List of African-American United States Representatives

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The United States House of Representatives has had 144 elected African-American members, of which 138 have been Representatives from U.S. states and 6 have been Delegates from U.S. territories and the District of Columbia.[1] The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral United States Congress, which is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States. The US Census Bureau defines African Americans as citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.[2] The term is generally used for Americans with at least partial ancestry in any of the original peoples of sub-Saharan Africa. During the founding of the federal government, African Americans were consigned to a status of second-class citizenship or enslaved.[3] No African American served in federal elective office before the ratification in 1870 of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Joseph Rainey was the first African-American representative to be seated in the U.S. House. He served South Carolina's 1st congressional district beginning in 1870 during the Reconstruction Era following the American Civil War. The first African-American women to serve as a representative was Shirley Chisholm from New York's 12th congressional district in 1969 during the Civil Rights Movement. Many African-American members of the House of Representatives serve majority-minority districts.[4] These congressional districts are gerrymandered, limit serious challenges to their re-election, and limit their abilities to represent a larger, more diverse constituency.[4]

First generation of African-American House members, 1870–1887[edit]

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political Party

  Republican

Representative Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave Ref. Note
Joseph Rainey - Brady-Handy.jpg
Joseph Rainey
(1832–1887)
South Carolina's 1st December 12, 1870 March 3, 1879 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes [5] [note 1]
THRU
45th
(1877–1879)
Jefferson F. Long - Brady-Handy.jpg
Jefferson F. Long
(1836–1901)
Georgia's 4th January 16, 1871 March 3, 1871 Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
Yes [6] [note 2]
Robert C. DeLarge - Brady-Handy.jpg
Robert C. De Large
(1842–1874)
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1871 January 24, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No [7] [note 3]
Robert B. Elliott.jpg
Robert B. Elliott
(1842–1884)
South Carolina's 3rd March 4, 1871 November 1, 1874 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
No [8] [note 4]
43rd
(1873–1875)
Benjamin S. Turner - Brady-Handy.jpg
Benjamin S. Turner
(1825–1894)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes [9] [note 5]
Walls josiah.jpg
Josiah T. Walls
(1842–1905)
Florida's at-large March 4, 1871 January 29, 1873 Republican 42nd
(1871–1873)
Yes [10] [note 6]
March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 43rd
(1873–1875)
Florida's 2nd March 4, 1875 April 19, 1876 44th
(1875–1877)
Richard Harvey Cain.jpg
Richard H. Cain
(1825–1887)
South Carolina's at-large March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No [11] [note 7]
South Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 45th
(1877–1879)
John R. Lynch.jpg
John R. Lynch
(1847–1939)
Mississippi's 6th March 4, 1873 March 3, 1877 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
Yes [12] [note 8]
44th
(1875–1877)
April 29, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
Alonzo J. Ransier - Brady-Handy.jpg
Alonzo J. Ransier
(1834–1882)
South Carolina's 2nd March 3, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No [13] [note 9]
James Rapier.jpg
James T. Rapier
(1837–1883)
Alabama's 2nd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No [14] [note 10]
Jeremiah Haralson - Brady-Handy.jpg
Jeremiah Haralson
(1846–1916)
Alabama's 1st March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes [15] [note 11]
Rep. John Adams Hyman.jpg
John Adams Hyman
(1840–1891)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes [16] [note 12]
Charles E. Nash, MC (1875-77).jpg
Charles E. Nash
(1844–1913)
Louisiana's 6th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
No [17] [note 13]
Robert Smalls - Brady-Handy.jpg
Robert Smalls
(1839–1915)
South Carolina's 5th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1879 Republican 44th
(1875–1877)
Yes [18] [note 14]
45th
(1877–1879)
July 19, 1882 March 3, 1883 47th
(1881–1883)
South Carolina's 7th March 18, 1884 March 3, 1887 48th
(1883–1885)
49th
(1885–1887)
James E. O'Hara.jpg
James E. O'Hara
(1844–1905)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1883 March 3, 1887 Republican 48th
(1883–1885)
No [19] [note 15]
49th
(1885–1887)

Second generation of African-American House members, 1889–1901[edit]

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political Party

  Republican

Representative Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave Ref. Note
Henry Plummer Cheatham.jpg
Henry P. Cheatham
(1857–1935)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1889 March 3, 1893 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
Yes [20] [note 16]
52nd
(1891–1893)
John M. Langston.jpg
John Mercer Langston
(1829–1897)
Virginia's 4th September 23, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No [21] [note 17]
Thomas Ezekiel Miller.jpg
Thomas E. Miller
(1849–1938)
South Carolina's 7th September 24, 1890 March 3, 1891 Republican 51st
(1889–1891)
No [22] [note 18]
George Washington Murray.jpg
George W. Murray
(1853–1926)
South Carolina's 7th March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 Republican 53rd
(1893–1895)
Yes [23] [note 19]
South Carolina's 1st June 4, 1896 March 3, 1897 54th
(1895–1897)
George Henry White.jpg
George Henry White
(1852–1918)
North Carolina's 2nd March 4, 1897 March 3, 1901 Republican 55th
(1897–1899)
Yes [24] [note 20]
56th
(1899–1901)

Third generation of African-American House members, 1929–1970[edit]

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political Parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Ref. Note
Oscar Stanton De Priest.jpg
Oscar Stanton De Priest
(1871–1951)
Illinois's 1st March 4, 1929 January 3, 1935 Republican 71st
(1929–1931)
[25] [note 21]
72nd
(1931–1933)
73rd
(1933–1935)
Arthur W. Mitchell.jpg
Arthur W. Mitchell
(1883–1968)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1935 January 3, 1943 Democratic 74th
(1935–1937)
[26] [note 22]
THRU
77th
(1941–1943)
William L. Dawson.jpg
William L. Dawson
(1886–1970)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1943 November 9, 1970 Democratic 78th
(1943–1945)
[27] [note 23]
THRU
91st
(1969–1971)
Adam Clayon Powell Jr.jpg
Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
(1908–1972)
New York's 22nd January 3, 1945 January 3, 1953 Democratic 79th
(1945–1947)
[28] [note 24]
THRU
82nd
(1951–1953)
New York's 16th January 3, 1953 January 3, 1963 83rd
(1953–1955)
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
New York's 18th January 3, 1963 February 28, 1967 88th
(1963–1965)
89th
(1965–1967)
90th
(1967–1969)
April 11, 1967 January 3, 1971
91st
(1969–1971)
Charles C. Diggs.jpg
Charles Diggs
(1922–1998)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1955 June 3, 1980 Democratic 84th
(1955–1957)
[29] [note 25]
THRU
96th
(1979–1981)
Robert Nix, Sr..jpg
Robert N. C. Nix Sr.
(1898–1987)
Pennsylvania's 4th June 4, 1958 January 3, 1963 Democratic 85th
(1957–1959)
[30] [note 26]
THRU
87th
(1961–1963)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1963 January 3, 1979 88th
(1963–1965)
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Augustus Freeman Hawkins.jpg
Augustus F. Hawkins
(1907–2007)
California's 21st January 3, 1963 January 3, 1975 Democratic 88th
(1963–1965)
[31] [note 27]
THRU
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 29th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1991 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
John conyers.jpg
John Conyers
(born 1929)
Michigan's 1st January 3, 1965 January 3, 1993 Democratic 89th
(1965–1967)
[32] [note 28]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Shirley Chisholm.jpg
Shirley Chisholm
(1924–2005)
New York's 12th January 3, 1969 January 3, 1983 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
[33] [note 29]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
BillClaySr.jpg
Bill Clay
(born 1931)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 1969 January 3, 2001 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
[34] [note 30]
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
Louis Stokes.jpg
Louis Stokes
(1925–2015)
Ohio's 21st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1993 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
[35] [note 31]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1999 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
George Washington Collins.jpg
George W. Collins
(1925–1972)
Illinois's 6th November 3, 1970 December 8, 1972 Democratic 91st
(1969–1971)
[36] [note 32]
92nd
(1971–1973)

Fourth generation of African-American House members, 1971–present[edit]

(Note: Representatives are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political Parties

  Democratic   Republican

Representative Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Ref. Note
Ron Dellums.jpg
Ron Dellums
(born 1935)
California's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1975 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
[37] [note 33]
93rd
(1973–1975)
California's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1993 94th
(1975–1977)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 9th January 3, 1993 February 6, 1998 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
RalphHMetcalfe1977.jpg
Ralph Metcalfe
(1910–1978)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1971 October 10, 1978 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
[38] [note 34]
THRU
95th
(1977–1979)
Parren Mitchell.jpg
Parren Mitchell
(1922–2007)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1987 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
[39] [note 35]
THRU
99th
(1985–1987)
Charles B Rangel Portrait.jpg
Charles Rangel
(born 1930)
New York's 18th January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
[40] [note 36]
New York's 19th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1983 93rd
(1973–1975)
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
New York's 16th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 13th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
Yvonne burke.jpg
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke
(born 1932)
California's 37th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
[41] [note 37]
California's 28th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1979 94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Rep. Barbara Jordan - Restoration.jpg
Barbara Jordan
(1936–1996)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1973 January 3, 1979 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
[42] [note 38]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Andrew Jackson Young.jpg
Andrew Young
(born 1932)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1973 January 29, 1977 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
[43] [note 39]
94th
(1975–1977)
95th
(1977–1979)
Cardiss Collins - Restoration.jpg
Cardiss Collins
(1931–2013)
Illinois's 7th June 5, 1973 January 3, 1997 Democratic 93rd
(1973–1975)
[44] [note 40]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Harold Ford, Sr.jpg
Harold Ford Sr.
(born 1945)
Tennessee's 8th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1983 Democratic 94th
(1975–1977)
[45] [note 41]
THRU
97th
(1981–1983)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1997 98th
(1983–1985)
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Julian Carey Dixon.jpg
Julian C. Dixon
(1934–2000)
California's 28th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1993 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
[46] [note 42]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
California's 32nd January 3, 1993 December 8, 2000 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
106th
(1999–2001)
William Herbert Gray.jpg
William H. Gray
(1941–2013)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1979 September 11, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
[47] [note 43]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
George Thomas 'Mickey' Leland.jpg
Mickey Leland
(1944–1989)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1979 August 7, 1989 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
[48] [note 44]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Bennett Stewart.jpg
Bennett M. Stewart
(1912–1988)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
[49] [note 45]
George W. Crockett.jpg
George W. Crockett Jr.
(1909–1997)
Michigan's 13th November 4, 1980 January 3, 1991 Democratic 96th
(1979–1981)
[50] [note 46]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Mervyn M. Dymally Assembly.jpg
Mervyn M. Dymally
(1926–2012)
California's 31st January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
[51] [note 47]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Rep. Gus Savage.jpg
Gus Savage
(1925–2015)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
[52] [note 48]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Washington h.jpg
Harold Washington
(1922–1987)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1981 April 30, 1983 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
[53] [note 49]
98th
(1983–1985)
Katie Beatrice Hall.jpg
Katie Hall
(1938–2012)
Indiana's 1st November 2, 1982 January 3, 1985 Democratic 97th
(1981–1983)
[54] [note 50]
98th
(1983–1985)
Major Owens.jpg
Major R. Owens
(1936–2013)
New York's 12th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
[55] [note 51]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2007 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Edolphus Towns Portrait.jpg
Edolphus Towns
(born 1934)
New York's 11th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
[56] [note 52]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
New York's 10th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Rep. Alan Wheat.jpg
Alan Wheat
(born 1951)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1995 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
[57] [note 53]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Rep. Charles Hayes.jpg
Charles Hayes
(1918–1997)
Illinois's 1st August 23, 1983 January 3, 1993 Democratic 98th
(1983–1985)
[58] [note 54]
THRU
102nd
(1991–1993)
Alton Waldon.jpg
Alton R. Waldon Jr.
(born 1936)
New York's 6th June 10, 1986 January 3, 1987 Democratic 99th
(1985–1987)
[59] [note 55]
Mike Espy.jpg
Mike Espy
(born 1953)
Mississippi's 2nd January 3, 1987 January 22, 1993 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
[60] [note 56]
THRU
103rd
(1993–1995)
Floyd Flake.jpg
Floyd H. Flake
(born 1945)
New York's 6th January 3, 1987 November 17, 1997 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
[61] [note 57]
THRU
105th
(1997–1999)
John lewis official biopic.jpg
John Lewis
(born 1940)
Georgia's 5th January 3, 1987 Incumbent Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
[62] [note 58]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Kweisi Mfume.jpg
Kweisi Mfume
(born 1948)
Maryland's 7th January 3, 1987 February 15, 1996 Democratic 100th
(1987–1989)
[63] [note 59]
THRU
104th
(1995–1997)
Donald M Payne Official.jpg
Donald M. Payne
(1934–2012)
New Jersey's 10th January 3, 1989 March 6, 2012 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
[64] [note 60]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Craig Washington 102nd Congress 1991.jpg
Craig Washington
(born 1941)
Texas's 18th December 9, 1989 January 3, 1995 Democratic 101st
(1989–1991)
[65] [note 61]
102nd
(1991–1993)
103rd
(1993–1995)
Barbara Rose Collins.jpg
Barbara-Rose Collins
(born 1939)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[66] [note 62]
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
Gary A. Franks.jpg
Gary Franks
(born 1953)
Connecticut's 5th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1997 Republican 102nd
(1991–1993)
[67] [note 63]
103rd
(1993–1995)
104th
(1995–1997)
William Jefferson, official photo.jpg
William J. Jefferson
(born 1947)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 2009 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[68] [note 64]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Maxine Waters Official.jpg
Maxine Waters
(born 1938)
California's 29th January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[69] [note 65]
California's 35th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 103rd
(1993–1995)
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 43rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Lucien Blackwell.jpg
Lucien E. Blackwell
(1931–2003)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 5, 1991 January 3, 1995 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[70] [note 66]
103rd
(1993–1995)
Clayton-nc1.jpg
Eva M. Clayton
(born 1934)
North Carolina's 1st November 3, 1992 January 3, 2003 Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[71] [note 67]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Sanford Bishop.jpg
Sanford Bishop
(born 1947)
Georgia's 2nd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[72]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Corrinebrown.jpeg
Corrine Brown
(born 1946)
Florida's 3rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[73] [note 68]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 113th
(2013–2015)
114th
(2015–2017)
James Clyburn, official Congressional Majority Whip photo.jpg
Jim Clyburn
(born 1940)
South Carolina's 6th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[74] [note 69]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Cleo Fields.jpg
Cleo Fields
(born 1962)
Louisiana's 4th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[75] [note 70]
104th
(1995–1997)
Alcee Hastings Portrait c111-112th Congress.jpg Alcee Hastings
(born 1936)
Florida's 23rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 2013 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[76]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Florida's 20th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Earl Hilliard.jpg
Earl F. Hilliard
(born 1942)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[77] [note 71]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Eddie Bernice Johnson, Official Portrait, c112th Congress.jpg Eddie Bernice Johnson
(born 1935)
Texas's 30th January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[78] [note 72]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Cynthia McKinney.jpg
Cynthia McKinney
(born 1955)
Georgia's 11th January 3, 1993 January 3, 1997 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[79] [note 73]
104th
(1995–1997)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 105th
(1997–1999)
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 109th
(2005–2007)
Carrie P. Meek.jpg
Carrie P. Meek
(born 1926)
Florida's 17th January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[80] [note 74]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Mel Reynolds.jpg
Mel Reynolds
(born 1952)
Illinois's 2nd January 3, 1993 October 1, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[81] [note 75]
104th
(1995–1997)
Bobby Rush official photo (cropped).jpg
Bobby Rush
(born 1946)
Illinois's 1st January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[82]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
BobbyScott.jpg
Bobby Scott
(born 1947)
Virginia's 3rd January 3, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[83]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Walter R. Tucker.jpg
Walter Tucker
(born 1957)
California's 37th January 3, 1993 December 15, 1995 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[84] [note 76]
104th
(1995–1997)
Melvinwatt.jpg Mel Watt
(born 1945)
North Carolina's 12th January 3, 1993 January 6, 2014 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[85] [note 77]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Albert Wynn.jpg
Albert Wynn
(born 1951)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 1993 May 31, 2008 Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[86] [note 78]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Bennie Thompson official photo.jpg
Bennie Thompson
(born 1948)
Mississippi's 2nd April 13, 1993 Incumbent Democratic 103rd
(1993–1995)
[87] [note 79]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Chaka Fattah official headshot.jpg
Chaka Fattah
(born 1956)
Pennsylvania's 2nd January 3, 1995 June 23, 2016 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[88] [note 80]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
SheilaJackson.JPG Sheila Jackson Lee
(born 1950)
Texas's 18th January 3, 1995 Incumbent Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[89]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Watts.JPG
J. C. Watts
(born 1957)
Oklahoma's 4th January 3, 1995 January 3, 2003 Republican 104th
(1995–1997)
[90] [note 81]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Jesse Jackson, Jr., official photo portrait.jpg
Jesse Jackson Jr.
(born 1965)
Illinois's 2nd December 12, 1995 November 21, 2012 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[91] [note 82]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
Juanita Millender-McDonald.jpg
Juanita Millender-McDonald
(1938–2007)
California's 37th March 26, 1996 April 22, 2007 Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[92] [note 83]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Elijah Cummings official photo.jpg
Elijah Cummings
(born 1951)
Maryland's 7th April 16, 1996 Incumbent Democratic 104th
(1995–1997)
[93] [note 84]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Carson julia.jpg
Julia Carson
(1938–2007)
Indiana's 10th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[94] [note 85]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Indiana's 7th January 3, 2003 December 15, 2007 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
DannyKDavis113th.jpg
Danny K. Davis
(born 1941)
Illinois's 7th January 3, 1997 Incumbent Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[95]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Harold Ford, Congressional photo portrait.jpg
Harold Ford Jr.
(born 1970)
Tennessee's 9th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2007 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[96] [note 86]
THRU
109th
(2005–2007)
Carolyn Cheeks Kirkpatrick, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick
(born 1945)
Michigan's 15th January 3, 1997 January 3, 2003 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[97] [note 87]
THRU
107th
(2001–2003)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Gregory Meeks, Official Photo.jpg
Gregory Meeks
(born 1953)
New York's 6th February 3, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[98] [note 88]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 5th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Barbara Lee official portrait.jpg
Barbara Lee
(born 1946)
California's 9th April 7, 1998 January 3, 2013 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[99] [note 89]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
California's 13th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Stephanie Tubbs Jones official headshot.jpg
Stephanie Tubbs Jones
(1949–2008)
Ohio's 11th January 3, 1999 August 20, 2008 Democratic 106th
(1999–2001)
[100] [note 90]
THRU
110th
(2007–2009)
Wm. Lacy Clay Official Photo 2009.JPG
Lacy Clay
(born 1956)
Missouri's 1st January 3, 2001 Incumbent Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
[101] [note 91]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Diane Watson Congressional portrait 2007.jpg
Diane Watson
(born 1933)
California's 32nd June 5, 2001 January 3, 2003 Democratic 107th
(2001–2003)
[102] [note 92]
California's 33rd January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 108th
(2003–2005)
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Frank Ballance.jpg
Frank Ballance
(born 1942)
North Carolina's 1st January 3, 2003 June 11, 2004 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[103] [note 93]
Artur Davis, official photo portrait, color.jpg
Artur Davis
(born 1967)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[104] [note 94]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
Majette-denise.jpg
Denise Majette
(born 1955)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[105] [note 95]
Kendrick Meek official portrait.jpg
Kendrick Meek
(born 1966)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2011 Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[106] [note 96]
THRU
111th
(2009–2011)
David Scott congressional portrait.jpg
David Scott
(born 1945)
Georgia's 13th January 3, 2003 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[107]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
G.K. Butterfield, Official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
G. K. Butterfield
(born 1947)
North Carolina's 1st July 20, 2004 Incumbent Democratic 108th
(2003–2005)
[108] [note 97]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Rep. Emanuel Cleaver.jpg
Emanuel Cleaver
(born 1944)
Missouri's 5th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[109] [note 98]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Al Green Official.jpg
Al Green
(born 1947)
Texas's 9th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[110]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
GSM Official Headshot.jpg
Gwen Moore
(born 1951)
Wisconsin's 4th January 3, 2005 Incumbent Democratic 109th
(2005–2007)
[111] [note 99]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Yvette Clarke official photo.jpg
Yvette Clarke
(born 1964)
New York's 11th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[112]
THRU
112th
(2011–2013)
New York's 9th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Rep.K.Ellison.jpg
Keith Ellison
(born 1963)
Minnesota's 5th January 3, 2007 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[113] [note 100]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Hank Johnson official photo.jpg
Hank Johnson
(born 1954)
Georgia's 4th January 3, 2007 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[114]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Laura Richardson Official portrait.jpg
Laura Richardson
(born 1962)
California's 37th August 21, 2007 January 3, 2013 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[115] [note 101]
111th
(2009–2011)
112th
(2011–2013)
Andre Carson 2009.jpg
André Carson
(born 1974)
Indiana's 7th March 11, 2008 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[116] [note 102]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
The hon donna edwards.jpg
Donna Edwards
(born 1958)
Maryland's 4th June 17, 2008 January 3, 2017 Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[117] [note 103]
THRU
114th
(2015–2017)
Marcia fudge.jpg
Marcia Fudge
(born 1952)
Ohio's 11th November 18, 2008 Incumbent Democratic 110th
(2007–2009)
[118] [note 104]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Karen-Bass-2012.jpg
Karen Bass
(born 1953)
California's 33rd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[119]
California's 37th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Hansen Clarke, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Hansen Clarke
(born 1957)
Michigan's 13th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[120] [note 105]
Cedric.jpg
Cedric Richmond
(born 1973)
Louisiana's 2nd January 3, 2011 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[121] [note 106]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Tim Scott, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Tim Scott
(born 1965)
South Carolina's 1st January 3, 2011 January 2, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
[122] [note 107]
Terri Sewell official photo.jpg
Terri Sewell
(born 1965)
Alabama's 7th January 3, 2011 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[123] [note 108]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Allen West, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Allen West
(born 1961)
Florida's 22nd January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Republican 112th
(2011–2013)
[124] [note 109]
Frederica Wilson official House portrait.jpg
Frederica Wilson
(born 1942)
Florida's 17th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[125]
Florida's 24th January 3, 2013 Incumbent 113th
(2013–2015)
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Donald Payne Jr Official Portrait 113th Congress.png
Donald Payne Jr.
(born 1958)
New Jersey's 10th November 6, 2012 Incumbent Democratic 112th
(2011–2013)
[126] [note 110]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Joyce Beatty congressional portrait 114th Congress.jpg
Joyce Beatty
(born 1950)
Ohio's 3rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[127]
114th
(2015–2017)
115th
(2017–2019)
Horsford-NV02-pic.jpg
Steven Horsford
(born 1973)
Nevada's 4th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[128] [note 111]
HakeemJ.jpg
Hakeem Jeffries
(born 1970)
New York's 8th January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[129]
114th
(2015–2017)
115th
(2017–2019)
Marc Veasey, Official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Marc Veasey
(born 1971)
Texas's 33rd January 3, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[130]
114th
(2015–2017)
115th
(2017–2019)
Robin Kelly official photo.jpg
Robin Kelly
(born 1956)
Illinois's 2nd April 9, 2013 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[131] [note 112]
114th
(2015–2017)
115th
(2017–2019)
Alma Adams official portrait.jpg
Alma Adams
(born 1946)
North Carolina's 12th November 12, 2014 Incumbent Democratic 113th
(2013–2015)
[132] [note 113]
114th
(2015–2017)
115th
(2017–2019)
Will Hurd Texas.jpg
Will Hurd
(born 1977)
Texas's 23rd January 3, 2015 Incumbent Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
[133]
115th
(2017–2019)
Brenda Lawrence official photo.jpg
Brenda Lawrence
(born 1954)
Michigan's 14th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2017–2019)
[134]
115th
(2017–2019)
Mia Love official portrait.jpg
Mia Love
(born 1975)
Utah's 4th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Republican 114th
(2015–2017)
[135] [note 114]
115th
(2017–2019)
Bonnie Watson Coleman official portrait.jpg
Bonnie Watson Coleman
(born 1945)
New Jersey's 12th January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[136]
115th
(2017–2019)
Dwight Evans official photo.jpg
Dwight Evans
(born 1954)
Pennsylvania's 2nd November 8, 2016 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[137] [note 115]
115th
(2017–2019)
Lisa Blunt Rochester official photo.jpg
Lisa Blunt Rochester
(born 1962)
Delaware's at-large January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[138] [note 116]
Anthony G. Brown official photo (cropped).jpg
Anthony G. Brown
(born 1961)
Maryland's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[140]
US Rep Val Demings.jpg
Val Demings
(born 1957)
Florida's 10th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[141]
Al Lawson 115th Congress photo.jpg
Al Lawson
(born 1948)
Florida's 5th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[142]
Donald McEachin 115th congress photo.jpg
Donald McEachin
(born 1961)
Virginia's 4th January 3, 2017 Incumbent Democratic 115th
(2017–2019)
[143]

House Delegates (non-voting members)[edit]

(Note: Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Political Parties

  Democratic   Republican   Independent

Delegate Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Ref. Note
Walter Fauntroy.jpg
Walter E. Fauntroy
(born 1933)
District of Columbia's at-large March 23, 1971 January 3, 1991 Democratic 92nd
(1971–1973)
[144] [note 117]
THRU
101st
(1989–1991)
Melvin Evans123.jpg
Melvin H. Evans
(1917–1984)
Virgin Islands's at-large January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 Republican 96th
(1979–1981)
[145] [note 118]
Eleanor Holmes Norton.jpg
Eleanor Holmes Norton
(born 1937)
District of Columbia's at-large January 3, 1991 Incumbent Democratic 102nd
(1991–1993)
[146]
THRU
115th
(2017–2019)
Victor O. Frazer.jpg
Victor O. Frazer
(born 1943)
Virgin Islands's at-large January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 Independent 104th
(1995–1997)
[147] [note 119]
Donna christensen.JPG
Donna Christian-Christensen
(born 1945)
Virgin Islands's at-large January 3, 1997 January 3, 2015 Democratic 105th
(1997–1999)
[148] [note 120]
THRU
113th
(2013–2015)
Rep. Stacey E. Plaskett (VI).jpg
Stacey Plaskett
(born 1964)
Virgin Islands's at-large January 3, 2015 Incumbent Democratic 114th
(2015–2017)
[149]
115th
(2017–2019)

African Americans elected to the House of Representatives, but not seated[edit]

Political Party

  Republican

Representative Congressional District Took office Left office Party Congress Former slave Ref. Note
John Willis Menard.jpg
John Willis Menard
(1838–1893)
Louisiana's 2nd Denied seat Republican 41st
(1869–1871)
No [150] [note 121]
P. B. S. Pinchback - Brady-Handy.jpg
P. B. S. Pinchback
(1837–1921)
Louisiana's at-large Denied seat Republican 43rd
(1873–1875)
No [152] [note 122]

See also[edit]

Federal government[edit]

State and local government[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Benjamin Whittemore. Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in the United States House of Representatives and the first to serve in Congress from South Carolina.[5]
  2. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the House of Representatives denial to seat Samuel F. Gove.[6] He retired from office.[6] First African American to serve in Congress from Georgia.
  3. ^ Unseated in 1873 by a contested election that involved Christopher C. Bowen, the previous seat holder. The seat remained vacant until March 1873.[7]
  4. ^ Resigned from office.[8] Elected in November 1874 to the South Carolina House of Representatives.[8]
  5. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in Congress from Alabama.
  6. ^ Removed from office in 1873 and 1876 due to contested elections that involved Silas L. Niblack and Jesse Finley, respectively. First African American to serve in Congress from Florida.
  7. ^ Retired from office.
  8. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved James Chalmers in 1882. Lost office during reelection in 1883. First African American to serve in the United States House of Representatives from Mississippi. Youngest member of the 43rd United States Congress at age 26.
  9. ^ Retired from office. Former Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina.
  10. ^ Lost office during reelection.
  11. ^ Lost office during reelection.
  12. ^ Lost office during re-nomination. First African American to serve in Congress from North Carolina.
  13. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in Congress from Louisiana.
  14. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved George Tillman in 1882. Elected in 1884 to fill vacancy caused by death of Edmund Mackey. Lost reelection and retired from office in final term.
  15. ^ Lost office during reelection.[19]
  16. ^ Lost office during reelection. Brother-in-law of George Henry White.
  17. ^ Seated in Congress after the contested election that involved Edward Venable in September 1890. Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in Congress from Virginia.
  18. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved William Elliott in September 1890. Lost office during reelection in final term.
  19. ^ Seated in Congress after contested election that involved William Elliott in June 1896. Lost office during reelection. Distant relative of Jim Clyburn.
  20. ^ Retired from office. Brother-in-law of Henry P. Cheatham. The last African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state until Barbara Jordan from Texas and Andrew Young from Georgia in 1973.
  21. ^ Lost office during reelection to Arthur W. Mitchell. First African American to serve in Congress from Illinois and the first to serve from outside the southern states.
  22. ^ Retired from office. First African American to be elected to Congress as a Democrat.
  23. ^ Died while in office.
  24. ^ Excluded from membership in the 90th United States Congress in February 1967. Reelected to fill vacancy caused by exclusion from membership, but did not take oath of office. Lost office during renomination. First African American to serve in Congress from New York.[28]
  25. ^ Censured, resigned and jailed for three years for mail fraud. First African American to serve in Congress from Michigan. The first person to serve as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 91st United States Congress during the first session.
  26. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of Earl Chudoff In 1958. Lost office during renomination. First African American to serve in Congress from Pennsylvania.
  27. ^ Retired from office. First African American to serve in Congress from California.
  28. ^ First African-American to become Dean of the United States House of Representatives.
  29. ^ Retired from office. First African-American woman to serve in Congress and the first African-American woman to run as a presidential candidate in 1972.
  30. ^ Retired from office. His son, Lacy Clay, succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from Missouri.
  31. ^ Retired from office. First African American to serve in Congress from Ohio. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 92nd United States Congress during the second session and in the 93rd United States Congress during the first session.
  32. ^ Elected to Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel Ronan. Died while in office and his wife, Cardiss Collins, filled the vacancy caused by his death.
  33. ^ Resigned from office. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 101st United States Congress.
  34. ^ Died while in office.
  35. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully as Lieutenant Governor of Maryland. First African American to serve in Congress from Maryland. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 95th United States Congress.
  36. ^ Retired from Congress. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 93rd United States Congress during the second session and in the 94th United States Congress during the first session.
  37. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully as Attorney General of California. First woman to serve as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 94th United States Congress during the second session.
  38. ^ Retired from office. First African American to serve in Congress from Texas. Along with Andrew Young from Georgia, the first African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state since George Henry White from North Carolina in 1901.
  39. ^ Resigned to become the United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Along with Barbara Jordan from Texas, the first African American to serve in Congress from a Southern state since George Henry White from North Carolina in 1901.
  40. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of her husband, George W. Collins. Retired from office. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 96th United States Congress.
  41. ^ Retired from office. His son, Harold Ford, Jr. succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from Tennessee.
  42. ^ Reelected to the 107th United States Congress, but died before the commencement of the Congress. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 98th United States Congress.
  43. ^ Resigned to become President of the United Negro College Fund. Served as chair for the House Democratic Caucus during the 101st United States Congress and House Democratic Whip during the 102nd United States Congress.
  44. ^ Died while in office. Served as chair for the Congressional Black Caucus in the 99th United States Congress.
  45. ^ Lost office during renomination.
  46. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles Diggs. Retired from office.
  47. ^ Retired from office. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 100th United States Congress.
  48. ^ Lost office during renomination.
  49. ^ Resigned to become Mayor of Chicago.
  50. ^ Elected to Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Adam Benjamin, Jr. Lost office during renomination. First African American to serve in Congress from Indiana.
  51. ^ Retired from office.
  52. ^ Retired from office. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 102nd United States Congress.
  53. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate seat in Missouri.
  54. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Harold Washington. Lost office during renomination.
  55. ^ Elected to Congress to fill vacancy caused by the death of Joseph Addabbo. Lost office during renomination.
  56. ^ Resigned to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
  57. ^ Resigned to become a pastor at the Allen African Methodist Episcopal Church.
  58. ^ Served as Democratic chief whip in the 102nd through 109th Congresses. Also, served as the Democratic Senior Chief Deputy Whip in the 110th through 112th Congresses.
  59. ^ .Resigned to become Executive Director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd United States Congress. Also, served as co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th United States Congress.
  60. ^ Died while in office. His son, Donald Payne Jr., succeeded him in office. First African American to serve in Congress from New Jersey. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 104th United States Congress.
  61. ^ Elected to office to fill vacancy caused by death of Mickey Leland. Lost office during renomination.
  62. ^ Lost office during renomination.
  63. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in Congress from Connecticut.
  64. ^ Lost office during reelection; first African-American Democrat to be defeated for reelection by a Republican. Sentenced to 13 years for bribery after a corruption investigation.
  65. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 105th United States Congress. Served as vice chair of the Democratic Steering Committee in the 105th through 108th Congresses. Served as Democratic chief deputy whip in the 106th through 112th Congresses.
  66. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of William H. Gray. Lost office during renomination.
  67. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Walter B. Jones, Sr.. Retired from office. Served as co-chair of the Democratic Policy Committee in the 104th United States Congress.
  68. ^ Lost office during renomination. Later convicted of fraud and tax evasion.
  69. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 106th United States Congress. Served as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus in the 108th through 109th Congresses. Served as House majority whip in the 110th through 111th Congresses. Served as the Assistant Democratic Leader in the 112th United States Congress. Distant relative of George W. Murray.
  70. ^ Retired from office. Youngest member of the 103rd United States Congress at age 30.
  71. ^ Lost office during renomination.
  72. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 107th United States Congress.
  73. ^ Lost office during renomination for the 2003 and 2007 terms.
  74. ^ Retired from office. Her son, Kendrick Meek, succeeded her in office.
  75. ^ Resigned after being convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography and being sentenced to five years in prison.
  76. ^ Resigned due to scandals involving accepting and demanding bribes while mayor of Compton. Tucker was sentenced to 27 months in prison for extortion and tax evasion.
  77. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 109th United States Congress. Resigned to become Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency.
  78. ^ Lost office during renomination and resigned.
  79. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Mike Espy.
  80. ^ Resigned following loss of renomination and convictions for racketeering, fraud, and money laundering.
  81. ^ Retired from office. First African American to serve in Congress from Oklahoma. Served as chair of the House Republican Conference in the 106th through 107th Congresses.
  82. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Mel Reynolds. Resigned, citing mental and physical health problems, but acknowledging that he was under two separate investigations by the House Ethics Committee and the FBI. Jackson pleaded guilty on February 20, 2013 to one count of wire and mail fraud. He was sentenced to 30 months in federal prison.
  83. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Walter Tucker. Died while in office.
  84. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Kweisi Mfume. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 108th United States Congress.
  85. ^ Died while in office and her grandson, André Carson, filled the vacancy caused by her death.
  86. ^ Succeeded his father, Harold Ford Sr., in office. Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate from Tennessee. Youngest member of the 105th United States Congress at age 26.
  87. ^ Lost office during renomination. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 110th United States Congress.
  88. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Floyd H. Flake.
  89. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Ron Dellums. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 111th United States Congress.
  90. ^ Died while in office.
  91. ^ Succeeded his father, Bill Clay, in office.
  92. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Julian C. Dixon. Retired from office.
  93. ^ Resigned and was sentenced to four years in prison, two years supervised release, and fined $10,000, for mail fraud and money laundering.
  94. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Alabama. Became a member of the Republican Party in 2012.
  95. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate from Georgia.
  96. ^ Succeeded his mother, Carrie P. Meek, in office. Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate from Florida.
  97. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Ballance. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 114th United States Congress.
  98. ^ Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 112th United States Congress.
  99. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Wisconsin.
  100. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Minnesota and the first Muslim to serve in Congress.
  101. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Juanita Millender-McDonald. In 2012 was reprimanded due to use of Congressional office staff in 2010 House election campaign. Lost office during reelection.
  102. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of his grandmother, Julia Carson.
  103. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Albert Wynn. Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate from Maryland.
  104. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of Stephanie Tubbs Jones. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 113th United States Congress.
  105. ^ Lost office during renomination.
  106. ^ Serves as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 115th United States Congress.
  107. ^ Appointed to Senate by South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley to replace Jim DeMint. Served as Republican assistant majority whip in the 112th United States Congress. First African American to serve in both chambers of the United States Congress.
  108. ^ Served as Democratic senior whip in the 112th United States Congress.
  109. ^ Lost office during reelection.
  110. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the death of his father, Donald M. Payne.
  111. ^ Lost office during reelection; first African-American Democrat to be defeated for reelection by a white Republican. First African American to serve in Congress from Nevada.
  112. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Jesse Jackson, Jr.
  113. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Mel Watt.
  114. ^ First female African-American Republican to serve in Congress, first African American to serve in Congress from Utah and first Haitian American to serve in Congress.
  115. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Chaka Fattah.
  116. ^ First African American to serve in Congress from Delaware.[139]
  117. ^ Elected to serve in Congress after the District of Columbia was authorized to elect a Delegate by the District of Columbia Delegate Act of 1970. Retired to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of the District of Columbia. First African American to serve as a delegate for the District of Columbia. Served as chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in the 97th United States Congress.
  118. ^ Lost office during reelection. First African American to serve in Congress from the Virgin Islands.
  119. ^ Lost office during reelection.
  120. ^ Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Virgin Islands. First woman elected to serve in Congress from the Virgin Islands.
  121. ^ Elected to fill vacancy caused by death of James Mann. Denied seat due to a contested election that involved Caleb S. Hunt, but was permitted to address the House while in session.[151] First African American elected to Congress, but denied seat.
  122. ^ Denied seat due to a contested election that involved George A. Sheridan.[153]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Black Americans in Congress". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Time Line of African American History, 1881-1900". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 22, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b Terkel, Amanda (September 27, 2012). "Senate Likely To Remain Without Black Members For Years". Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Rainey, Joseph Hayne, (1832 - 1887)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Long, Jefferson Franklin, (1836 - 1901)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "De Large, Robert Carlos, (1842 - 1874)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c "Elliott, Robert Brown, (1842 - 1884)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Turner, Benjamin Sterling, (1825 - 1894)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Walls, Josiah Thomas, (1842 - 1905)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Cain, Richard Harvey, (1825 - 1887)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Lynch, John Roy, (1847 - 1939)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Ransier, Alonzo Jacob, (1834 - 1882)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Rapier, James Thomas, (1837 - 1883)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Haralson, Jeremiah, (1846 - 1916)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Hyman, John Adams, (1840 - 1891)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Nash, Charles Edmund, (1844 - 1913)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Smalls, Robert, (1839 - 1915)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  20. ^ "Cheatham, Henry Plummer, (1857 - 1935)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Langston, John Mercer, (1829 - 1897)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Miller, Thomas Ezekiel, (1849 - 1938)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Murray, George Washington, (1853 - 1926)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  24. ^ "White, George Henry, (1852 - 1918)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  25. ^ "De Priest, Oscar Stanton, (1871 - 1951)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Mitchell, Arthur Wergs, (1883 - 1968)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Dawson, William Levi, (1886 - 1970)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  29. ^ "Diggs, Charles Coles, Jr., (1922 - 1998)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Nix, Robert Nelson Cornelius, Sr., (1898 - 1987)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Hawkins, Augustus Freeman (Gus), (1907 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Conyers, John, Jr., (1929 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Chisholm, Shirley Anita, (1924 - 2005)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Clay, William Lacy, Sr., (1931 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Stokes, Louis, (1925 - 2015)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Collins, George Washington, (1925 - 1972)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Dellums, Ronald V., (1935 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Metcalfe, Ralph Harold, (1910 - 1978)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Mitchell, Parren James, (1922 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Rangel, Charles B., (1930 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Burke, Yvonne Brathwaite, (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Jordan, Barbara Charline, (1936 - 1996)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  43. ^ "Young, Andrew Jackson, Jr., (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  44. ^ "Collins, Cardiss, (1931 - 2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  45. ^ "Ford, Harold Eugene, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Dixon, Julian Carey, (1934 - 2000)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  47. ^ "Gray, William Herbert, III, (1941 - 2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Leland, George Thomas (Mickey), (1944 - 1989)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  49. ^ "Stewart, Bennett McVey, (1912 - 1988)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Crockett, George William, Jr., (1909 - 1997)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Dymally, Mervyn Malcolm, (1926 - 2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Savage, Gus, (1925 - 2015)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Washington, Harold, (1922 - 1987)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  54. ^ "Hall, Katie Beatrice, (1938 - 2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  55. ^ "Owens, Major Robert Odell, (1936 - 2013)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Towns, Edolphus, (1934 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Wheat, Alan Dupree, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  58. ^ "Hayes, Charles Arthur, (1918 - 1997)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  59. ^ "Waldon, Alton R., Jr., (1936 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Espy, Alphonso Michael (Mike), (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Flake, Floyd Harold, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Lewis, John R., (1940 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Mfume, Kweisi, (1948 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  64. ^ "Payne, Donald Milford, (1934 - 2012)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  66. ^ "Collins, Barbara-Rose, (1939 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  67. ^ "Franks, Gary A., (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  68. ^ "Jefferson, William Jennings, (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  69. ^ "Waters, Maxine, (1938 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Blackwell, Lucien Edward, (1931 - 2003)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  72. ^ "Bishop, Sanford Dixon, Jr., (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  73. ^ "Brown, Corrine, (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  74. ^ "Clyburn, James Enos, (1940 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  75. ^ "Fields, Cleo, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Hastings, Alcee Lamar, (1936 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  78. ^ "Johnson, Eddie Bernice, (1935 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  79. ^ "McKinney, Cynthia Ann, (1955 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  80. ^ "Meek, Carrie P., (1926 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  81. ^ "Reynolds, Mel, (1952 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  82. ^ "Rush, Bobby L., (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  83. ^ "Scott, Robert Cortez, (1947 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  84. ^ "Tucker, Walter R., III, (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  85. ^ "Watt, Melvin L., (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  86. ^ "Wynn, Albert Russell, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  87. ^ "Thompson, Bennie, (1948 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  88. ^ "Fattah, Chaka, (1956 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  89. ^ "Jackson Lee, Sheila, (1950 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  90. ^ "Watts, Julius Caesar, Jr. (J. C.), (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  91. ^ "Jackson, Jesse L., Jr., (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  92. ^ "Millender-McDonald, Juanita, (1938 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  93. ^ "Cummings, Elijah Eugene, (1951 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  94. ^ "Carson, Julia May, (1938 - 2007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  95. ^ "Davis, Danny K., (1941 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  96. ^ "Ford, Harold, Jr., (1970 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  97. ^ "Kilpatrick, Carolyn Cheeks, (1945 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  98. ^ "Meeks, Gregory W., (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  99. ^ "Lee, Barbara, (1946 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  112. ^ "Clarke, Yvette Diane, (1964 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  113. ^ "Ellison, Keith, (1963 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Johnson, Hank, (1954 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  119. ^ "Bass, Karen, (1953 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  122. ^ "Scott, Tim, (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  123. ^ "Sewell, Terri, (1965 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  124. ^ "West, Allen, (1961 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Wilson, Frederica, (1942 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  126. ^ "Payne, Donald, Jr., (1958 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  127. ^ "Beatty, Joyce, (1950 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  128. ^ "Horsford, Steven, (1973 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  129. ^ "Jeffries, Hakeem, (1970 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  130. ^ "Veasey, Marc, (1971 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  131. ^ "Kelly, Robin L., (1956 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
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  134. ^ "Lawrence, Brenda L., (1954 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  135. ^ "Love, Ludmya Bourdeau (Mia), (1975 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
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  141. ^ "Demings, Valdez Butler, (1957 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved January 3, 2017. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]