Lipothrixviridae is a family of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales. Thermophilic archaea in the kingdom Crenarchaeota serve as natural hosts. There are currently eight species in this family, divided among 3 genera.
The family consists of three genera: Betalipothrixvirus, Gammalipothrixvirus and Deltalipothrixvirus. They are classified into genera based on their genomic properties and on the diversity of their terminal appendages, which are involved in host cell recognition. Former genus Alphalipothrixvirus has been renamed Alphatristromavirus and moved to family Tristromaviridae.
In the genus Gammalipothrixvirus claw-like structures are found at either end of the virion.
Members of the Lipothrixviridae share structural and genomic characteristics with viruses from the Rudiviridae family, which contains non-enveloped rod-shaped viruses. Viruses from the two families have linear dsDNA genomes and share up to nine genes. In addition, the filamentous particles of rudiviruses and lipothrixviruses are built from structurally similar, homologous major capsid proteins. Due to these shared properties viruses from the two families are classified into an order Ligamenvirales.
The viruses are enveloped and filamentous. The capsid varies considerably in length – 410–1950 nanometers (nm) – and is 24–38 nm in diameter. The envelope has a monolayer structure and includes di-phytanyl tetraethers lipids.
From either end of the viron are protrusions extending from the core through the envelope. The capsid itself is elongated and exhibits helical symmetry. The core itself is helical.
There are two major capsid proteins (MCP1 and MCP2). The basic MCP1 protein forms a core around which the genomic dsDNA is wrapped, whereas MCP2 interacts with the genome with its basic N-terminal region and the hydrophilic C-terminal domain is embedded into the lipid envelope Genomes are linear, up to 40 kb in length.
|Genus||Structure||Symmetry||Capsid||Genomic arrangement||Genomic segmentation|
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. DNA templated transcription is the method of transcription. Archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.
|Genus||Host details||Tissue tropism||Entry details||Release details||Replication site||Assembly site||Transmission|
|Gammalipothrixvirus||Archea: acidianus||None||Injection||Budding||Cytoplasm||Cytoplasm||Passive diffusion|
|Deltalipothrixvirus||Archea: acidianus||None||Injection||Budding||Cytoplasm||Cytoplasm||Passive diffusion|
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