|The Simpsons character|
|Voiced by||Yeardley Smith|
|Occupation||2nd grade student at Springfield Elementary School|
|Relatives||Parents: Homer and Marge
Siblings: Bart and Maggie
Grandparents: Abraham Simpson, Mona Simpson, Jacqueline Bouvier and Clancy Bouvier
Aunts: Patty and Selma Bouvier
(See also Simpson family)
|Shorts||"Good Night" (1987)|
|The Simpsons||"Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" (1989)|
Lisa Marie Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons. She is the middle child and most intelligent of the Simpson family. Voiced by Yeardley Smith, Lisa first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed her while waiting to meet James L. Brooks. Groening had been invited to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the elder Simpson daughter after his younger sister Lisa Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family were moved to their own series on Fox, which debuted on December 17, 1989.
Intelligent, passionate, and the moral center of the family, Lisa Simpson, at eight years old, is the second child of Homer and Marge, younger sister of Bart, and older sister of Maggie. Lisa's high intellect and liberal political stance creates a barrier between her and other children her age, therefore she is a bit of a loner and social outcast. Lisa is a vegetarian, a strong environmentalist, a feminist, and a Buddhist. Lisa enjoys many hobbies, including reading and playing the baritone saxophone. Lisa's character develops many times over the course of the show: she becomes a vegetarian in season 7 and converts to Buddhism in season 13. A strong liberal, Lisa advocates for a variety of political causes and stands with the Tibetan independence movement. She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials and comic books – and inspired a line of merchandise.
Yeardley Smith originally tried out for the role of Bart, while Nancy Cartwright (who was later cast as the voice for Bart) tried out for Lisa. Producers considered Smith's voice too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. In the Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart" who mirrored her brother's mischief, but as the series progressed she became a more sophisticated and intellectual character. Because of her unusual pointed hair style, many animators consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw.
Lisa is one of the most enduring characters on the series. TV Guide ranked her 11th (tied with Bart) on their list of the "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time". Her environmentalism has been especially well received; several episodes featuring her have won Genesis and Environmental Media Awards, including a special "Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award" in 2001. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals included Lisa on their list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time". Yeardley Smith won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, and in 2000, Lisa and her family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Role in The Simpsons
The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not physically age; as such, Lisa is always depicted as 7–8 years old. The show itself is perpetually set in the year of broadcast (except for occasional flashbacks and flashforwards). In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Lisa's year of birth is given in "Lisa's First Word" (season 4, 1992) as 1984, during the Summer Olympics. The episode "That '90s Show" (season 19, 2008), however, contradicts much of the established backstory; for example, it presents Homer and Marge as being childless in the late 1990s. Lisa is a lover of music, especially jazz. She enjoys playing the saxophone and became friends with jazz musician Bleeding Gums Murphy, whom she regards as an idol. Murphy helps pull Lisa out of her depression in "Moaning Lisa" (season 1, 1990). She is later deeply saddened by Murphy's death in "'Round Springfield" (season 6, 1995).
Lisa has been friendly with several boys, including Ralph Wiggum in "I Love Lisa" (season 4, 1993), Nelson Muntz in "Lisa's Date with Density" (season 8, 1996) and Colin in The Simpsons Movie (2007). Bart's best friend Milhouse Van Houten has a crush on her, but despite dropping unsubtle hints about his feelings, he has been unsuccessful in winning her affection.
Lisa is the most intellectual member of the Simpson family (IQ 156), and many episodes of the series focus on her fighting for various causes. Lisa is often the focus of episodes with "a real moral or philosophical point", which according to former writer David S. Cohen is because "you really buy her as caring about it." Lisa's political convictions are generally liberal and she often contests other's views. She is a vegetarian, feminist, environmentalist and a supporter of gay rights and the Free Tibet movement. In a special Christmas message for the UK in 2004 Lisa showed her support for Cornish nationalism, even speaking the Cornish language to get her message across. While supportive of the general ideals of the Christian church in which she was raised, Lisa became a practicing Buddhist in the episode "She of Little Faith" (season 13, 2001) after she learned about the Noble Eightfold Path. An "End Apartheid Now" poster can be seen on her bedroom door during earlier seasons.
Matt Groening first conceived Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks's office. Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening went in another direction, hurriedly sketching his version of a dysfunctional family, named after members of his own family. Lisa was named after Groening's younger sister, but little else was based on her. In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa displayed little of the intelligence for which she later became known. She was more of a "female Bart" and was originally described as simply the "middle child", without much personality.
Lisa made her debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Lisa and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.
The entire Simpson family was designed to be easily recognized in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. Lisa's physical features are generally unique. In some early episodes, minor background characters occasionally had a similar hairline. However, in the later seasons, no character other than Maggie shares her hairline. While designing Lisa, Groening "couldn't be bothered to even think about girls' hair styles". At the time, Groening was primarily drawing in black and white; when designing Lisa and Maggie, he "just gave them this kind of spiky starfish hair style, not thinking that they would eventually be drawn in color".
To draw Lisa's head and hair, most of the show's animators use what they call the "three-three-two arrangement". It begins with a circle, with two curving lines (one vertical, one horizontal) intersecting in the middle to indicate her eyeline. The vertical line continues outside of the circle to create one hair point, with two more added towards the back of her head. Three more points are then added in front (in the direction Lisa is facing), with two more behind it. Several Simpsons animators, including Pete Michels and David Silverman, consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw. Silverman explains that "her head is so abstract" due to her hairstyle.
Like most characters, Lisa has yellow skin. Like Bart Simpson she has blonde hair, but done like a starfish. She wears a strapless red dress, red Mary-Jane-like shoes, and a white pearl necklace. In church scenes, she wears a pink dress, and a pink hat.
While the roles of Homer and Marge were given to Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner because they were already a part of the Tracey Ullman Show cast, the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Nancy Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa, but disliked the character's bland description—Lisa was described simply as the "middle child"—and read for the role of Bart instead. Casting director Bonita Pietila brought Yeardley Smith in for an audition after seeing her performing in the play Living on Salvation Street. Smith was hesitant to audition for an animated series, but her agent had persuaded her to give it a try. Smith originally auditioned for the role of Bart but Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled: "I always sounded too much like a girl, I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'" Pietila offered Smith the role of Lisa instead.
Smith and the show's writers worked to give Lisa a more defined personality, and she has developed greatly during the series. In her 2000 memoir My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy, Cartwright wrote: "with the brilliant wit of the writers and the wry, in-your-eye, honest-to-a-fault interpretation, Yeardley Smith has made Lisa a bright light of leadership, full of compassion and competence beyond her years. Lisa Simpson is the kind of child we not only want our children to be, but also the kind of child we want all children to be. But, at the time, on The Tracey Ullman Show, she was just an animated eight-year-old kid who had no personality."
Lisa is the only regular character voiced by Smith, who raises the pitch of her voice slightly for the role. In some earlier episodes she provided some of Maggie's squeaks and occasional speaking parts, and has voiced other characters on very rare occasions. Usually they are derivative of Lisa, such as Lisa Bella in "Last Tap Dance in Springfield" (season 11, 2000) and Lisa, Jr. in "Missionary: Impossible". (season 11, 2000)
Despite the fame of Lisa Simpson, Smith is rarely recognized in public, as it is Lisa who appears on screen. However, Smith does not mind. She said, "it's wonderful to be in the midst of all this hype about the show, and people enjoying the show so much, and to be totally a fly on the wall; people never recognise me solely from my voice." In a 2009 interview with The Guardian she commented that "It's the best job ever. I have nothing but gratitude for the amount of freedom The Simpsons has bought me in my life." Although Smith received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she considers it unimportant, saying "there's part of me that feels it wasn't even a real Emmy." The award is a Creative Arts prize not awarded during the primetime telecast and, at the time, a juried award without nominations. Still, Smith considers her work on the show a success. "If I had to be associated with one character in fiction," she said, "I will always be thrilled that it was Lisa Simpson." Matt Groening has described Smith as being very similar to Lisa: "Yeardley has strong moral views about her character. There are lines that are written for Lisa that Yeardley reads and says, 'No, I wouldn't say that.'" Former Simpsons writer Jay Kogen praised her performance on the show, particularly in the episode "Lisa's Substitute", as able "to move past comedy to something really strong and serious and dramatic."
Until 1998, Smith was paid $30,000 per episode. A pay dispute erupted in 1998, during which Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices. The dispute was soon resolved, and Smith received $125,000 per episode until 2004 when the voice actors sought an increase to $360,000 per episode. The issue was resolved a month later, and Smith earned $250,000 per episode. New salary negotiations took place in 2008, and the voice actors currently receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Smith and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over $300,000 per episode.
In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart": equally mischievous but lacking unique traits. As the series progressed, Lisa began to develop into a more intelligent and more emotional character. She demonstrates her intellect in the 1990 episode "Krusty Gets Busted" (season one), by helping Bart reveal Sideshow Bob's plot to frame Krusty the Clown for armed robbery. Many episodes focusing on Lisa have an emotional nature, such as "Moaning Lisa" (season one, 1990). The idea for the episode was pitched by James L. Brooks, who wanted to do an emotional episode involving Lisa's sadness, to complement the many "jokey episodes" in the first season.
In the seventh-season episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" (1995), Lisa permanently becomes a vegetarian, distinguishing her as one of the first primetime television characters to make such a choice. The episode was written by David S. Cohen (in his first solo writing credit) who jotted down the idea one day while eating lunch. Then-executive producer David Mirkin, who had recently become a vegetarian, quickly approved the idea. Several of Lisa's experiences in the episode are based on Mirkin's own experiences. The episode guest stars musician Paul McCartney, a committed vegetarian and animal rights activist. McCartney's condition for appearing was that Lisa would remain a vegetarian for the rest of the series and would not revert the next week (as is common on situation comedies). The trait stayed and is one of the few permanent character changes made in the show, ushering in a wave of character changes throughout the rest of the series. Every character change since, from the divorce of Milhouse's parents, to the deaths of Maude Flanders and the original Snowball II, owe a debt to Lisa's vegetarianism, and the sweeping change it brought forth to the series' status quo. In the season 13 episode "She of Little Faith" (2001), Lisa underwent another permanent character change when she converted to Buddhism.
Lisa plays the baritone saxophone, and some episodes use that as a plot device. According to Matt Groening, the baritone saxophone was chosen because he found the thought of an eight-year-old girl playing it amusing. He added, "But she doesn't always play a baritone sax because the animators don't know what it looks like, so it changes shape and color from show to show." One of the hallmarks of the show's opening sequence is a brief solo Lisa plays on her saxophone after being thrown out of music class. The Simpsons composer Alf Clausen said that the session musicians who perform her solos do not try to play at the second grade level and instead "think of Lisa as a really good player."
Lisa is extremely intelligent and sees herself as a misfit within the Simpson family and other children due to her knowledge. She shows characteristics rarely seen in Springfield, including spirituality and commitment to peaceful ways. Lisa's knowledge covers a wide range of subjects, including physics, history, algebra, calculus, art, linguistics, geography, political science, economics and even sports. She is notably more concerned with world affairs than her life in Springfield, with her rebellion against social norms usually depicted as constructive and heroic, yet Lisa can be self-righteous at times. In "Lisa the Vegetarian", an increasing sense of moral righteousness leads her to disrupt her father's roast-pig barbecue, an act for which she later apologizes. Episodes often take shots at Lisa's idealism. In "Bart Star", (season nine, 1997) Lisa, departs from her typically more genuine nature and apparently looking for a new cause to crusade over, defiantly declares that she, a girl, would like to join the football team. In the 1990s, it was considered unthinkable to allow a girl to play football. However, when coach Ned Flanders reveals that several girls already play for the team, she hesitates and claims football is "not really [her] thing". She then expresses distaste about a ball made of pig's skin, but one of the girls informs her that their footballs are synthetic and that proceeds are donated to Amnesty International. Visibly upset, Lisa runs off.
Lisa is said to have an IQ of 159, and in "They Saved Lisa's Brain" (season ten, 1999) she becomes a member of the Springfield chapter of Mensa. When unable to attend school due to a teachers' strike in "The PTA Disbands", (season six, 1995) she suffers withdrawal symptoms because of the sudden lack of praise. She even demands that her mother grade her for no obvious reason. In Planet Simpson, Chris Turner writes that these traits make Lisa more realistic because "No character can aspire to realism without a few all-too-human flaws."
Lisa has shown to have an acute sense of sensitivity, prone to bursting into tears when emotionally distressed. The first episode to demonstrate this trait was "Moaning Lisa" in which she breaks into uncontrollable sobbing after her father told her off about her saxophone playing. This one scene set one of the standards for her character. In at least one episode nearly every season, Lisa has cried due to emotional distress. Notable episodes featuring this action, include, "Bart vs. Thanksgiving", "Lisa's Substitute", "Smart and Smarter", "'Round Springfield", and "Dude, Where's My Ranch?".
Although she is gifted, Lisa experiences typical childhood issues, sometimes requiring adult intervention. For example, in "Lost Our Lisa" (season nine, 1998), she tricks Homer into allowing her to ride the bus alone, only to become hopelessly lost and in need of aid from her father. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that incidents like this illustrate that "Even when Lisa's lecturing like a college professor or mounting yet another protest, she never becomes a full-grown adult trapped in a kid's body." In The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, Aeon J. Skoble states that although Lisa is an intellectual, she is still portrayed as a character who enjoys normal childhood and girl activities, plays with Malibu Stacy dolls, loves ponies, obsesses over teenage heartthrobs such as Corey, and watches The Itchy and Scratchy Show along with Bart. He writes, "One might argue that this is typical childhood behavior, but since in so many cases Lisa is presented not simply as a prodigy but as preternaturally wise, the fondness for Itchy and Scratchy and Corey seem to be highlighted, taking on greater significance. Lisa is portrayed as the avatar of logic and wisdom, but then she also worships Corey so she's 'no better [than the rest of us]'."
Lisa occasionally worries that her family's dull habits will rub off on her, such as in "Lisa the Simpson" (season nine, 1998) she worries that the "Simpson gene" will make her a dimwit later finding out the gene only goes through the male side. She is often embarrassed and disapproving of her eccentric family: of her father's poor parenting skills and buffoonish personality; her mother's stereotypical image and social ineptitude; and her brother's delinquent and low-brow nature. She is also concerned that Maggie may grow up to be like the rest of the family and tries to teach her complex ideas. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that "Lisa embarks on quests to find solace for her yearning spirit [...] but the most reliable source of truth she finds is the one she always believed in: her family. It is from the other Simpsons that Lisa draws stability, meaning, contentment." Her loyalty to her family is most clearly seen in the flashforward "Lisa's Wedding" (season six, 1995), in which she must reconcile her love for them with the distaste of her cultured fiancé. In the episode "Mother Simpson" (season seven, 1995) she meets her paternal grandmother Mona Simpson for the first time. Mona is also well-read and articulate, and the writers used the character as a way to explain the origins of Lisa's intelligence.
Lisa has been romantically linked to a number of other characters on the show, including Nelson Muntz, which voice actor Yeardley Smith says would make a good match for Lisa.
Lisa has been a popular character since the show's inception. She was listed at number 11 (tied with Bart) in TV Guide's "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time." She appeared in Comcast's list of TV's Most Intriguing Characters and was also included in AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters. On a less positive note, she was ranked third in AskMen's top 10 of the most irritating '90s cartoon characters. Yeardley Smith has won several awards for voicing Lisa, including a Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" in 1992 for "Lisa the Greek". Various episodes in which Lisa stars have won Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" in 1991, "Lisa's Wedding" in 1995 and "HOMR" in 2001. In 2000, Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.
Lisa's environmentalism has been especially well received. In 2001, Lisa received a special "Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award" at the Environmental Media Awards. "Lisa the Vegetarian" won both an Environmental Media Award for "Best Television Episodic Comedy" and a Genesis Award for "Best Television Comedy Series, Ongoing Commitment". Several other episodes that feature Lisa speaking out in favor of animal rights have won Genesis Awards, including "Whacking Day" in 1994, "Bart Gets an Elephant" in 1995, "Million Dollar Abie" in 2007 and "Apocalypse Cow" in 2009.
Jonathan Gray, author of the book Watching The Simpsons, feels that Lisa "is probably the best and certainly longest-running feminist character that television has had. She's the heart of the show and she quite often questions the gender politics." Christopher Borrelli of The Toledo Blade wrote, "Has there ever been a female TV character as complex, intelligent, and, ahem, as emotionally well-drawn as Lisa Simpson? Meet her once and she comes off priggish and one-note – a know-it-all. Get to know her and Lisa is as well-rounded as anyone you may ever meet in the real world."
According to PETA, Lisa was one of the first vegetarian characters on primetime television. In 2004 the organization included Lisa on its list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time". In 2008, environmentalist website The Daily Green honored Lisa's role in The Simpsons Movie with one of its inaugural "Heart of Green" awards, which "recognize those who have helped green go mainstream." They wrote "young Lisa Simpson has inspired a generation to wear their hearts on their sleeves and get educated, and involved, about global issues, from justice to feminism and the environment." Japanese broadcasters reversed viewer dislike of the series by focusing marketing of the show on Lisa. Lisa's well-intended but ill-fated struggles to be a voice of reason and a force of good in her family and community struck a chord with Japanese audiences. Mario D'Amato, a specialist in Buddhist studies at Rollins College in Florida, described Lisa as "open-minded, reflective, ethical, and interested in improving herself in various ways, while still preserving a childlike sense of innocence. These are all excellent qualities, ones which are espoused by many Buddhist traditions."
Lisa and the rest of the Simpsons have had a significant influence on English-language idioms. The dismissive term "Meh", used by Lisa and popularized by the show, entered the Collins English Dictionary in 2008. In 1996, The New York Times published an article saying that Lisa was inspiring children, especially young girls, to learn to play the saxophone.
Lisa has been included in many The Simpsons publications, toys, and other merchandise. The Lisa Book, describing Lisa's personality and attributes, was released in 2006. Other merchandise includes dolls, posters, figurines, bobblehead dolls, mugs, and clothing such as slippers, T-shirts, baseball caps, and boxer shorts. Lisa has appeared in commercials for Burger King, C.C. Lemon, Church's Chicken, Domino's Pizza, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Ramada Inn, Ritz Crackers, Subway and Butterfinger.
On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44 cent stamps featuring Lisa and the four other members of the nuclear Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, went on sale in May 2009.
Lisa has also appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. She has appeared in each Simpsons video game, including The Simpsons Game, released in 2007. In addition to the television series, Lisa regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, first published on November 29, 1993 and published monthly. The comics focus on the sweeter, more naive incarnation from the early seasons. Lisa also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.
- Turner 2004, p. 78.
- Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Moore, Rich (1991-09-19). "Stark Raving Dad". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 01. Fox.
- Turner 2004, pp. 78-79.
- Martin, Jeff; Kirkland, Mark (1992-12-03). "Lisa's First Word". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 10. Fox.
- Canning, Robert (2008-01-28). "The Simpsons: That '90s Show Review". IGN. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Selman, Matt; Kirkland, Mark (2008-01-27). "That '90s Show". The Simpsons. Season 19. Episode 11. Fox.
- Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Archer, Wes (1990-02-11). "Moaning Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 01. Episode 06. Fox.
- Sternin, Joshua; Ventimilia, Jeffrey; Moore, Steven Dean (1995-04-30). "'Round Springfield". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 22. Fox.
- Mula, Frank; Archer, Wes (1993-02-11). "I Love Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 15. Fox.
- Scully, Mike; Dietter, Susie (1996-12-15). "Lisa's Date with Density". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 07. Fox.
- The Simpsons Movie (Film). 20th Century Fox. 2007.
- De Waal, Shaun (July 27, 2007). "Yellow peril". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Cohen, David S.; Groening, Matt; Meyer, George; Michels, Pete; Scully, Mike; Smith; Yeardley. (2005). Commentary for "Lisa the Skeptic", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "Character Profiles: Lisa Simpson". Channel 4. February 16, 2009. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Curran, Kevin; Kruse, Nancy (2003-02-16). "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can". The Simpsons. Season 1. Episode 12. Fox.
- "Lisa puts cool into Cornish cause". BBC. July 5, 2004. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- Freiberger, Bill; Moore, Steven Dean (2001-12-16). "She of Little Faith". The Simpsons. Season 13. Episode 06. Fox.
- BBC (2000). 'The Simpsons': America's First Family (6 minute edit for the season 1 DVD) (DVD). UK: 20th Century Fox.
- Rose, Joseph (2007-08-03). "The real people behind Homer Simpson and family". The Oregonian.
- Mirkin, David. (2004). Commentary for "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Cartwright 2000, pp. 35–40
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 14.
- Groening, Matt. (2005). Commentary for "Fear of Flying", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt; Reiss, Mike; Kirkland, Mark. (2002). Commentary for "Principal Charming", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Silverman, David; Reardon, Jim; Groening, Matt. (2005). Illustrated commentary for "Treehouse of Horror V", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt. (2006). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "All Singing, All Dancing", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Archer, Wes; Groening, Matt; Kirkland, Mark. (2005). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "Summer of 4 Ft. 2", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Michels, Pete. (2006). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "All Singing, All Dancing", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Lee, Luaine (2003-02-27). "D'oh, you're the voice". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- "Bart's voice tells all". BBC News. 2000-11-10. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- Freeman, Paul (1994-11-20). "Local actress finds a voice in `Simpsons'". The Washington Times.
- Miranda, Charles (2007-12-08). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
- Heidi Vogt (2004-04-04). "She's happy as Lisa Simpson, although she'd like more d'oh". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press.
- Larry Carroll (2008-10-26). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To "Burns-Sexual" Smithers". MTV. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- Charles Miranda (2007-12-08). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
- Smith, Yeardley (2007). Audio commentary for The Simpsons Movie (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Smith, Yeardley. (2008). Commentary for "Missionary: Impossible", in The Simpsons: The Complete Eleventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- L.W. Michion (Spring 1992). "Yeardley Smith Confesses: "I Love Lisa"". Simpsons Illustrated Magazine, Volume 1, Number 5. pp. 20–23.
- Peter Sheridan (2004-05-06). "Meet the Simpsons". Daily Express.
- Lisa Marks (2009-01-16). "From Springfield to Tinseltown". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Glaister, Dan (2004-04-03). "Simpsons actors demand bigger share". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "'Simpsons' Cast Goes Back To Work". CBS News. 2004-05-01. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
- "Simpsons cast sign new pay deal". BBC News. 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- Block, Alex Ben (October 7, 2011). "'The Simpsons' Renewed for Two More Seasons". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Rhodes, Joe (1991-07-26). "Sax and the Single Simpson". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- Reiss, Mike. (2001). Commentary for "Krusty Gets Busted", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Reiss, Mike. (2001). Commentary for "Moaning Lisa", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "Friends' Phoebe tops PETA's list of most animal-friendly TV characters of all time". PETA. 2004-05-04. Archived from the original on October 1, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Cohen, David S.; Groening, Matt; Mirkin, David. (2005). Commentary for "Lisa the Vegetarian", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "Paul McCartney Insisted Lisa Simpson Stay VEG". ecorazzi. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-11-15.
- "Sideswipe: McCartney keeps Lisa vegetarian". The New Zealand Herald. August 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Pinsky 2007, p. 171
- Barron, James (1996-01-14). "A Sax Craze, Inspired by 'The Simpsons'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- Gross, Michael (2003-10-30). "Eat my lab coat". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Pinsky 2001, p. 46
- Cohen, David X.; Kirkland, Mark (1995-10-15). "Lisa the Vegetarian". The Simpsons. Season 07. Episode 05. Fox.
- Turner 2004, p. 229.
- Turner 2004, p. 230.
- Cohen, David X.; Kirkland, Mark (1997-11-09). "Bart Star". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 06. Fox.
- Swartzwelder, John; Reardon, Jim (1997-05-04). "Homer's Enemy". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 23. Fox.
- Selman, Matt; Michels, Pete (1999-05-09). "They Saved Lisa's Brain". The Simpsons. Season 10. Episode 22. Fox.
- Turner 2004, p. 201.
- Crittenden, Jennifer; Scott III, Swinton O. (1995-04-16). "The PTA Disbands". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 21. Fox.
- Turner 2004, p. 203.
- Scully, Brian; Michels, Pete (1998-05-10). "Lost Our Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 24. Fox.
- Skoble 1999, pp. 31–32
- Gates, Anita (2000-04-09). "Men on TV: Dumb as Posts And Proud of It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- Goldreyer, Ned; Dietter, Susie (1998-03-08). "Lisa the Simpson". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 17. Fox.
- Turner 2004, p. 233.
- Daniels, Greg; Reardon, Jim (1995-03-19). "Lisa's Wedding". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 19. Fox.
- Appel, Rich; Silverman, David (1995-11-19). "Mother Simpson". The Simpsons. Season 07. Episode 08. Fox.
- Appel, Rich. (2005). Commentary for "Mother Simpson", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "Life as Lisa Simpson". 3 News NZ. May 24, 2013.
- "Bugs Bunny tops greatest cartoon characters list". CNN. 2002-07-30. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- "TV's Most Intriguing Characters". Comcast. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- "AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters". AfterEllen.com. February 27, 2012. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Murphy, Ryan. "Top 10: Irritating '90s Cartoon Characters". AskMen. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Archived from the original on July 15, 2009.
- "Hollywood Icons". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
- W. Reed Moran (2001-11-15). "Lisa Simpson animates environmental awards". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- "Awards for "The Simpsons"". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
- "1995 Genesis Awards". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- "'Free Willy', 'Simpsons' win Genesis Awards". Rocky Mountain News. 1994-01-30. p. 56A.
- "1994 Genesis Awards". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Yardena Arar (1991-01-19). "Films, TV Programs praised for treatment of Animal issues". Daily News of Los Angeles. p. L9.
- "1995 Genesis Awards". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Cohen, David X.; Groening, Matt; Kirkland, Mark; Mirkin, David. (2005). Commentary for "Lisa the Vegetarian", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "2007 Genesis Awards". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
- "The 23rd Genesis Awards Nominees". Humane Society of the United States. 2009-02-24. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
- Ortved 2009, p. 86
- Borrelli, Christopher (2001-03-11). "She's not even real and she's a feminist role model liberated Lisa". The Toledo Blade.
- "The Daily Green's Heart of Green Awards 2008". The Daily Green. 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- Turner 2004, p. 327.
- Pinsky 2007, p. 180
- Michael Hann (2007-03-05). "Meh — the word that's sweeping the internet". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
- Boswell, Randy (2008-11-18). "Canadian politics: The definition of 'meh'". Vancouver Sun. Canwest News Service. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Groening, Matt; Bill Morrison (2006). The Lisa Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-074823-0.
- "Search Results for Lisa". The Simpsons Shop. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Burger King, Simpsons team up, could face trouble from networks". The Miami Herald. 1990-08-20.
- "10 Things You Never Knew About The Simpsons". Flavor wire. October 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Szalai, George (2009-04-01). "Postal Service launching "Simpsons" stamps". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2009-04-04. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "The Simpsons stamps launched in US". Newslite. 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "The Simpsons Get 'Stamping Ovation' To Tune of 1 Billion Stamps". United States Postal Service. 2009-05-07. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
- Walk, Gary Eng (2007-11-05). "Work of Bart". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- Radford, Bill (2000-11-19). "Groening launches Futurama comics". The Gazette. Archived from the original on 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- Shutt, Craig. "Sundays with the Simpsons". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- MacDonald, Brady (2008-04-09). "Simpsons ride features 29 characters, original voices". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- Cartwright, Nancy (2000). My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion Books. ISBN 0-7868-8600-5.
- Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia, eds. The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.
- Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. Greystone Books. ISBN 978-1-55365-503-9.
- Pinsky, Mark I (2001). The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22419-9.
- Pinsky, Mark I (2007). The Gospel According to The Simpsons, Bigger and Possibly Even Better! Edition. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23265-8.
- Skoble, Aeon J. (1999). "Lisa and American anti-intellectualism". In Irwin, William; Conrad, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 0-8126-9433-3.
- Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.
- Alberti, John (ed.) (2003). Leaving Springfield: "The Simpsons" and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2849-0.
- Brown, Alan; Chris Logan (2006). The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. ISBN 1-932100-70-9.
- Groening, Matt; Bill Morrison (2006). The Lisa Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-074823-0.
- Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-096582-7.