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Overview of Lishui Urban Area from Xiahe Tower
Location of Lishui City jurisdiction in the province
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• CPC Secretary||Shi Jixi|
|• Mayor||Zhu Chen|
|• Total||17,298 km2 (6,679 sq mi)|
|• Density||140/km2 (380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|GDP||¥50.6 billion (2008)|
|GDP per capita||¥22,053 (2008)|
|License Plate Prefix||浙K|
Lishui (help·info) (simplified Chinese: 丽水; traditional Chinese: 麗水; pinyin: Líshuǐ; Wu: Lih-sy) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It borders Quzhou, Jinhua and Taizhou to the north, Wenzhou to the southeast, and the province of Fujian to the southwest. The name of the city literally means "Beautiful Water", but the pronunciation of its first character is "lí", not the usual "lì".
Lishui has a very long history, for during the Liangzhu culture period 4000 years ago, there were tribes living in the area. In 589, a prefecture called Chuzhou was established by the Sui Dynasty with Kuocang, Songyang, Linhai, Yongjia, Angu and Lechen counties under its jurisdiction. Three years later, the prefecture's name was changed to Kuozhou and then to Yongjia County in 607. The name was changed back to Kuozhou in 621 during the Tang Dynasty, to Jinyun County in the first year of the Tianbao era (742) and back to Kuozhou in the first year of Qianyuan Era (758).
In 779, during the Tang Dynasty, it was renamed Lishui County. The name of the area was changed again in the year 1276 during the Yuan Dynasty to Chuzhou Lu and to Annan Fu in the 19th year of rule of Zhizheng (1359). The name of the area was maintained as Chuzhou Fu until the Ming and Qing Dynasties when it was changed back to Lishui. In the year 1935, the area was given the official name: Lishui Administrative Supervision District. In 1949, the Lishui Special District was established but then abolished in 1952. Later, it was re-instated in 1963 and the area was renamed as Lishui City. By the year 1997, Longquan, Qingtian, Jinyun, Yunhe, Qingyuan, Suichang, Songyang and Jingning were under the jurisdiction of Lishui, Liandu District serving as the administrative headquarters.
|1||Liandu District||莲都区||Liándū Qū|
|3||Jinyun County||缙云县||Jìnyún Xiàn|
|4||Qingtian County||青田县||Qīngtián Xiàn|
|5||Yunhe County||云和县||Yúnhé Xiàn|
|6||Suichang County||遂昌县||Suìchāng Xiàn|
|7||Songyang County||松阳县||Sōngyáng Xiàn|
|8||Qingyuan County||庆元县||Qìngyuán Xiàn|
|9||Jingning She Autonomous County||景宁畲族自治县||Jǐngníng Shēzú Zìzhìxiàn|
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Lishui is situated in the southwest of Zhejiang province, with its administrative area covering latitude 27° 25' to 28° 57' N and longitude 118° 41' to 120° 26' E. It borders the cities of Ningde and Nanping (Fujian province) to the southwest as well as Quzhou to the northwest, Jinhua to the north, Taizhou to the northeast, and Wenzhou to the southeast. The mountains of the area are part of the Wuyi Mountains. Elevations in the city's administration increase from northeast to southwest and there are 3,573 peaks that reach an altitude of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) or more. The highest mountain in the province, Huangmaojian Peak, is 1,929 metres (6,329 ft) high and located near Lishui. Lishui City covers approximately 17,298 square kilometres (6,679 sq mi), among which 88.42% is mountainous. The Ou River flows through the city before emptying in the East China Sea.
Lishui has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild winters (with occasional frost), and long, very hot, humid summers. The average high in July is 35.3 °C (96 °F) and the average low is 25.0 °C (77 °F). The average January high is 11.8 °C (53 °F) and the average low in 3.4 °C (38 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded is 43.2 °C (110 °F) on July 31, 2003. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −7.7 °C (18 °F) on January 16, 1967 and January 16, 1970. Autumn and early winter are the driest times of the year, while from March to June rain falls on more than half of the days. From midsummer on to autumn, typhoons occasionally strike the area.
|Climate data for Lishui 1981–2010 Normals (Extremes 1953–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.8
|Average high °C (°F)||11.8
|Average low °C (°F)||3.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||64.0
|Source: China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System|
Transportation and telecommunications
Lishui enjoys a convenient telecommunication and transportation network. Lishui uses optical cables and SPCETSS (Stored Program Controlled Electronic Telephone Switching System) to provide the whole prefecture with communication services such as telephone, fax, telegram, internet, and mobile phones. Over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) of paved roads and highways link every sub-county of the prefecture. These roads, together with the No.330 National Highway and Jinhua-Wenzhou Railway, form the public transportation system of the prefecture.
Government and politics
Under the guide of the basic line of the third Plenary Session of the eleventh Party Congress, the local government of Lishui has transformed its work priority to economic development. The government put forward a policy where forestry is the top priority, combining food and livestock husbandry, multi-management, comprehensive development and enhanced the agricultural development. In 1985, the local government proposed the guideline of:
- Emancipate the mind
- Take a bold reforming attitude
- Make Lishui more efficient
- Achieve Double Development Ahead of Schedule
- Promote the Development of Commodity Economy.
In 1991, the whole area set out for the great discussion of open-mind and concept innovation, to develop along the River, to run markets along road and develop industry in town. This has played an active role in the development of the agricultural industry, market construction and township industries. From 1994 to 1995, the area set out for further discussion of the open mind, by exploring the idea of the satisfaction of primary achievement, fixing the problem of poverty, trying to fix environmental issues, enhance the awareness of various crises, competitiveness, promotion, foreign development and pragmatism.
Timber, waterpower, mineral deposit and wilderness are four major natural resources of Lishui prefecture that rank first in Zhejiang province. 69% of the prefecture is covered with forest, which gives it the name "Foliage Ocean of Zhejiang". The prefecture boasts potential waterpower of about 2 gigawatts. So far, 57 mineral reserves are proved to scatter the prefecture and 460 mines are available for exploitation. Among its most important minerals, are gold, silver, lead, zinc, molybdenum, fluorite, pearlstone, pyrophyllite, dolianite, kaoline and mineral water, whose reserves claim an important place in Zhejiang, even in China. In the recent years, Lishui prefecture has seen a rapid development in industry. An industry structure that carries the features of mountainous area is burgeoning. Its main industries are wood and bamboo production, ore smelting, textile, clothes making, construction materials, pharmaceutical chemistry, electronic machinery and food processing.
Over 180 brand name and high quality products of the prefecture sell well both within China and in about 100 foreign countries. Among them, wooden toys, mini electronic machinery, overedger, eider down products, gold pens and quality soaps are the most welcome. The three traditional handicrafts of the prefecture, Longquan celadon, Longquan swords, and Qingtian carved stones, enjoy high popularity both at home and abroad.
A comprehensive agricultural development program is beginning to take effect. The prefecture is now a commercial base for edible fungi, dried and fresh fruit, bamboo and bamboo shoots, tea, commercial forest, oil tea, sericulture, herb medicine, vegetable and nuts. Products like shiitake mushrooms, tree fungus, Huiming tea, white pond lily, day lily, sun-cured tobacco, and orange and oil tea are produced in large quantities and are well known throughout Zhejiang.
Lishui is abundant in energy resources. With 600 hydroelectric power stations in use and 500 more still under construction, the prefecture has a total power capacity of 547 megawatts and an annual output of 1.5 billion kilowatt-hours (5.4 PJ). Every city of the prefecture has been incorporated in the east China power network, which provides a 220,000-volt vertical and a 110,000-volt inter-regional power transmission system, with a stable substation capacity of 550,000 KVA.
Lishui is well known in China for its long history and beautiful landscapes. Yan Yu Lou (misty rain tower) was built during the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 960-1127). Many famous ancient poets praised the tower’s beauty. Other recommendable scenic spots are Fengyangshan-Baishanzu National Natural Resort, Xiandu National Park, and Shishi Temple. Shishi Temple is a wooden structure built during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (AD 960-1368). The most characteristic local dishes are Jade Mutton Roll, Shan Fen Ball, Anren Fish with Bean-curd and Xian Cai Hot Pot.
- Peter Hessler (June 2007), "China's Instant Cities", National Geographic Magazine
- Peter Hessler (2010), Country Driving: A Journey Through China from Farm to Factory, Harper, ISBN 0061804096
- Peter Hessler (26 Oct 2009). "Chinese Barbzion; Painting the Outside World". The New Yorker. 85 (34): 69.
- 胡建金 (2010). 风雅之城. 中国文化艺术出版社. ISBN 978-988-19-3759-9.
- 丽水市政协文史资料委员会 (2011). 丽水市文史资料.第七辑. Beijing: Chinese Literature and History Press. ISBN 978-7-5034-2905-7.
- 丽水市政协文史资料委员会 (2008). 大迁移：抗日战争时期国民党浙江省党政军机关在丽水. Beijing: Chinese Literature and History Press. ISBN 978-7-5034-2159-4.
For more thorough information about Lishui, there are two "Lishui Green Valley Culture" series (丽水绿谷文化丛书) published by Zhejiang Ancient Books Publishing House, containing six volumes each about different topics of cultural, literary, or historical significance. The 2008 series contains the following works on Lishui:
- 王正名 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 处州古代著述考. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
- 徐文平 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 处州摩崖石刻. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
- 徐文平 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 处州历史书法. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
- 赵治中 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 处州历史人物评传. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
- 赵治中 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 处州历史人物评传. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
- 毕英春、胡一华 (2008). 虞红鸣, ed. 解读刘伯温. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-365-8.
The 2010 series contains the following works on Lishui:
- 袁占钊 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 处州文化史. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.
- 赵治中 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 处州史事钩沉. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.
- 许旭尧 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 处州历史文选. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.
- 刘秀峰 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 处州名胜古迹. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.
- 周权【元】, 汤光新 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 此山集. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.
- 李蒙惠 (2010). 陈建波, ed. 处州历代诗词选. Hangzhou: 浙江古籍出版社. ISBN 978-7-80715-533-1.