List of African-American U.S. state firsts
African Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. African-Americans' initial achievements in various fields historically establish a foothold, providing a precedent for more widespread cultural change. The shorthand phrase for this is "breaking the color barrier."
In addition to major, national- and international-level firsts, African-Americans have achieved firsts on a statewide basis.
- First African-American governor of Louisiana: P. B. S. Pinchback (Also first in U.S.) (Non-elected; see also Douglas Wilder, 1990)
- First African-American female principal in Massachusetts and the Northeast: Maria Louise Baldwin, supervising white faculty and a predominantly white student body at the Agassiz Grammar School in Cambridge.
- First African American woman Texas state senator: Barbara Jordan
- First African American appointed to New York State Board of Regents: Kenneth Bancroft Clark
- First African American senator from Massachusetts: Edward Brooke. (Also first post-Reconstruction African American elected to the U.S. Senate and first African American elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote).
- First African American to serve on the California Supreme Court: Wiley W. Manuel
- First African American senator from Illinois: Carol Moseley Braun. (Also first and only African-American woman elected to the United States Senate, the first African-American U.S. Senator for the Democratic Party, the first woman to defeat an incumbent U.S. Senator in an election, and the first and only female Senator from Illinois).
- First African-American attorney general of California: Kamala Harris
- First African-American Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court: Roderick L. Ireland
- First African-American to be elected and serve as Worshipful Master of an Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masonic Lodge in the United States: Gerald F. Poe Jr. He was installed on January 1, 2012 as Worshipful Master of Patuxent Lodge No. 218 of Maryland, under the Authority of the Grand Lodge of Maryland.
- Juguo, Zhang. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Quest for the Abolition of the Color Line, Routledge, 2001 - ISBN 0-415-93087-1
- Herbst, Philip H. The Color of Words: an encyclopaedic dictionary of ethnic bias in the United States, Intercultural Press, p. 57, 1997 - ISBN 1-877864-97-8
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-02-28.
- Standing with Black trailblazer James S. Hinton
- Indiana Black History Public Art Legacy Project Archived 2013-03-16 at the Wayback Machine.
- Neil R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow, Chicago: University of Illinois, 1990, p.26
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- "Tim Scott's swearing-in as senator caps his historic rise". McClatchy Newspapers. January 4, 2013. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Fund, John (November 3, 2015). "Kentucky's New GOP Lt. Gov. Is Black Tea-Party Activist". National Review. Retrieved November 4, 2015.