List of African-American United States presidential and vice presidential candidates
The following is a list of African-American United States presidential and vice-presidential nominees and candidates for nomination. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed are those African Americans who achieved ballot access for the national election in at least one state. They may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the major parties, or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.
Not included in the first two tables are African Americans who lost campaigns in nominating conventions or primary elections for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates.
The third table includes African Americans who ran for their party's presidential nomination but who were not nominated, as well as those who are currently pursuing their party's presidential nomination (when applicable).
Barack Obama became the first African-American candidate to be nominated by a major party, and the first to win, for either president or vice president when he became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 2008 election and was elected. He was re-elected in the 2012 election.
- 1 U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees
- 2 U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees
- 3 U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination
- 4 U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees
Denotes winning candidate.
Candidates receiving electoral votes
|2008||Obama, BarackBarack Obama||Democratic Party||Biden, JoeJoe Biden||365||538|
|2012||Obama, BarackBarack Obama||Democratic Party||Biden, JoeJoe Biden||332||538|
|2016||Powell, ColinColin Powell||Not applicable||Not applicable||3||538|
Candidates receiving popular votes
U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees
Through the 2016 presidential election, no African-American candidates have received electoral votes for vice president.
Candidates receiving popular votes
U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination
Candidates who failed to receive their party's nomination (or who are currently campaigning for their party's nomination). Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.
|1848||Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass||Liberty Party||1 vote at national convention||Smith, GerritGerrit Smith|
|1888||Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention||Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison|
|1968||Phillips, Channing E.Channing E. Phillips||Democratic Party||67.5 votes at national convention||Humphrey, HubertHubert Humphrey|
|1972||Chisholm, ShirleyShirley Chisholm||Democratic Party||152 votes at national convention||McGovern, GeorgeGeorge McGovern|
|1972||Fauntroy, WalterWalter Fauntroy||Democratic Party||1 vote at national convention; 21,217 votes (71.78%) and winner of Washington, D.C. primary||McGovern, GeorgeGeorge McGovern|
|1976||Jordan, BarbaraBarbara Jordan||Democratic Party||1 vote at national convention||Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter|
|1976||Fauntroy, WalterWalter Fauntroy||Democratic Party||10,149 votes (30.49%) (2nd place) in Washington, D.C. primary||Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter|
|1984||Jackson, JesseJesse Jackson||Democratic Party||466 votes at national convention||Mondale, WalterWalter Mondale|
|1988||Jackson, JesseJesse Jackson||Democratic Party||1218.5 votes at national convention||Dukakis, MichaelMichael Dukakis|
|1992||Wilder, DouglasDouglas Wilder||Democratic Party||Withdrew before Iowa caucuses||Clinton, BillBill Clinton|
|1992||Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention. Keyes was the Republican candidate in the U.S. Senate election in Maryland at the time, and was not actively seeking the presidency in 1992.||Bush, George H.W.George H.W. Bush|
|1996||Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention||Dole, BobBob Dole|
|1996||Masters, IsabellIsabell Masters||Republican Party||1052 votes (7th place) in Oklahoma primary||Dole, BobBob Dole|
|2000||Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes||Republican Party||6 votes at national convention||Bush, George W.George W. Bush|
|2000||Rocker, Angel JoyAngel Joy Rocker||Republican Party||6 votes in Alabama straw poll||Bush, George W.George W. Bush|
|2004||Braun, Carol MoseleyCarol Moseley Braun||Democratic Party||Withdrew before Iowa caucuses||Kerry, JohnJohn Kerry|
|2004||Sharpton, AlAl Sharpton||Democratic Party||Earned 26 delegates in 5 primaries and caucuses||Kerry, JohnJohn Kerry|
|2008||Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes||Republican Party||Keyes withdrew from Republican Party on April 15, 2008, but remained on the Republican ballot in several states.||McCain, JohnJohn McCain|
|2008||Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes||Constitution Party||125.7 votes (24.36%) (2nd place) at national convention.||Baldwin, ChuckChuck Baldwin|
|2012||Cain, HermanHerman Cain||Republican Party||Withdrew on December 3, 2011.||
Romney, MittMitt Romney
|2016||Carson, BenBen Carson||Republican Party||Announced candidacy on May 3, 2015. Withdrew on March 4. Earned 9 delegates.||Trump, DonaldDonald Trump|
|2016||Wilson, WillieWillie Wilson||Democratic Party||Announced candidacy on June 1, 2015.||Clinton, HillaryHillary Clinton|
|2016||Johnson, John FitzgeraldJohn Fitzgerald Johnson||Democratic Party||Announced candidacy on August 23, 2015.|
|2016||Moorehead, MonicaMonica Moorehead||Peace and Freedom Party||1,369 votes (30%) (2nd place) in California primary||La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva|
U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination
- African American candidates for president of the United States
- List of female United States presidential and vice-presidential candidates
- Jesse Jackson presidential campaign 1984
- Jesse Jackson presidential campaign, 1988
- Colin Powell did not run for president in 2016. He received the votes of 3 faithless electors from Washington. Powell, a Republican, had endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election and received his electoral votes from Democratic electors.
- Wisconsin Labor Advocate, La Crosse, Wis. : Geo. E. Taylor, 1886- Archived 2009-09-13 at the Wayback Machine.
- The World Almanac & Encyclopedia. 1908. p. 268. "they received only a few scattering votes of which there is no exact record."
- Does not include 27,887 votes cast for the party's ticket in California and Utah, where Cleaver's name did not appear on the ballot because he was under 35 years old.
- Leip, David (2005). "1980 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
- In 2004 and 2008, Harris served as a stand-in nominee for the Socialist Workers Party in states where the party's main presidential nominee, Róger Calero, was ineligible because he was not a natural-born citizen.
- Winger, Richard (2009-01-06). "2008 Presidential Vote (not final)". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
- Federal Elections 2012 (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Federal Election Commission. 2013. p. 5.
- Gunzburger, Ron (2016). "2016 Presidential Candidates". Politics1. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
- "Breaking: Humane Party announces Dr. Breeze Harper as Vice Presidential nominee". The Onion Knight Show. June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "2016 Presidential Election by State". The Green Papers. February 5, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
- Douglass did not acknowledge the nomination or participate in the campaign.
- Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
- Guzman, Jessie Parkhurst. Negro Year Book - An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro 1931-1932 p.87.
- "National Affairs: Fifth Party". Time. June 18, 1928.
- Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
- "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y., June..." 1848. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
- "Republican Party". Archived from the original on 2009-02-01.
- "President Peace and Freedom - Statewide Results". Office of the Secretary of State of California. Government of California. 8 June 2016. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012.
- Wesley, Dr. Charles H. (March 14, 1953). "The Greatest American". The Afro-American. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Ragsdale, Bruce; Joel D. Treese (1990). Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989. Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 8.
- Sears, p. 389