The lipokine palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7-palmitoleate) travels to the muscles and liver, where it improves cell sensitivity to insulin and blocks fat accumulation in the liver. In addition, researchers observed that palmitoleate suppresses inflammation, which is considered by many to be a primary factor leading to metabolic disease.
Palmitoleic acid also serves as a biomarker for metabolic status. More specifically, a low concentration in the free acid component of the serum indicates a risk of metabolic disease, and that de novo lipogenesis should be stimulated. Additionally, administering palmitoleic acid to a subject (via nutraceutical or other means), positively impacts lipid metabolism.
FAHFAs (fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids) are lipokines formed in adipose tissue. FAHFAs improve glucose tolerance and also reduce adipose tissue inflammation. Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most bioactive members able to activate G-protein coupled receptors 120. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of hydroxy-linoleic acid (DHAHLA) exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties.
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