused of being involved in the "New World Order" plot, along with the Freemasons, for the supposed purpose of sabotaging societies and achieving Zionist interests. The most prominent of these claims came from the thirty-four-article Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas), released in 1988, defining its goals, objectives, and world view. The Lions Clubs are mentioned twice (in Articles 22 and 28[29]) as a Zionist front, clearly perceived as an enemy of Islam.[30]

Indonesian Islamic hardliners have called for a ban on the Lions Club,[31] saying it is part of a Zionist conspiracy. The club has been called an "infidel" front for Freemasonry and the world Zionist movement and threatened Islam in the world's most populous Muslim country.

Given that many Freemasons are members of Lions Clubs, and its founder, Melvin Jones, was also a Freemason,[32] modern conspiracy theories have claimed that the Lions are connected to and act cohesively with Freemasonry. One example is found on Martha F. Lee's Conspiracy Rising: Conspiracy Thinking and American Public Life. It says that the "Freemasons are apparently in cahoots with the Lions Clubs and involved in plots ranging from the distribution of aspartame to control the human mind, to the death of John Paul I, to an apparent plot to spread Zionism."[33]

This perception, according to a Freemasonry website, can be traced to John Robison and the Abbé Barruel's unfounded writings on the causes of the French Revolution, Léo Taxil's late 19th-century hoax and the debunked Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The charter's current status within Hamas, the Masonic website claims, is unclear.[29] It has never been formally adopted since Hamas was elected as the Palestinian government in 2006. In 2012 Australia-based website 'Martial Arts Council For The Protection of Children Against Government Child Abuse' claimed that Freemasonry and Lions Club have links on the McKenna 'Pedophile Brotherhood' cover-ups.

While there is no direct link between the Lions and the Masons, they are compatible and may have overlapping membership, as evidenced by a speech delivered in 2004 to a Lions Club by a Mason named James F. Kirk-White.[34] The topic of the talk was "Sharing Freemasonry Within Your Community". That Masons recruit from fraternal organizations such as the Lions among others. Their compatibility, moreover, is evidenced by the Masons in Albion, New York offering space for the Lions at a Masonic Lodge.[35] Others also believe that the Lions Clubs actually are a "secret society" that has a great deal of secret ritual within its structure.[36] According to them the Lions are one of those social groups belonging to a secret society that demand an oath of allegiance to join.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Youtube Address from Lions International President Preston". April 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-10. 
  2. ^ "Melvin Jones biography". The Points of Light Foundation. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Melvin Jones Biography". Archived from the original on 2007-09-19. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  4. ^ a b "Leadership Development Programs". Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  5. ^ "Lions share flower carpet riches". BBC News. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  6. ^ "Scheme not bottling out of aid". BBC News. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  7. ^ "Webcast fights blindness". BBC News. 13 October 1999. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  8. ^ http://www.dublinlions.org/dlprojects.html
  9. ^ "About The Institute". Ear Science Institute Australia. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  10. ^ "LCIF Grants & Programs". Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  11. ^ "Case Study: Lions Club International Foundation". Financial Times. July 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  12. ^ "LCIF Grants & Programs". Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  13. ^ "Lion Cubs". Coventry Lions. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  14. ^ Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (30 January 2012). "Private and Public Partners Unite to Combat 10 Neglected Tropical Diseases by 2020". gatesfoundation.org. Press Room, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  15. ^ Uniting to Combat NTDs (2012). "Endorsements (endorsing organizations)". unitingtocombatntds.org. Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  16. ^ "Women in Lions". 2009-11-29. 
  17. ^ "Club members quit when female joins". BBC News. 23 May 2003. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  18. ^ "PR799 EN Fact Sheet" (PDF). May 7, 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  19. ^ "Australian Lions Foundation". 2009-11-29. 
  20. ^ Historia del Leonismo Argentino (Spanish)
  21. ^ "History". Lions Club New Zealand. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  22. ^ "About Potch Lions Club". 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2011-11-27. 
  23. ^ "About District 351". 2013-03-08. 
  24. ^ "Leo Clubs". Retrieved 2010-03-19. 
  25. ^ "Campus Lions Clubs News". Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  26. ^ http://www.coventrylions.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=326:coventry-lion-cubs-roar-with-pride&catid=38:lion-cubs&Itemid=58
  27. ^ Yoder, Glenn (March 5, 2006). "Lions will be roaring into town". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  28. ^ Martin, Paul (2008). Lions Clubs in the 21st Century. AuthorHouse. p. 368. 
  29. ^ a b Hamas and Freemasonry, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
  30. ^ "Palestine Center – The Charter of the Hamas". The Jerusalem Fund. 1988. Retrieved April 5, 2014. 
  31. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iZDtWRl38rOTVGia51qB8VRdG1nw?hl=en&docId=CNG.59cd5233ec1cc00a5943103cea1bb00a.4d1&index=0[dead link]
  32. ^ Melvin Jones, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
  33. ^ Martha F Lee, Conspiracy Rising: Conspiracy Thinking and American Public Life, Praeger, 2011, p 22, ISBN 9780313350139
  34. ^ http://muskoka-parrysoundmasons.ca/1KirkWhite_IS_part2.htm
  35. ^ http://www.thedailynewsonline.com/news/article_8e4a72ea-9344-11e1-9308-001a4bcf887a.html
  36. ^ Adam Parfrey, 7 Fascinating Secret Society Photos, Huffington Post, April 6, 2012, retrieved April 8, 2014
  37. ^ Steven Heller, The Secret History of Secret Societies, The Atlantic, April 26, 2012, retrieved April 8, 2014

External links[edit]