List of African-American firsts
|African American topics|
African Americans (also known as Black Americans and Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group in the United States. The first achievements by African Americans in various fields historically marked footholds, often leading to more widespread cultural change. The shorthand phrase for this is "breaking the color barrier".
- First free African-American community: Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose (later named Fort Mose) in Florida
- First known African-American published author: Jupiter Hammon (poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries", published as a broadside)
- First known African American to be elected to public office: Wentworth Cheswell, town constable in Newmarket, New Hampshire.
- First known African-American woman to publish a book: Phillis Wheatley (Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral)
- First separate African-American church: Silver Bluff Baptist Church, Aiken County, South Carolina[Note 1]
- First African American to join the Freemasons: Prince Hall
- First African American to formally practice medicine: James Derham, who did not hold an M.D. degree. (See also 1847 firsts.)
- First major African-American Back-to-Africa movement: 3,000 Black Loyalist slaves, who had escaped to British lines during the American Revolutionary War for the promise of freedom, were relocated to Nova Scotia and given land. Later, 1,200 chose to migrate and settle in the new British colony of Settler Town, which developed as Sierra Leone, in West Africa.
- First African Methodist Episcopal Church established: Richard Allen founded Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- First African Episcopal Church established: Absalom Jones founded African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- First African American ordained as an Episcopal priest: Absalom Jones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- First African American Presbyterian Church in America: First African Presbyterian Church founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by John Gloucester a former slave.
- First fully independent African-American denomination: African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and mid-Atlantic states
- First African American to receive a degree from an American college: Alexander Twilight, Middlebury College (See also: 1836)
- First African-American owned-and-operated newspaper: Freedom's Journal, founded in New York City by Rev. Peter Williams, Jr. and other free blacks.
- First African American elected to serve in a state legislature: Alexander Twilight, Vermont (See also: 1823)
- First formally trained African-American Medical Doctor: Dr. James McCune Smith of New York City, who was educated at the University of Glasgow, Scotland and returned to practice in New York. (See also: 1783, 1847)
- First African American to graduate from a US medical school: Dr. David J. Peck (Rush Medical College) (See also: 1783, 1837)
- First African-American president of any nation: Joseph Jenkins Roberts, Liberia
- First African-American college professor at a predominantly white institution: Charles L. Reason, New York Central College
- First African-American member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits): Patrick Francis Healy (See also: 1866, 1874)
- First novel published by an African American: Clotel; or, The President's Daughter, by William Wells Brown, then living in London.[Note 2]
- First African-American Roman Catholic priest: James Augustine Healy (see 1875 and 1886)
- First institute of higher learning created to educate African Americans: Ashmun Institute in Pennsylvania, renamed Lincoln University in 1866. (See also firsts in 1863)
- First published play by an African American: The Escape; or, A Leap for Freedom by William Wells Brown
- First African-American woman college instructor: Sarah Jane Woodson Early, Wilberforce College
- First North American military unit with African-American officers: 1st Louisiana Native Guard of the Confederate Army
- First African-American US federal government civil servant: William Cooper Nell
- First African-American woman to earn a B.A.: Mary Jane Patterson, Oberlin College
- First recognized U.S. Army African-American combat unit: 1st South Carolina Volunteers
- First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce University in Ohio[Note 3] (See also: 1854)
- First African-American president of a college: Bishop Daniel Payne (Wilberforce University)
- First African-American field officer in the U.S. Army: Martin Delany
- First African-American attorney admitted to the bar of the U.S. Supreme Court: John Stewart Rock
- First African American to be commissioned as captain in the Regular U.S. Army: Orindatus Simon Bolivar Wall, known as OSB Wall
- First African American to earn a Ph.D.: Father Patrick Francis Healy from University of Leuven, Belgium (See also 1851, 1874)
- First African-American woman enlistee in the U.S. Army: Cathay Williams
- First African-American woman to serve as a professor: Sarah Jane Woodson Early; Xenia, Ohio's Wilberforce University hired her to teach Latin and English
- First elected African-American Lieutenant Governor: Oscar Dunn (Louisiana).
- First African-American mayor: Pierre Caliste Landry, Donaldsonville, Louisiana
- First African American elected to the U.S. House of Representatives: John Willis Menard. His opponent contested his election, and opposition to his election prevented him from being seated in Congress. (See also: 1870)
- First African-American U.S. diplomat: Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett, minister to Haiti
- First African-American woman school principal: Fanny Jackson Coppin (Institute for Colored Youth)
- First African American to vote in an election under the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting voting rights regardless of race: Thomas Mundy Peterson
- First African American to graduate from Harvard College: Richard Theodore Greener.
- First African American elected to the U.S. Senate, and first to serve in the U.S. Congress: Hiram Rhodes Revels (R–MS).[Note 4]
- First African American to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives: Joseph Rainey (R-SC).[Note 5]
- First African-American midshipman admitted to the United States Naval Academy: John H. Conyers (nominated by Robert B. Elliott of South Carolina).
- First African-American governor (non-elected): P. B. S. Pinchback of Louisiana (See also: Douglas Wilder, 1990)
- First African-American nominee for Vice President of the United States: Frederick Douglass by the Equal Rights Party.[Note 6]
- First African-American president of a major college/university: Father Patrick Francis Healy, S.J. of Georgetown College. (See also: 1851, 1863, 1866)
- First African American to preside over the House of Representatives as Speaker pro tempore: Joseph Rainey
- First African-American Roman Catholic bishop: Bishop James Augustine Healy, of Portland, Maine. (See also: 1854)
- First African American to earn a doctorate degree from an American university: Edward Alexander Bouchet (Yale College Ph.D., physics; also first African American to graduate from Yale, 1874) (See also: 1866)
- First African-American graduate of West Point and first African-American commissioned officer in the U.S. military: Henry Ossian Flipper.
- First African-American police officer in Boston, Massachusetts: Sergeant Horatio Julius Homer.
- First African-American baseball player in organized professional baseball: John W. "Bud" Fowler.
- First African American to graduate from a formal nursing school: Mary Eliza Mahoney, Boston, Massachusetts.
- First African American whose signature appeared on U.S. paper currency: Blanche K. Bruce, Register of the Treasury.
- First first fully state-supported four-year institution of higher learning for African-Americans: Virginia State University
- First known African-American woman to graduate from one of the Seven Sisters colleges: Hortense Parker (Mount Holyoke College)[Note 7]
- First African American to play professional baseball at the major-league level: Moses Fleetwood Walker. (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1947)
- First African-American woman to hold a patent: Judy W. Reed, for an improved dough kneader, Washington, D.C.[Note 8]
- First African-American Roman Catholic priest publicly known at the time to be African-American: Augustine Tolton, Quincy and Chicago, Illinois (See also: 1854)
- First African-American police officer in present-day New York City: Wiley Overton, hired by the Brooklyn Police Department prior to 1898 incorporation of the five boroughs into the City of New York. (See also: Samuel J. Battle, 1911)
- First African American to sing at Carnegie Hall: Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones
- First African American named to a College Football All-America Team: William H. Lewis, Harvard University
- First African American to achieve world championship in any sport: Marshall "Major" Taylor, for 1-mile track cycling
- First African-American professional basketball player: Harry Lew (New England Professional Basketball League) (See also: 1950)
- First African-American boxing champion, Joe Gans a lightweight
- First Broadway musical written by African Americans, and the first to star African Americans: In Dahomey
- First African-American woman to found and become president of a bank: Maggie L. Walker, St. Luke Penny Savings Bank (since 1930 the Consolidated Bank & Trust Company), Richmond, Virginia
- First Greek-letter fraternal organization established by African Americans: Sigma Pi Phi
- First African American to participate in the Olympic Games, and first to win a medal: George Poage (two bronze medals)
- First intercollegiate Greek-letter organization established by African Americans: Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ), at Cornell University
- First African-American Greek Orthodox priest and missionary in America: Very Rev. Fr. Robert Josias Morgan
- First African-American heavyweight boxing champion: Jack Johnson
- First African-American Olympic gold medal winner: John Taylor (Track and field medley relay team). (See also: DeHart Hubbard, 1924)
- First intercollegiate Greek-letter sorority established by African Americans: Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑKΑ) at Howard University
- First intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established by African Americans at a historically black college: Omega Psi Phi (ΩΨΦ), at Howard University
- First African-American police officer in New York City: Samuel J. Battle, following the 1898 incorporation of the five boroughs into the City of New York, and the hiring of three African-American officers in the Brooklyn Police Department. Battle was also the NYPD's first African-American sergeant (1926), lieutenant (1935), and parole commissioner (1941). (See also: Wiley Overton, 1891)
- First African-American attorney admitted to the American Bar Association: William Henry Lewis
- First African-American military pilot: Eugene Jacques Bullard
- First African-American football player to play in a Rose Bowl game: Fritz Pollard, Brown University
- First African-American serviceman to become a colonel in the U.S. Army: Charles Young
- First African-American woman to win a major sports title: Lucy Diggs Slowe, American Tennis Association
- First African-American NFL football players: Fritz Pollard (Akron Pros) and Bobby Marshall (Rock Island Independents)
- First African-American bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church: Robert Elijah Jones and Matthew Wesley Clair.
- First African-American woman to become an aviation pilot, first American to hold an international pilot license: Bessie Coleman
- First African-American NFL football coach: Fritz Pollard, co-head coach, Akron Pros, while continuing to play running back
- First African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in the U.S.: Sadie Tanner Mossell, Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania
- First African American to win individual Olympic gold medal: DeHart Hubbard (Long jump, 1924 Summer Olympics). (See also: John Taylor, 1908)
- First African American to become an officer in the New York Fire Department in New York City: Wesley Augustus Williams.
- First African American to star in an international motion picture: Josephine Baker in La Sirène des tropiques.
- First post-Reconstruction African American elected to U.S. House of Representatives: Oscar Stanton De Priest (Republican; Illinois)
- First African-American composer to have symphony performed by leading orchestra: William Grant Still, Symphony No. 1, by Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra
- First African-American woman to graduate from Yale Law School: Jane Matilda Bolin
- First African American on a presidential ticket in the 20th century: James W. Ford (Communist Party USA, as vice-presidential candidate running with William Z. Foster)
- First African American elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat: Arthur W. Mitchell (Illinois)
- First trade union set up for African-American domestic workers by Dora Lee Jones[relevant? ]
- First known interracial jazz group: Benny Goodman Trio (Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa)
- First African American to conduct a major U.S. orchestra: William Grant Still (Los Angeles Philharmonic)
- First African-American women selected for the Olympic Games: Tidye Pickett and Louise Stokes. Stokes did not compete; Picket competed in the 80-meter hurdles):86
- First African-American federal magistrate: William H. Hastie (later the first African-American governor of the United States Virgin Islands)
- First African-American woman federal agency head: Mary McLeod Bethune (National Youth Administration)
- First African American to star in her own television program: Ethel Waters, The Ethel Waters Show, on NBC
- Academy Award: Hattie McDaniel (Best Supporting Actress, Gone with the Wind, 1939)
- First African American to be portrayed on a U.S. postage stamp: Booker T. Washington
- First African-American flag officer: BG Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., U.S. Army[Note 9]
- First African American to be awarded the Navy Cross: Doris Miller
- First African-American member of the U.S. Marine Corps: Alfred Masters
- Martin A. Martin, first African American to become a member of the Trial Bureau of the United States Department of Justice, was sworn in on May 31, 1943.
- First African-American artists to have a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Mills Brothers ("Paper Doll"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on November 6 (See also: Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959)[relevant? ]
- First African American commissioned officers in the U.S. Navy: The "Golden Thirteen"
- First African American commissioned as a U.S. Navy officer from the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps: Samuel Gravely.[Note 10]
- First African American to co-pastor with a white minister at the first interracial church: Dr. Howard Thurman with Dr. Alfred Fisk, Church for the Fellowship of All Peoples, San Francisco[relevant? ]
- First African American to receive a contract with a major American opera company: Camilla Williams
- First known African American comic book artist: Matt Baker in Jumbo Comics #69 for Fiction House
- First African-American member of the New York City Opera: Todd Duncan[relevant? ]
- First African-American U.S. Marine Corps officer: Frederick C. Branch
- First African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era: Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers). (See also: Moses Fleetwood Walker, 1884)
- First African-American consensus college All-American basketball player: Don Barksdale
- First African-American artist to receive sole credit for a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Count Basie ("Open the Door, Richard"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on February 22 (See also: Mills Brothers, 1943; Nat King Cole, 1950; Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959)
- First African-American full-time faculty member at a predominantly white law school: William Robert Ming (University of Chicago Law School)
- First comic book produced entirely by African-Americans: All-Negro Comics
- First African-American man to receive an Academy Award: James Baskett (Honorary Academy Award for his portrayal of "Uncle Remus" in Song of the South, 1946) (See also: Sidney Poitier, 1964)
- First African-American U.S. Navy aviator: Jesse L. Brown
- First African-American composer to have an opera performed by a major U.S. company: William Grant Still (Troubled Island, New York City Opera)
- First African-American woman to win an Olympic gold medal: Alice Coachman
- First African American since Reconstruction to enroll at a traditionally white university of the South: Silas Hunt (University of Arkansas Law School)[Note 11]
- First known African-American star of a regularly scheduled network television series: Bob Howard, The Bob Howard Show[Note 12] (See also: 1956)
- First African American to star in network television sitcom: Amanda Randolph, The Laytons
- First African-American graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy: Wesley Brown
- First African American to hold rank of Ambassador of the United States: Edward R. Dudley, ambassador, and previously minister, to Liberia (See also: 1869)
- First African American to win an MVP award in Major League Baseball: Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers, National League) (See also: Elston Howard, 1963)
- First African-American owned and operated radio station: WERD, established October 3, 1949 in Atlanta, Georgia by Jesse B. Blayton, Sr.
- First African American to win a Tony Award: Juanita Hall (Best Featured Actress in a Musical, South Pacific)
- First African American to win Pulitzer Prize: Gwendolyn Brooks (Book of poetry, Annie Allen, 1949)
- First African American to win Nobel Peace Prize: Ralph Bunche
- First African American to receive a "lifetime" (officially "during good behavior") appointment as federal judge: William H. Hastie, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
- First African-American woman to compete on the world tennis tour: Althea Gibson
- First African-American solo singer to have a #1 hit on the Billboard charts: Nat King Cole ("Mona Lisa"), topped "Best Sellers in Stores" chart on July 15 (See also: Mills Brothers, 1943; Count Basie, 1947; Tommy Edwards, 1958; The Platters, 1959)
- First African-American delegate to the United Nations: Edith S. Sampson (See also: 1961)
- First African-American NBA basketball players: Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton (New York Knicks), Chuck Cooper (Boston Celtics), and Earl Lloyd (Washington Capitols). Note: Harold Hunter was the first to sign an NBA contract, signing with the Washington Capitols on April 26, 1950. However, he was cut from the team during training camp and did not play professionally.[Note 13] (See also: 1902)
- First African American named to the College Football Hall of Fame: Duke Slater, University of Iowa (1918–1921)
- First African-American quarterback to become a regular starter for a professional football team: Bernie Custis (Hamilton Tiger-Cats) 
- First African-American driver in NASCAR: Wendell Scott (See also: 2015)
- First African-American woman elected to a U.S. state senate: Cora Brown, Democrat (Michigan)
- First African-American U.S. Marine Corps aviator: Frank E. Petersen
- First African-American woman to be nominated for a national political office: Charlotta Bass, Vice President (Progressive Party) (See also: 2000)
- First African-American basketball player to play in the NBA All-Star Game: Don Barksdale in the 1953 NBA All-Star Game
- First African-American quarterback to play in the National Football League during the modern (post-World War II) era: Willie Thrower (Chicago Bears)
- First African-American U.S. Navy Diver: Carl Brashear
- First African-American woman to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress: Dorothy Dandridge (Carmen Jones, 1954).[Note 14]
- First individual African-American woman as subject on the cover of Life magazine: Dorothy Dandridge, November 1, 1954
- First African-American page for the U.S. Supreme Court, and first to be enrolled in the Capitol Page School: Charles V. Bush
- First African-American member of the Metropolitan Opera: Marian Anderson
- First African-American male dancer in a major ballet company: Arthur Mitchell (New York City Ballet); also first African-American principal dancer of a major ballet company (NYCB), 1956. (See also: 1969)
- First African-American singer to appear in a telecast opera: Leontyne Price in NBC's production of Tosca[relevant? ]
- First African-American pilot of a scheduled US airline: August Martin (cargo airline Seaboard & Western Airlines) (See also: 1964)
- First African American to serve as a presidential executive assistant: E. Frederic Morrow, appointed by President Eisenhower as Administrative Officer for Special Projects.
- First African-American star of a nationwide network TV show: Nat King Cole of the Nat King Cole Show, NBC (See also: 1948)
- First African-American U.S. Secret Service agent: Charles Gittens
- First African American to win the Cy Young Award as the top pitcher in Major League Baseball, in the award's inaugural year: Don Newcombe (Brooklyn Dodgers)
- First African-American woman Wimbledon Tennis Champion Althea Gibson
- First African-American assistant coach in the NFL: Lowell W. Perry (See also: 1966)
- First African American to win the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival: John Kitzmiller (Dolina Miru)
- First African American to win Major League Baseball's Gold Glove, in the award's inaugural year: Willie Mays (New York Giants)[Note 15]
- First African American to reach number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100: Tommy Edwards ("It's All in the Game"), September 29 (See also: The Platters, 1959)
- First African-American flight attendant: Ruth Carol Taylor (Mohawk Airlines)
- First African-American Grammy Award winners, in the award's inaugural year: Ella Fitzgerald and Count Basie (two awards each)
- First African-American television journalist: Louis Lomax
- First African-American group to reach #1 on the Billboard Hot 100: The Platters ("Smoke Gets in Your Eyes"), January 19 (See also: Tommy Edwards, 1958)
- First African American to win a major national player of the year award in college basketball: Oscar Robertson, USBWA Player of the Year[Note 16] (in that award's inaugural year)
- First African-American U.S. presidential candidate: Rev. Clennon King, on the Independent Afro-American party
- First African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the South: Ruby Bridges
- First African American to win the Heisman Trophy: Ernie Davis
- First African American to serve on a U.S. district court: James Benton Parsons, appointed to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois
- First African-American tenor to sing leading roles for the Metropolitan Opera: George Shirley
- First African-American delegate to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Edith S. Sampson (See also: 1950)
- First African-American to go over Niagara Falls: Nathan Boya a.k.a. William FitzGerald
- First African-American to join the PGA Tour: Charlie Sifford 
- First African American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Jackie Robinson (See also: Satchel Paige, 1971)
- First African-American coach in Major League Baseball: John Jordan "Buck" O'Neil (Chicago Cubs)
- First African-American composer nominated for an Academy Award: Duke Ellington (Best Music, Scoring of a Motion Picture, Paris Blues)
- First African-American attorney general of a state: Edward Brooke (Massachusetts) (See also: 1966)
- First African-American bank examiner for the United States Department of the Treasury: Roland Burris
- First African American named as Time magazine's Man of the Year: Martin Luther King, Jr.
- First African-American police officer of the NYPD to be named a precinct commander: Lloyd Sealy, commander of the NYPD's 28th Precinct in Harlem.
- First African American to be named American League MVP: Elston Howard (New York Yankees) (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1949)
- First African-American chess master: Walter Harris
- First African American to appear as a series regular on a primetime dramatic television series: Cicely Tyson, "East Side/West Side" (CBS).
- First African-American to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award: Diahann Carroll, for Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role, for episode "A Horse Has a Big Head, Let Him Worry" of Naked City
- First African Americans inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame: New York Renaissance, inducted as a team. (See also: Bob Douglas, 1972; Bill Russell, 1975; Clarence Gaines, 1982)
- First African American to graduate from the U.S. Air Force Academy: Charles V. Bush.
- First African-American pilot for a major commercial airline: David Harris, American Airlines[Note 17] (See also: 1955 and Marlon Green)
- First movie with African-American interracial marriage: One Potato, Two Potato, actors Bernie Hamilton and Barbara Barrie, written by Orville H. Hampton, Raphael Hayes, directed by Larry Peerce
- First African-American man to win the Academy Award for Best Actor: Sidney Poitier (Lilies of the Field, 1963) (See also: James Baskett, 1948)
- First African-American baseball player to be named the Major League Baseball World Series MVP: Bob Gibson, St. Louis Cardinals
- First African-American nationally syndicated cartoonist: Morrie Turner (Wee Pals)
- First African-American title character of a comic book series: Lobo (Dell Comics).[Note 18] (See also: The Falcon, 1969, and Luke Cage, 1972)
- First African-American star of a network television drama: Bill Cosby, I Spy (co-star with Robert Culp)
- First African-American cast member of a daytime soap opera: Micki Grant who played Peggy Nolan Harris on Another World until 1972.
- First African-American Playboy Playmate centerfold: Jennifer Jackson (March issue)
- First African-American U.S. Air Force General: Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. (Three-star General)
- First African-American woman Ambassador of the United States: Patricia Roberts Harris, ambassador to Luxembourg
- First African-American NFL official: Burl Toler, field judge/head linesman
- First African-American to win a national chess championship: Frank Street, Jr. (U.S. Amateur Championship)
- First African-American United States Solicitor General: Thurgood Marshall (See also: 1967)
- First African American male to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award and first African American to win a Primetime Emmy Award: Bill Cosby, I Spy
- First African-American coach in the National Basketball Association: Bill Russell (Boston Celtics)
- First African-American mayor of a U.S. city: Robert C. Henry, (Springfield, Ohio, appointed by city commission)
- First African-American model on the cover of a Vogue (British Vogue) magazine: Donyale Luna
- First post-Reconstruction African American elected to the U.S. Senate (and first African American elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote): Edward Brooke (Republican; Massachusetts) (See also: 1962)
- First African American Cabinet secretary: Robert C. Weaver (Department of Housing and Urban Development)
- First African-American Major League Baseball umpire: Emmett Ashford
- First African-American NFL broadcaster: Lowell W. Perry (CBS, on Pittsburgh Steelers games) (See also: 1957)
- First African-American fire commissioner of a major U.S. City: Robert O. Lowery of the New York City Fire Department
- First African American elected mayor of a large US city: Carl B. Stokes (Cleveland, Ohio)
- First African American appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States: Thurgood Marshall (See also: 1965)
- First African American selected for astronaut training: Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr.
- First African American to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame: Emlen Tunnell
- First African-American interracial kiss on network television: entertainers Nancy Sinatra (Caucasian) and Sammy Davis, Jr. (African American) on Sinatra's variety special Movin' With Nancy, airing December 11 on NBC (See also: 1968)
- First African-American interracial kiss on a network television drama: Uhura, played by Nichelle Nichols (African American), and Captain Kirk, played by William Shatner (white Canadian): Star Trek: "Plato's Stepchildren" (See also: 1967)
- First African-American woman elected to U.S. House of Representatives: Shirley Chisholm (Democrat; New York)
- First African-American appointed as a United States Assistant Secretary of State: Barbara M. Watson
- First African American to start at quarterback in the modern era of professional football: Marlin Briscoe (Denver Broncos, AFL)
- First African-American commissioned officer awarded the Medal of Honor: Riley L. Pitts
- First fine-arts museum devoted to African-American work: Studio Museum in Harlem
- First African-American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker: Diahann Carroll in Julia
- First African-American woman as Presidential candidate: Charlene Mitchell (See also: Shirley Chisholm, 1972)
- First African-American woman reporter for The New York Times: Nancy Hicks Maynard
- First African-American starring character of a comic strip: Danny Raven in Dateline: Danger! by Al McWilliams and John Saunders.
- First African-American superhero: The Falcon, Marvel Comics' Captain America #117 (September 1969).[Note 18] (See also: Lobo, 1965 and Luke Cage, 1972)
- First African-American graduate of Harvard Business School: Lillian Lincoln
- First African-American director of a major Hollywood motion picture: Gordon Parks (The Learning Tree)
- First African-American founder of a classical training school and company of ballet: Arthur Mitchell, Dance Theatre of Harlem (See also: 1955)
- First African-American woman to appear on the Grand Ole Opry: Linda Martell
- First African American to head an Episcopal diocese: John Melville Burgess, diocesan bishop of Massachusetts
- First African-American U.S. Navy Master Diver: Carl Brashear (See also: 1954; 1968)
- First African-American member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III 
- First African-American NCAA Division I basketball coach: Will Robinson (Illinois State University)[Note 19]
- First African-American pitcher to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame: Satchel Paige (See also: Jackie Robinson, 1962)
- First African-American president of the New York City Board of Education: Isaiah Edward Robinson, Jr.
- First African American to win an Academy Award in a non-acting category, winning Academy Award for Best Original Song: Isaac Hayes
- First African American to campaign for the U.S. presidency in a major political party and to win a U.S. presidential primary/caucus: Shirley Chisholm (Democratic Party, New Jersey primary) (See also: 1968)
- First African-American superhero to star in own comic-book series: Luke Cage, Marvel Comics' Luke Cage, Hero for Hire #1 (June 1972).[Note 18] (See also: Lobo, 1965, and the Falcon, 1969)
- First African-American National Basketball Association general manager: Wayne Embry
- First African-American interracial romantic kiss in a mainstream comics magazine: "The Men Who Called Him Monster", by writer Don McGregor (See also: 1975) and artist Luis Garcia, in Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror-comics magazine Creepy #43 (Jan. 1972) (See also: 1975)
- First African-American interracial male kiss on network television: Sammy Davis, Jr. (African American) and Carroll O'Connor (Caucasian) in All in the Family
- First African American inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame: Team-owner and coach Bob Douglas, in the category of "contributor" (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; player Bill Russell, 1975; coach Clarence Gaines, 1982)
- First African-American woman Broadway director: Vinnette Justine Carroll (Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope)
- First African-American comic-book creator to receive a "created by" cover-credit: Wayne Howard (Midnight Tales #1)
- First African-American artistic director of a professional regional theater: Harold Scott (Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park)
- First African-American Bond villain: Yaphet Kotto, playing Mr. Big/Dr. Kananga, Live and Let Die.
- First African-American Bond Girl in a James Bond movie: Gloria Hendry (playing Rosie Carver), Live and Let Die.
- First African American elected mayor of Los Angeles: Tom Bradley
- First African-American psychologist in the U.S. Air Force: John D. Robinson
- First African-American woman mayor of a U.S. metropolitan city: Doris A. Davis, Compton, California
- First African-American woman to win a Primetime Emmy Award: Cicely Tyson, for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie, for The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman
- First African-American model on the cover of American Vogue magazine: Beverly Johnson
- First African American elected mayor, and first mayor, of Washington, D.C.: Walter Washington
- First African-American game show host: Adam Wade (CBS' Musical Chairs)
- First African-American four-star general: Daniel James, Jr.
- First African American inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a player: Bill Russell (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; Bob Douglas, 1972; Clarence Gaines, 1982)
- First African-American interracial couple in a TV-series cast: The Jeffersons, actors Franklin Cover (Caucasian) and Roxie Roker (African American) as Tom & Helen Willis; series creator: Norman Lear
- First African-American interracial romantic kiss in a color comic book: Amazing Adventures #31 (July 1975), feature "Killraven: Warrior of the Worlds", characters M'Shulla Scott and Carmilla Frost, by writer Don McGregor and artist P. Craig Russell (See also: 1972)
- First African-American manager in Major League Baseball: Frank Robinson (Cleveland Indians)
- First African-American model on the cover of Elle magazine: Beverly Johnson
- First African-American psychologist in the U.S. Navy: John D. Robinson
- First African American to play in a men's major golf championship: Lee Elder (The Masters)
- First African American to be named Super Bowl MVP in NFL: Franco Harris (Pittsburgh Steelers). Of mixed heritage, Harris was also the first Italian American to win the award.
- First African-American women named as Time magazine's Person of the Year: Barbara Jordan and Addie L. Wyatt 
- First African-American woman elected officer of international labor union: Addie L. Wyatt
- First African American appointed as a judge in Federal District Court in Virginia: Robert H. Cooley III (1939–1998), appointed to the Eastern District
- First African American, and first woman, appointed director of the Peace Corps: Carolyn R. Payton
- First African-American woman in the U.S. Cabinet: Patricia Roberts Harris, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
- First African-American woman whose signature appeared on U.S. currency: Azie Taylor Morton, the 36th Treasurer of the United States
- First African-American publisher of mainstream gay publication: Alan Bell (Gaysweek)
- First African-American woman to join the Daughters of the American Revolution: Karen Batchelor
- First African-American Major League Baseball general manager: Bill Lucas (Atlanta Braves)
- First African American woman to be ordained as an Episcopal priest: Pauli Murray.
- First African-American broadcast network news anchor: Max Robinson
- First African-American woman pilot for a major commercial airline: Jill E. Brown, Texas International Airlines
- First African-American U.S. Marine Corps general officer: Frank E. Petersen
- First African-American to win a Daytime Emmy Award for lead actor in a soap opera: Al Freeman, Jr. (Ed Hall in One Life to Live)
- First African-American woman ordained in the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), the largest of three denominations that later combined to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: Earlean Miller
- First African American to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Drama: Charles Fuller for A Soldier's Play
- First African American inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a coach: Clarence Gaines (See also: New York Renaissance, 1963; Bob Douglas, 1972; Bill Russell, 1975)
- First African-American U.S. Army four-star General: Roscoe Robinson, Jr.
- First African-American woman to become a principal dancer of a major American ballet company: Debra Austin at Pennsylvania Ballet
- First African-American astronaut: Guion Stewart "Guy" Bluford, Jr. (Challenger mission STS-8).[Note 21]
- First African-American mayor of Chicago: Harold Washington
- First African-American Miss America: Vanessa L. Williams
- First African-American owners of a major metropolitan newspaper: Robert C. and Nancy Hicks Maynard, (Oakland Tribune)
- First African American to win a delegate-awarding U.S. presidential primary/caucus: Jesse Jackson (Louisiana, the District of Columbia, South Carolina, Virginia and one of two separate Mississippi contests).
- First African-American New York City Police Commissioner: Benjamin Ward
- First African American to become a member of the U.S. Navy's Blue Angels precision flying team: Donnie Cochran. Also first African American to command the team (1994).
- First African-American woman general: Sherian Cadoria
- First African-American Formula One racecar driver: Willy T. Ribbs[Note 22] (See also: Ribbs, 1991)
- First African-American musicians inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in the inaugural class: Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, and Little Richard
- First African-American woman, and first woman, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Aretha Franklin
- First African-American woman elected to a U.S. judgeship, and first appointed to a state supreme court: Juanita Kidd Stout
- First African-American candidate for President of the United States to obtain ballot access in all 50 states: Lenora Fulani
- First African-American NFL referee: Johnny Grier
- First African-American NFL coach of the modern era: Art Shell, Los Angeles Raiders
- First African-American mayor of New York City: David Dinkins
- First African-American Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Colin Powell
- First African-American woman, and first woman, ordained bishop in the Episcopal Church: Barbara Clementine Harris
- First African-American Chairman of the Democratic National Committee: Ron Brown
- First elected African-American governor: Douglas Wilder (Democrat; Virginia) (See also: P. B. S. Pinchback, 1872)
- First African American elected president of the Harvard Law Review: Barack Obama (See also: 2008, 2009)
- First African-American Miss USA: Carole Gist
- First African-American Playboy Playmate of the Year: Renee Tenison
- First African-American woman to become a principal dancer at Houston Ballet: Lauren Anderson (Houston Ballet)
- First African American nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director: John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood
- First African American to qualify for the Indianapolis 500 auto race: Willy T. Ribbs (See also: Ribbs, 1986)
- First African-American woman mayor of Washington, D.C.: Sharon Pratt Kelly
- First African-American NBA Coach of the Year: Don Chaney (Houston Rockets)
- First African-American woman astronaut: Dr. Mae Jemison (Space Shuttle Endeavour)
- First African-American woman elected to U.S. Senate: Carol Moseley Braun (Democrat; Illinois)
- First African-American woman to moderate a Presidential debate : Carole Simpson (second debate of 1992 campaign)
- First African-American Major League Baseball manager to reach (and win) the World Series: Cito Gaston (Toronto Blue Jays) 1992 World Series
- First African-American woman appointed U.S. Secretary of Energy: Hazel R. O'Leary
- First African American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature: Toni Morrison
- First African-American woman named Poet Laureate of the United States: Rita Dove; also the youngest person named to that position
- First African American appointed Surgeon General of the United States: Joycelyn Elders
- First African American appointed Director of the National Drug Control Policy: Lee P. Brown
- First African-American United States Secretary of Commerce: Ron Brown
- First African-American to serve as home plate umpire for World Series game: Charlie Williams for Game 4 of the 1993 World Series
- First African-American woman director of a major-studio movie: Darnell Martin (Columbia Pictures' I Like It Like That)
- First African American to win the United States Amateur Championship: Tiger Woods[Note 23]
- First African-American inductee to the Radio Hall of Fame: Hal Jackson
- First African-American Sergeant Major of the Army: Gene C. McKinney
- First African-American Miss Universe: Chelsi Smith
- First African American to win a men's major golf championship: Tiger Woods (The Masters)[Note 23]
- First African-American model to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Edition: Tyra Banks
- First African-American UFC champion: Maurice Smith
- First African-American actor to star in the lead role in a comic-book adaptation movie (Spawn): Michael Jai White
- First African-American Director of the National Park Service: Robert Stanton
- First African American appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor: Alexis Herman
- First African-American woman rear admiral in the U.S. Navy: Lillian Fishburne
- First African-American Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard: Vincent W. Patton III
- First African American to play in the Presidents Cup: Tiger Woods[Note 23]
- First African American to be awarded the International Grandmaster title in chess: Maurice Ashley
- First African-American Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps: Alford L. McMichael
- First African-American CEO of a Fortune 500 company: Franklin Raines of Fannie Mae
- First African-American woman university president: Shirley Ann Jackson at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
- First African American nominated for Vice President of the United States by a Federal Election Commission-recognized and federally funded political party: Ezola B. Foster (See also: 1952; FEC established 1975)
- First African-American Secretary of State: Colin Powell
- First African-American president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops: The Most Reverend Wilton Daniel Gregory
- First African-American president of the Unitarian Universalist Association: Rev. William G. Sinkford
- First African-American president of an Ivy League university: Ruth J. Simmons at Brown University
- First African-American woman to win the ASCAP Pop Music Songwriter of the Year award: Beyoncé Knowles
- First African-American woman to be appointed National Security Advisor: Condoleezza Rice (See also: 2005)
- First African-American billionaire: Robert L. Johnson, founder of Black Entertainment Television (see also 2002)
- First African-American woman billionaire: Sheila Johnson
- First African American to become majority owner of a U.S. major sports league team: Robert L. Johnson (Charlotte Bobcats, NBA)[Note 24] (see also 2001)
- First African-American woman combat pilot in the U.S. Armed Services: Captain Vernice Armour, USMC (See also: 2008)
- First African American to be ranked #1 rank in tennis: Venus Williams
- First African American to be named year-end world champion by the International Tennis Federation: Serena Williams
- First African-American Arena Football League head coach to win ArenaBowl: Darren Arbet (San Jose SaberCats), ArenaBowl XVI
- First African-American general manager in the National Football League: Ozzie Newsome (Baltimore Ravens)
- First African-American woman to win the Academy Award for Best Actress: Halle Berry
- First African American to win a Career Grand Slam in tennis: Serena Williams (See also: Althea Gibson, 1956; Arthur Ashe, 1968)
- First African-American American Bar Association president: Dennis Archer
- First African-American to win Broadway theater's Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Play: Phylicia Rashād
- First African-American inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame: Charlie Sifford
- First African-American woman appointed Secretary of State: Condoleezza Rice (See also: 2001)
- First African-American woman U.S. Coast Guard aviator: Jeanine Menze
- First African American to command a United States Marine Corps division: Major General Walter E. Gaskin
- First African American to reach the peak of Mount Everest: Sophia Danenberg
- First African-American woman to receive Dharma transmission in Zen Buddhism: Merle Kodo Boyd
- First known African-American woman to reach the North Pole: Barbara Hillary
- First African-American White House Chief Usher: Stephen Rochon
- First African American to be nominated as a major-party U.S. presidential candidate: Barack Obama, Democratic Party
- First African American elected President of the United States: Barack Obama
- First African American to referee a Super Bowl game: Mike Carey (Super Bowl XLII)
- First African-American woman elected Speaker of a state House of Representatives: California Rep. Karen Bass
- First African American to be appointed to the United States Senate by a state governor: Roland Burris
- First African-American woman combat pilot in the United States Air Force: Major Shawna Rochelle Kimbrell (See also: 2002)
- First African-American First Lady of the United States: Michelle Obama
- First African-American chair of the Republican National Committee: Michael Steele
- First African-American United States Attorney General: Eric Holder
- First African-American woman United States Ambassador to the United Nations: Susan Rice
- First African-American United States Trade Representative: Ron Kirk
- First African-American woman Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency: Lisa P. Jackson
- First African-American White House Social Secretary: Desirée Rogers
- First African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin: Duke Ellington (District of Columbia quarter).
- First African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for History: Annette Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family
- First African-American Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Charles F. Bolden, Jr.
- First African-American woman rabbi: Alysa Stanton
- First African-American woman CEO of a Fortune 500 company: Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation.
- First African-American doubles team to be named year-end world champion by the International Tennis Federation: Serena and Venus Williams
- First African American to win an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay (Precious): Geoffrey S. Fletcher
- First African American to be re-elected President of the United States: Barack Obama
- First African-American Combatant Commander of United States Central Command: Lloyd Austin
- First African American elected president of the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC): Fred Luter
- First African-American senator from the former Confederacy since Reconstruction: Tim Scott
- First African-American president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences: Cheryl Boone Isaacs
- First African-American United States Secretary of Homeland Security: Jeh Johnson
- First African-American woman four-star admiral: Michelle J. Howard
- First African-American woman Republican to be elected to the United States Congress: Mia Love, elected in Utah 
- First African-American senator to be elected in the South since Reconstruction: Tim Scott, elected in South Carolina
- First African-American to have been elected to both the House and the Senate: Tim Scott 
- First African-American woman to be nominated for Best Director by the Golden Globe Awards: Ava DuVernay for Selma
- First African-American woman to be Attorney General of the United States: Loretta Lynch
- First African-American to lead a major intelligence agency: Vincent R. Stewart, Defense Intelligence Agency
- First African-American to be inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame: Wendell Scott (See also: 1952)
- First African-American commissioner of a major North American sports league: Jeffrey Orridge, Canadian Football League
- First African-American elected as presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church: Bishop Michael Curry
- First African-American woman American Bar Association president: Paulette Brown
- First African-American president of a major broadcast TV network: Channing Dungey
- First African-American Librarian of Congress: Dr. Carla Hayden
- List of African-American pioneers in desegregation of higher education
- List of African-American sports firsts
- List of African-American United States Cabinet Secretaries
- List of African-American U.S. state firsts
- List of black Academy Award winners and nominees
- List of black Golden Globe Award winners and nominees
- List of black Primetime Emmy Award winners and nominees
- List of first African-American mayors
- Timeline of African-American history
- Timeline of the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68)
- This claim is contested by the First Baptist Church, Petersburg, Virginia (1774) and the First Colored Baptist Church, renamed First African Baptist Church, Savannah, Georgia (1777).
- Because it was published in the U.K., the book is not the first African-American novel published in the United States. This credit goes to one of two disputed books: Harriet Wilson's Our Nig (1859), brought to light by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in 1982; or Julia C. Collins' The Curse of Caste; or The Slave Bride (1865), brought to light by William L. Andrews, an English literature professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Mitch Kachun, a history professor at Western Michigan University, in 2006. Andrews and Kachun document Our Nig as a novelized autobiography, and argue that The Curse of Caste is the first fully fictional novel by an African American to be published in the U.S.
- Founded earlier; not fully owned and operated by African Americans until 1863
- Revels, the Mississippi State Senate's Adams County representative, was elected by the U.S. Senate in January 1870 to fill an unexpired term.
- Rainey, a South Carolina state senator, was elected to fill the seat vacated by B. Franklin Whittemore. Rainey took his seat on December 12, 1870. John Willis Menard was actually the first African-American elected to the House (1868) but he was denied his seat.
- Douglass did not seek the nomination or campaign after being nominated.
- Parker graduated from Mount Holyoke when it was still a seminary.
- This was previously thought to be Sarah E. Goode (for the cabinet bed, Chicago, Illinois).
- His son, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., was the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
- Gravely was also the first African American to command a U.S. Navy warship (1962), and the first promoted to the rank of admiral (1971).
- L. Clifford Davis applied to the law school in 1946, and after several failed attempts was granted admission in September 1947, but was unable to enroll in classes. Hunt later enrolled on February 2, 1948.
- While considered a network for regulatory reasons, CBS TV was viewable only locally in 1948. By 1956, CBS and other networks were viewable nationwide.
- Clifton was the first to sign an NBA contract and subsequently play, Cooper was the first to be drafted by an NBA team, and Lloyd was the first to play in an NBA regular-season game because his team's opening game was one day before the others.
- At that time, nominations were announced in November of the year of release, instead of early the following year.
- While two black players won Gold Gloves that year, only Mays is African-American. The other, Minnie Miñoso, is Afro-Cuban.
- In 1998, the award would be renamed the Oscar Robertson Trophy after its first recipient.
- Harris' milestone came a year after Marlon Green, who had been rejected as a Continental Airlines applicant in 1957, won the United States Supreme Court case "Colorado Anti-Discrimination Commission v. Continental Airlines, Inc. 372 U.S. 714 no. 146" which found Green had been unlawfully discriminated against.
- The first Black superhero, Marvel's Black Panther, introduced in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966), is African, not African-American. This is also true of the first Black character to star in his own mainstream comic-book feature, Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who headlined one of four features in the multiple-character omnibus series Jungle Tales (September 1954 – September 1955), from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics.
- At the time, the NCAA had not yet adopted its three-division system. Illinois State was in the NCAA University Division, which became Division I in 1973. The NCAA retroactively considers University Division members to have been Division I members.
- The NHL had fielded black players for more than 20 years, with the first being Willie O'Ree in 1958, but all previous black players were Black Canadians and not African Americans. In 1996, Mike Grier (Edmonton Oilers) became the first to have been both born and exclusively trained in the U.S., per Allen, Kevin (January 14, 2008). "Willie O'Ree still blazing way in NHL 50 years later". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Cosmonaut Arnaldo Mendez was the first person of African descent in space, in 1980.
- Lewis Hamilton became the first black Formula One racer in 2006, but he is a British citizen of Grenadan ancestry, and not an African American. Ribbs did not compete in a race, but drove a Formula One car professionally in January 1986 as a tester for the Brabham–BMW at Estoril, Portugal.
- Woods' mixed ancestry — ¼ Chinese, ¼ Thai, ¼ African-American, ⅛ white, and ⅛ Native American — also makes him the first Asian American to achieve this feat. He is also the first of only four golfers of primarily non-European descent to win a men's major, with the others being Vijay Singh (an Indian Fijian), Michael Campbell (a Māori from New Zealand), and Y.E. Yang (South Korean).
- Announced as Bobcats owner in December 2002, although team did not begin play until 2004.
- Juguo, Zhang (2001). W. E. B. Du Bois: The Quest for the Abolition of the Color Line. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-93087-1
- Herbst, Philip H (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1
- Sailes, Gary Alan (1998). "Jackie Robinson: Breaking the Color Barrier in Team Sports". African Americans in Sport: Contemporary Themes, Transaction Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7658-0440-2
- O'Neale, Sondra (2002). "Hammon, Jupiter". In William L Andrews, Frances Smith Foster, Trudier Harris (eds.). The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195138832.
- He was of mixed race, one-quarter African and three-quarters European, and listed in the US Census as white.
- Shields, John C. (July 27, 2010). Phillis Wheatley and the Romantics. University of Tennessee Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-57233-712-1. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Raboteau, Albert J. (2004). Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-517413-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Brooks, Walter H. (April 1, 1922). "The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and its Promoters". The Journal of Negro History. 7 (2): 172–196. doi:10.2307/2713524. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2713524.
- Haverington, Christine (July 2012). Middletown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-9248-0. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Jacobs, Claude F. (2007). "James Derham (b. 1762)". In Junius P. Rodriguez (ed.). Slavery in the United States: a social, political, and historical encyclopedia. 2. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851095445.
- Shattuck, Gardiner H.; David Hein (2005-08-01). "Jones, Absalom". The Episcopalians. Church Publishing, Inc. pp. 235–236. ISBN 0898697832.
- Alexander, Leslie M. "Jennings, Thomas L.". Encyclopedia of African American History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 455–457. ISBN 1851097694.
- "Whaling Museum and Peter Foulger Museum". Museum of African American History. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Melish, Joanne P. (1998). Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and "race" in New England, 1780–1860. Cornell University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8014-3413-6. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Byrd, W. Michael; Clayton, Linda A. (21 August 2000). An American Health Dilemma: A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900. Taylor & Francis. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-203-90410-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Long Road to Justice: The African American Experienced in the Massachusetts Courts". The Massachusetts Historical Society. 1845. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
- Ward, Thomas J. (2003). Black physicians in the Jim Crow South. University of Arkansas Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-61075-072-1. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Anzovin, Steven; Podell, Janet (2001). Famous first facts about American politics. H.W. Wilson. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-8242-0971-1.
- Jackson, Sandra; Johnson, Richard Greggory (2011). The black professoriat: negotiating a habitable space in the academy. Peter Lang. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1-4331-1027-6. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Potter, Joan (2009). African American Firsts: Famous, Little-known, and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America. Kensingston Publishing Corporation. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7582-4166-5. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Smith, Dinitia (October 28, 2006). "A Slave Story Is Rediscovered, and a Dispute Begins". The New York Times. pp. B7. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
- Birkerts, Sven (October 29, 2006). "Emancipation Days". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
- Militelio, Leo (September 1963). "The First Negro Catholic Bishop". Negro Digest. 12 (11). pp. 28‒35.
- Zack, Naomi (1995). American mixed race: the culture of microdiversity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8476-8013-9. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Foner, Philip Sheldon; Branham, Robert James, eds. (1998). Lift every voice: African American oratory, 1787–1900. Studies in rhetoric and communication. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. pp. 384–385. ISBN 978-0-8173-0906-0. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Rubio, Philip F. (2010). There's Always Work at the Post Office: African American Postal Workers and the Fight for Jobs, Justice, and Equality. Univ. of North Carolina Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8078-9573-3. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Logan, Rayford W. (1969). Howard University: The First Hundred Years, 1867 – 1967. New York University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8147-0263-5. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Jackson, Cynthia L.; Nunn, Eleanor F.. (2003). Historically Black Colleges and Universities: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-85109-422-6. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Smith 2002, p. 134–135.
- Farmer, Vernon L.; Wynn, Evelyn Shepherd (2012). Voices of Historical and Contemporary Black American Pioneers. ABC-CLIO. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-313-39224-5. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Konhaus, Timothy (2006). "Delany, Martin Robison". In Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass. 2. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 373–375. ISBN 9780195167771.
- Finkelman, Paul (2007). "Not Only the Judges' Robes Were Black: African-American Lawyers as Social Engineers". In Steve Sheppard (ed.). The History of Legal Education in the United States: commentaries and primary sources. 1. Clark, N.J: The Lawbook Exchange. pp. 913–948. ISBN 9781584776901.
- Sharfstein, Daniel J. (February 22, 2011). "Orindatus Simon Bolivar Wall". Slate.com. ISSN 1091-2339. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Holland, Jesse J. (2007). Black Men Built the Capitol: Discovering African-American History In and Around Washington,. Globe Pequot. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7627-5192-1. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Lynch, Matthew (October 31, 2012). Before Obama: A Reappraisal of Black Reconstruction Era Politicians. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-313-39792-9. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Stodghill, Ron (25 May 2008). "Driving Back Into History". The New York Times. p. 1.
- "John Willis Menard of Louisiana became the first African American to address the U.S. House". Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. November 2, 2012. Archived from the original on April 7, 2011.
- Bartley, Abel A. (January 2003). "Bassett, Ebenezer Don Carlos". In James George Ryan and Leonard C. Schlup (eds.). Historical dictionary of the Gilded Age. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765621061. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Linda Joyce Brown (April 2006). "Coppin, Fanny Jackson". In Elizabeth Ann Beaulieu (ed.). Writing African American Women. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 220–222. ISBN 0313024626. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Teasley, Mary D.; Walker-Moses,, Deloris, curators (2000). "African-American Firsts Remembered: Lest We Forget". The Newark Public Library. Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; Underwood, Thomas A. (1993). Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-american Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe. New York University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8147-7973-6. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Wasniewski, Matthew (27 August 2012). Black Americans in Congress, 1870–2007. Government Printing Office. pp. 54–61. ISBN 978-0-16-086948-8. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Hine, William C. "Rainey, Joseph Hayne (1832–1887)". In Walter B. Edgar (ed.). South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia, South Carolina: Institute for Southern Studies, University of South Carolina. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Harley, Sharon (1996). The timetables of African-American history: a chronology of the most important people and events in African-American history. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684815787. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Dray, Philip (2008). Capitol men: the epic story of Reconstruction through the lives of the first Black congressmen. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-618-56370-8. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Deskins, Donald R.; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman C. (2010). Presidential Elections: 1789 – 2008 ; County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-472-11697-3. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "NTEU Celebrates Black History Month: Joseph H. Rainey (1832–1887)". National Treasury Employees Union. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012.
- Mickens, Ronald E. (2002). Edward Bouchet: The First African-American Doctorate. World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated. ISBN 9789810249090.
- Flipper, Henry (1878). The Colored Cadet at West Point. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803268904.
- Nicas, Jack (June 27, 2010). "Boston's first black officer receives his long-overdue honors". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- Hoffbeck, Steven R. (2005). Swinging For The Fences: Black Baseball In Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-87351-517-7. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Darraj, Susan Muaddi (2009-01-01). Mary Eliza Mahoney. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1438107609.
- O'Toole, James M. (2004). "Healy, Michael". In Gates, Henry Louis; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks. African American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 387–388. ISBN 978-0-19-988286-1. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Sewell, George Alexander; Dwight, Margaret L. (January 20, 2012). Mississippi Black History Makers. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-61703-428-2. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Hine, Darlene Clark (2005). Black women in America. 1. Oxford University Press. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-19-515677-5. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Gendin, Sidney (1999). "Moses Fleetwood Walker: Jackie Robinson's accidental predecessor". In Joseph Dorinson. Jackie Robinson: Race, Sports, and the American Dream. Joram Warmund. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 22–29. ISBN 978-0-7656-3338-5. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Sluby, Patricia Carter (2004). The Inventive Spirit of African Americans: patented ingenuity. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-275-96674-4. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- "Notes and comment". The Catholic Historical Review. 4 (3): 379–388. 1919. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "A History of African Americans in the NYPD". The New York City Police Museum. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008.
- Tardif, Elyssa (2013). Providence's Benefit Street. Arcadia Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-7385-9923-6. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Kinshasa, Kwando M. (2006). African American Chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-313-33797-0. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Miller, Robert Henry (1995). The Story of "Stagecoach" Mary Fields. Silver Burdett Press. ISBN 978-0-382-24399-8. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Aaseng, Nathan (2003-01-01). "Taylor, Marshall Walker". African-American Athletes. Facts on File library of American history. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 218. ISBN 1438107781.
- Davis, Deborah (5 February 2013). Guest of Honor: Booker T. Washington, Theodore Roosevelt, and the White House Dinner That Shocked a Nation. Atria Books. ISBN 978-1-4391-6982-7. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Grasso, John (2010-11-15). "Lew, Harry Haskell "Bucky"". Historical Dictionary of Basketball. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810875063.
- Marlowe, Gertrude Woodruff (2003). A right worthy grand mission: Maggie Lena Walker and the quest for Black economic empowerment. Howard University Press. ISBN 978-0-88258-210-8. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- Conner, Floyd (31 October 2001). The Olympic's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of the Olympics' Gold Medal Gaffes, Improbable Triumphs, and Other Oddities. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-59797-397-7. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Manolis, Paul G (1981). "Raphael (Robert) Morgan, the First Black Orthodox Priest in America". Theologia Athinai. 52 (3): 464–480.
- Smith, Charles R. (22 June 2010). Black Jack: The Ballad of Jack Johnson. Roaring Brook Press. ISBN 978-1-59643-473-8. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Potter 2002, p. 345–346.
- Susan Love Brown (2006). "Economic Life". In Paul Finkelman (ed.). Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: from the colonial period to the age of Frederick Douglass. 1. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–129. ISBN 0195167775.
- Jager, Steven J. "Lewis, William Henry (1868–1949)". BlackPast.org. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- Sawyers, June Skinner (2012). "Oscar De Priest". Chicago Portraits: New Edition. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9780810126497.
- Smith, Frederick D. (2009-01-01). "Pollard, Fritz". In Jessie Carney Smith, Linda T. Wynn (eds.). Freedom Facts and Firsts: 400 Years of the African American Civil Rights Experience. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1578591929.
- Heinl, Nancy G. (May 1977). "Col. Charles Young: Pointman". The Crisis. 84 (5). pp. 173‒176. ISSN 0011-1422.
- Kilroy, David P. (2003-01-01). For race and country: the life and career of Colonel Charles Young. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275980057.
- Miller, Carroll L.; Pruitt-Logan, Anne S. (2012). Faithful to the Task at Hand: The Life of Lucy Diggs Slowe. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4384-4260-0. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Grant, Colin (2008). Negro with a Hat : The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey. Oxford University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-19-970986-1. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Theoharis, Athan, ed. (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-89774-991-6. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Wilson, Joseph; David Addams (2006). "Football". In Paul Finkelman (ed.). Encyclopedia of African American history, 1619–1895. 1. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 234–237. ISBN 0195167775.
- Lyght, Ernest S.; Keaton, Jonathan D. (1 March 2012). Our Father: Where Are the Fathers?. Abingdon Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-4267-4853-0. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Uzelac, Constance Porter; Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (2004-03-23). "Coleman, Bessie". In Henry Louis Gates (ed.). African American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 182–184. ISBN 9780199882861.
- Malveaux, Julianne (1997). "Missed Opportunity: Sadie Teller Mossell Alexander and the Economics Profession". In Thomas D. Boston. A Different Vision: Africa American Economic Thought. 1. Routledge Chapman & Hall. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-415-12715-8. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "William Dehart Hubbard First Black to Win Gold in an Individual Event". Jet. 90 (10). 1996-07-22. pp. 60–61. ISSN 0021-5996.
- "Clifton R. Wharton Sr. Dies; Foreign Service Pioneer, 90". Jet. 78 (5). May 14, 1990. p. 16. ISSN 0021-5996.
- "The Clash of New York's Irish and Italians, and the City's First Black Firefighter". New York Times. August 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
Wesley Williams, who was inspired by Battle, enlisting as a firefighter in 1919. ...
- Baker, Josephine; Bouillon, Joe (1977). Josephine (First ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-010212-8.
- Committee on House Administration; Office of History and Preservation (2008). "Oscar Stanton De Priest, 1871–1951". In Matthew Wasniewski (ed.). Black Americans in Congress, 1870–2007. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 278–285. ISBN 9780160801945.
- Weber, Bruce (July 19, 2008). "Sherman L. Maxwell, 100, Sportscaster and Writer, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
- Howard, Walter T. (5 April 2008). Black Communists Speak on Scottsboro: A Documentary History. Temple University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-59213-599-8. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Nordin, Dennis S. (1997). The New Deal's Black Congressman: A Life of Arthur Wergs Mitchell. Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8262-1102-6. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Baker, David. "Important Firsts: Groups and Their Leaders, and Groups and Personnel". Jazz in America. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. Archived from the original on 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2013-06-06.
- Strunk, William Oliver; Treitler, Leo (1998). Source Readings in Music History. Norton. p. 1421. ISBN 978-0-393-03752-4. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Heise, Kenan (November 23, 1986). "Tidye Ann Phillips, Olympian And Principal". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
- Hymans, Richard (2008). "The History of the United States Olympic Trials – Track & Field" (PDF). USA Track & Field. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 20, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- Wynn, Linda T.; Bobby L. Lovett (December 14, 1995). "William Henry Hastie (1904–1976)". In Linda T. Wynn, Gayle Brinkley-Johnson (eds.). A Profile of African Americans in Tennessee History. Annual Local Conference on Afro-American Culture and History. Nashville, USA: Tennessee State University Library. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
- Norton, Mary Beth, ed. (2005). A People and a Nation: since 1865 (7th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-618-39177-6. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Bogle, Donald (2001). Primetime Blues. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-374-23720-2. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Jackson, Carlton (1993). Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-56833-004-4. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Smock, Raymond W. (16 June 2009). Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-61578-007-5. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Whitten, David O. (January 1, 2006). "Davis, Benjamin Oliver, Sr.". In James Gilbert Ryan, Leonard C. Schlup (eds.). Historical Dictionary of The 1940s. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 076562107X.
- Epstein, Lawrence Jeffrey (2010). Political Folk Music in America from Its Origins to Bob Dylan. McFarland. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-7864-5601-7. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Williams, Janette (September 20, 2011). "Political activist Isabell Masters, whose presidential ambitions started in Pasadena, dies at 98". Pasadena Star-News. Pasadena, California. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- "Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog image caption". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014.
- Stillwell, Paul (2003). The Golden Thirteen: Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers. Naval Institute Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-61251-162-7. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Gravely, Samuel Lee; Stillwell, Paul (15 October 2010). Trailblazer: the U.S. Navy's first Black admiral. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-338-3.
- Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of Women's History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-313-28803-6. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Matt Baker at the Grand Comics Database. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Artist credits were not routinely given in comic books in the 1940s, so comprehensive credits are difficult if not impossible to ascertain.
- Walton, Ben L. (May 2012). Great Black War Fighters: Profiles in Service. Strategic Book Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-61897-108-1. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- Brown, Nikki L. M.; Stentiford, Barry M. (30 September 2008). The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African American History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 693. ISBN 978-0-313-34181-6. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Parks, Gregory; Bradley, Stefan M. (2002). Alpha Phi Alpha: A Legacy of Greatness, The Demands of Transcendence. Lexington. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-8131-3421-5. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "1st African-American Published Comic – All Negro #1- (1947) Comes to Auction". Metropolis Collectibles Inc. / ComicConnect Corp. press release via BlackRadioNetwork.com. February 2009. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Sperb, Jason (2012). Disney's Most Notorious Film: Race, Convergence, and the Hidden Histories of Song of the South. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-292-74981-8. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Hardesty, Von (2008). Black Wings: Courageous Stories of African Americans in Aviation and Space History. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-06-126138-1. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Smith, Catherine Parsons (2008). William Grant Still. American composers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-252-03322-3. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Smith 2002, p. 700.
- Richard A. Buckelew (October 3, 2012). "Silas Herbert Hunt (1922–1949)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Little Rock, Arkansas: Central Arkansas Library System. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- Kilpatrick, Judith (2009). "Desegregating the University of Arkansas School of Law: L. Clifford Davis and the Six Pioneers" (PDF). The Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 68 (2): 123–156. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Hill, George H. (1986). Ebony Images: Black Americans and Television. Carson, California: Daystar Publishing Company. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-933650-01-5. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- "One of the first TV shows hosted by a black man". African American Registry. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- O'Dell, Cary (December 15, 2012). June Cleaver Was a Feminist!: Reconsidering the Female Characters of Early Television. McFarland. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-7864-7177-5. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Schneller, Robert John (2005). Breaking the color barrier: the U.S. Naval Academy's first black midshipmen and the struggle for racial equality. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0814740138.
- Lusane, Clarence (2006). Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice: Foreign Policy, Race, and the New American Century. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-275-98309-3. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Rosenberg, Aaron (2013). 42: The Jackie Robinson Story: The Movie Novel. Scholastic Inc. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-545-54113-8. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Manos, Nick. "Blayton, Jesse B., Sr. (1879–1977)". BlackPast.org. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Weaver, Joshua R. (June 9, 2011). "The Great Black Way? Black Tony Award Winners". TheRoot.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015.
- Clarage, Elizabeth C; Elizabeth A Brennan, eds. (1999). Who's who of Pulitzer Prize winners. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press. p. 522. ISBN 9781573561112.
- Henry, Charles P. (1999). Ralph Bunche: Model Negro Or American Other?. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3582-4.
- "History of the Federal Judiciary > Milestones of Judicial Service > First African American Judges". Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015.
- Harris, Cecil (2007). Charging the net: a history of Blacks in tennis from Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe to the Williams sisters. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 9781566637145.
- Cook, Joan (October 11, 1979). "Edith Sampson, 1st Black Woman Elected to Bench in Illinois, Is Dead; Advised to Become Lawyer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "1950–51 Season Overview: NBA's Color Line is Broken". National Basketball Association. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Howell, Dave. "Six Who Paved the Way". National Basketball Association. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013.
- Wagner, Jeremy. "9. Firsts For African-Americans". ESPN. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013.
- McDowell, Sam (March 9, 2013). "Sumner grad Harold Hunter, first African-American to sign with NBA team, dies at 86". Kansas City Star. Kansas City, Missouri. Archived from the original on March 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- Smith 2003, p. 676.
- "Meet Bernie Custis, football's first African-American quarterback". Toronto Star. August 12, 2011. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- Smith, Jessie Carney (1996). Notable Black American Women. II. VNR AG. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8103-9177-2. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Petersen, Frank E.; Phelps, J. Alfred (2012). Into the Tiger's Jaw: America's First Black Marine Aviator. Leatherneck Classics. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-61251-190-0. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Gates, Henry Louis; Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks (23 March 2004). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19-988286-1. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Thrower was first black QB to play in NFL". Associated Press. ESPN Classic. February 22, 2002. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
- Catherine Reef (ed.), eds. (2010). "Brashear, Carl Maxie". African Americans in the Military. A to Z of African Americans. New York: Facts On File. pp. 40–42. ISBN 9781438130965. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- Otfinoski, Steven (2010). "Dandridge, Dorothy". African Americans in the Performing Arts. A to Z of African Americans (Revised ed.). New York: Facts On File. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1-4381-2855-9. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Charles Bush, First Negro Air Force Cadet". Jet. 16 (10). July 1959. p. 8. ISSN 0021-5996.
- Keiler, Allan (2002). Marian Anderson: A Singer's Journey. University of Illinois Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-252-07067-9. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "The Black Presence in American Dance: Arthur Mitchell". (Biographical capsule) Spelman College. Archived from the original on December 14, 2004.
- Kahn, Capt. Ken, ed. (n.d.). "Seaboard World Airlines Formerly Seaboard & Western Airlines". SeaboardAirlines.org. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011.
On November 3rd, 1955 Seaboard & Western became the first airline in the nation to hire an African-American pilot, August Martin.
- "Black Airline Pilots: August Martin (1919–1968)". AvStop.com / Aviation Online. n.d. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010.
Between 1946 and 1955, he flew only part time for such airlines as Buffalo Skylines, El Al Airlines and World Airways. ... In 1955, August Martin gained a foothold in the world of US aviation when he was hired by Seaboard World Airlines as the first Black captain of a US scheduled air carrier. During a thirteen-year period with Seaboard, Martin got a chance to pilot the DC-3, DC-4, Lockheed Constellation and Canadair CL-44.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (July 21, 1994). "E. Frederic Morrow, 88, Aide In Eisenhower Administration". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Charles Gittens, 1st black Secret Service agent, dies". The Washington Post. Associated Press. August 9, 2011. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
- Wilber, Del Quentin (August 10, 2011). "Charles L. Gittens, first black Secret Service agent, dies at 82". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011.
- Freedman, Lew (2007). "Don Newcombe". African American Pioneers of Baseball: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 99–108. ISBN 9780313338519.
- Goldstein, Richard (January 11, 2001). "Lowell Perry, 69, Football Star and Ford Aide". The New York Times.
- Heaphy, Leslie A. (1 January 2006). Black Baseball and Chicago: Essays on the Players, Teams, and Games of the Negro Leagues' Most Important City. McFarland. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-7864-2674-4.
- Conrard, Don (November 16, 2005). "Promoting Diversity". Alaska's World. Alaska Airlines. Archived from the original on March 24, 2006. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- "Winners —1958: First Annual Grammy Awards". The Recording Academy. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015. Presented May 4, 1959, for recordings made in 1958.
- "A Pioneer's Tribute Is Both a Reward and a Reminder: Charlie Sifford Is Given the Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times.
- "Person of the Year: Martin Luther King Jr.". Time. January 3, 1963. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Kearse, Gregory (July 1998). "Historic Moments: A Legacy of Excellence". Chess Life via TheChessDrum.net. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Chess Quiz [Question #47]". Chess.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Stewart, D. R. (February 28, 2008). "AA Honors First Black Airline Pilot". Tulsa World. Oklahoma. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011.
- Colorado Anti-Discrimination Comm'n v. Continental Air Lines, Inc., 372 U.S., 714 (Supreme Court 1963-04-22).
- Hudson, David (n.d.). "Black Cinema". GreenCine.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Update of Hudson (June 10, 2003). "SFBFF: Experience and Empowerment". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Note: Asian-American interracial marriage had previously been portrayed.
- "Postseason World Series MVP Awards & All-Star Game MVP Award Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015.
- Duncan, Randy; Smith, Matthew J. (29 January 2013). Icons of the American Comic Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman. ABC-CLIO. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-313-39924-4. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "NM Frank Street, Jr.". The ChessDrum.net. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Nancy Sinatra (May 2, 2000). Movin' with Nancy (DVD Commentary Track). Chatsworth, California: Image Entertainment.
- "A. S. McWilliams, 77, Comic Strip Cartoonist". The New York Times. March 25, 1993. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Horn, Maurice, ed. (1996). 100 Years of American Newspaper Comics. New York York: Gramercy Books. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-517-12447-5.
- Boyd, Todd (2008). African Americans and Popular Culture. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-313-06408-1. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "History of the Diocese". Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. Archived from the original on April 21, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Bell, Gregory S. (2002). "Joe Searles". In In the Black: A History of African Americans on Wall Street. John Wiley and Sons. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-471-21485-4. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
- Bould, Mark; Butler, Andrew M.; Roberts, Adam; Sherryl Vint (30 March 2009). The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction. Taylor & Francis. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-203-87131-7. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- The earliest known humorous interracial kiss was in the story "Home Cooking" in Premier Magazine's satirical comic book Nuts #1 (March 1954), per its listing at the Grand Comics Database.
- "Sammy's Visit". All in the Family. Season 2. Episode 34. February 12, 1972. CBS. In the comedy All in the Family, at the last moment as a picture is taken, Sammy Davis, Jr., playing himself, chides the bigoted but celebrity-fawning Archie Bunker with a humorous kiss on the cheek.
- O'English, Mark (2014). "Killraven". In Booker, M. Keith. Comics through Time : A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. Greenwood Publishing. p. 666. ISBN 978-0313397509.
- "A Dozen Who Made a Difference". Time. January 5, 1976. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
- "Getting Word: African American Families of Monticello — Robert H. Cooley III". Charlottesville, Virginia: Monticello. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014.
- Seabaugh, Cathy (February 1994). "BLK: Focused Coverage for African-American Gays & Lesbians". Chicago Outlines.
- Chestnut, Mark (June 1992). "BLK: Getting Glossy". Island Lifestyle.
- Stevens, William K. (December 28, 1977). "A Detroit Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in the D.A.R.; Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in D.A.R". The New York Times.
- "Pauli Murray.biography". bio.: People. A+E Networks. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- Gubert, Betty Kaplan; Sawyer, Miriam (2001). "Jill E. Brown". Distinguished African Americans in Aviation and Space Science. Greenwood. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-1573562461.
- O'Donnell, Maureen (December 15, 2014). "Rev. Earlean Miller, first African-American woman ordained a Lutheran pastor, dead at 78". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- Mitchell, Gail (October 29, 2005). "From One Man's Vision To An Empire: BET". Billboard. 117 (44): 24. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Jones, Stanley P.; Tripp, L. Octavia; Amram, Fred (1 January 1998). African-American Astronauts. Capstone. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-56065-695-1. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First Black Elected to Head Harvard's Law Review". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Kourlas, Gia (May 6, 2007). "Dance: Where Are All the Black Swans?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Reason Is Navy's First Black Four-Star Admiral". U.S. Department of Defense. February 19, 1998. Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials, USDI, NPS, May 1, 1991, by Harold Danz. Updates after publication by Public Affairs.
- Farmer, Paula (August 1999). "The First African American To Head A Fortune 500 Company, Franklin D. Raines Takes Over Fannie Mae". The Black Collegian. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- "Profile of Shirley Ann Jackson, Ph.D.". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. September 10, 2014. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "First black American Bar Association president to visit KU Feb. 18". Archive.news.ku.edu. 2004-02-16. Retrieved 2015-08-05.
- James Ishmael Ford (2006). Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People and Stories of Zen. Wisdom Publications. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-86171-509-1. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Barr, Meghan (May 6, 2007). "Cancer Survivor, 75, Skis to North Pole". The Seattle Times. Washington. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- "Rear Admiral Stephen Rochon 1st African American Chief Usher at the White House". IMDiversity. 2013-09-16. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- Liasson, Mara; Norris, Michele (July 7, 2008). "Obama To Accept Nomination at Mile High Stadium". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- Johnson, Alex (November 4, 2008). "Barack Obama elected 44th president". MSNBC. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
- "Duke Ellington becomes first African American on U.S. coin". CNN. February 24, 2009. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Black Hockey Player Helps Chicago Win Stanley Cup". regalmag.com.
- "Charles E. Samuels, Jr.". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015.
- Barnes, Robert (November 6, 2012). "Obama reelected as president". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015.
- "Secretary Panetta Statement on Intent to Nominate CENTCOM Commander". Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Nolan, Bruce (2012-06-17). "Spirit of change: An influential local preacher is set to become the first black leader of the Southern Baptist Convention". The Times-Picayune (Metro Edition). New Orleans. pp. A1, A10. Retrieved 2012-06-18. Cf. Sherman, Dayne (2012-06-24). "Southern Baptist Convention in black, white". Sunday Star. Hammond, Louisiana. pp. 4A, 5A. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- Oller, Travis (2012-06-13). "Rev. Fred Luter Jr. to be Southern Baptists first black president". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- Moore, Stephen (December 21, 2012). "Tim Scott: Meet the New Senator From South Carolina". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- Weisman, Jon (July 30, 2013). "Cheryl Boone Isaacs Elected President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". Variety. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015.
- Kane, Paul (December 16, 2013). "Jeh Johnson confirmed as secretary of homeland security". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
- Lamothe, Dan (July 1, 2014). "Adm. Michelle Howard becomes first four-star woman in Navy history". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
- Deutsch, Lindsay (November 5, 2014). "Political firsts: How history was made this midterm election". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Diamond, Jeremy (November 5, 2014). "Among 2014 midterm winners many historic firsts". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Silverstein, Melissa (December 11, 2014). "Ava DuVernay Becomes First African American Woman Nominated for Best Director Golden Globe". Indiewire.com. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014.
- Kiefer, Francine (April 23, 2015). "Loretta Lynch makes history as first black woman to become attorney general (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-24.
- Cronk, Terri Moon (January 26, 2015). "Marine Corps officer takes Defense Intelligence Agency reins". United States Marines. Archived from the original on February 26, 2015.
- Pennell, Jay (January 2, 2015). "Remembering Wendell Scott's lone NASCAR win 51 years later". Fox Sports. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015.
- Rush, Curtis (17 March 2015). "CFL names Jeffrey Orridge as new commissioner". Toronto Star. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "WNY native becomes first black leader of Episcopal Church". wivb.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
- "Paulette Brown, first African-American female ABA President". MCCA. Retrieved 2015-08-05.
- Massie, Victoria M. (September 14, 2016). "Carla Hayden is officially sworn in as the first woman and African-American librarian of Congress". Vox.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-14.
- Smith, Jessie Carney (2002). Black Firsts (2 ed.). Detroit: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 978-1-57859-258-6. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Potter, Joan (2002). African-American Firsts: famous, little-known and unsung triumphs of Blacks in America (Rev. and expanded ed.). New York: Dafina Books. ISBN 0758202431. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Mance, Ajuan (November 5, 2009). "Timeline: Black Firsts in Higher Education". Blackoncampus.com.
- Obama, Barack (July 16, 2009). "Remarks by the President to the NAACP Centennial Convention" (Video). NBC News.
- Obama, Barack (July 16, 2009). "Remarks by the President to the NAACP Centennial Convention". White House.
- Wan, William (April 29, 2016). "Obama Legacy: Life After the First". The Washington Post. — Interviews with six African-American "firsts", including the first black governor, the first black billionaire, and the first black Ivy League president.
- Weiner, David (May 25, 2011) [Originally posted September 3, 2009]. "African-American Firsts in New York". The Huffington Post.