List of African-American inventors and scientists
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Science and technology of the |
United States of America
United States portal
This list of African Americans inventors and scientists documents many of the African-Americans who have invented a multitude of items or made discoveries in the course of their lives. These have ranged from practical everyday devices to applications and scientific discoveries in diverse fields, including physics, biology, math, plus the medical, nuclear and space science.
Among the earliest was George Washington Carver, whose reputation was based on his research into and promotion of alternative crops to cotton, which aided in nutrition for farm families. He wanted poor farmers to grow alternative crops both as a source of their own food and as a source of other products to improve their way of life. The most popular of his 44 practical bulletins for farmers contained 105 food recipes using peanuts. He also developed and promoted about 100 products made from peanuts that were useful for the house and farm. He received numerous honors for his work, including the Spingarn Medal of the NAACP.
A later renowned scientist was Percy Lavon Julian, a research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. He was the first to synthesize the natural product physostigmine, and a pioneer in the industrial large-scale chemical synthesis of the human hormones, steroids, progesterone, and testosterone, from plant sterols such as stigmasterol and sitosterol. His work would lay the foundation for the steroid drug industry's production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and birth control pills.
A contemporary example of a modern-day inventor is Lonnie George Johnson, an engineer. Johnson invented the Super Soaker water gun, which was the top-selling toy in the United States from 1991 to 1992. In 1980 Johnson formed his own law firm and licensed the Super Soaker water gun to Larami Corporation. Two years later, the Super Soaker generated over $200 million in retail sales and became the best selling toy in America. Larami Corporation was eventually purchased by Hasbro, the second largest toy manufacturer in the world. Over the years, Super Soaker sales have totaled close to one billion dollars. Johnson reinvested a majority of his earnings from the Super Soaker into research and development for his energy technology companies – "It's who I am, it's what I do." Currently,[when?] Johnson holds over 80 patents, with over 20 more pending, and is the author of several publications on spacecraft power systems.
|Name||Years||Occupation(s)||Inventions / accomplishments||References|
|Amos, Harold||1918–2003||Microbiologist||First African-American department chair at Harvard Medical School|||
|Alcorn, George Edward, Jr.||1940–||Physicist, inventor||Invented a method of fabricating an imaging X-ray spectrometer|||
|Andrews, James J.||1930–1998||Mathematician||Put forth the Andrews–Curtis conjecture in group theory with Morton L. Curtis, still unsolved|||
|Alexander, Archie||1888–1958||Civil engineer||Responsible for the construction of many roads and bridges, including the Whitehurst Freeway, the Tidal Basin Bridge, and an extension to the Baltimore-Washington Parkway.|
|Bailey, Leonard C.||1825–1918||Inventor||Folding bed|||
|Ball, Alice Augusta||1892–1916||Chemist||Extracted chaulmoogra oil for the treatment of Hansen's disease (leprosy)|||
|Banneker, Benjamin||1731–1806||Almanac author; surveyor; farmer||Constructed wooden clock; astronomer; mathematician; assisted in the survey of the original boundaries of the District of Columbia; authored a series of almanacs and ephemerides; naturalist: recorded observations on emergences of periodical cicadas and on the behavior of honey bees.|||
|Banyaga, Augustin||1947–||Mathematician||Work on diffeomorphisms and symplectomorphisms|||
|Bashen, Janet||1957–||Inventor, entrepreneur, professional consultant||First African-American woman to receive a patent for a web-based software invention, LinkLine, an Equal Employment Opportunity case management and tracking software|||
|Bath, Patricia||1942–2019||Ophthalmologist||First African-American female physician to receive a patent for a medical invention; inventions relate to cataract surgery and include the Laserphaco Probe, which revolutionized the industry in the 1980s, and an ultrasound technique for treatment|||
|Beard, Andrew||1849–1921||Farmer, carpenter, blacksmith, railroad worker, businessman, inventor||Janney coupler improvements; invented the car device #594,059 dated November 23, 1897; rotary engine patent #478,271 dated July 5, 1892|||
|Bell, Earl S.||1977–||Inventor, entrepreneur, architect, industrial designer||Invented chair with sliding skin (2004) and the quantitative display apparatus (2005)|||
|Benjamin, Miriam||1861–1947||Inventor, educator||Invented "Gong and Signal Chair for Hotels"; second African-American woman to receive a patent|||
|Berry, Leonidas||1902–1995||Gastroenterologist||Gastroscope pioneer|||
|Bharucha-Reid, Albert T.||1927–1985||Mathematician, statistician||Probability theory and Markov chain theorist|||
|Black, Keith||1957–||Neurosurgeon||Brain tumor surgery and research|||
|Blackwell, David||1919–2010||Mathematician, statistician||First proposed the Blackwell channel model used in coding theory and information theory; one of the eponyms of the Rao–Blackwell theorem, which is a process that significantly improves crude statistical estimators|||
|Blair, Henry||1807–1860||Inventor||Second black inventor to issue a patent; invented seed planter and cotton planter.|||
|Boahen, Kwabena||1964–||Bioengineer||Silicon retina able to process images in the same manner as a living retina|||
|Boone, Sarah||1832–1905||Inventor||Ironing board allowing sleeves of women's garments to be ironed more easily|||
|Bouchet, Edward||1852–1918||Physicist||First African-American to receive a PhD in any subject; received physics doctorate from Yale University in 1876|
|Bowman, James||1923–2011||Physician||Pathologist and geneticist; Professor Emeritus Pritzker School of Medicine; first tenured African-American professor at the University of Chicago Division of Biological Sciences|||
|Boykin, Otis||1920–1982||Inventor, engineer||Artificial heart pacemaker control unit|||
|Brady, St. Elmo||1884–1966||Chemist||Published three scholarly abstracts in Science; collaborated on a paper published in the Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry|||
|Branson, Herman||1914–1995||Physicist, educator||Protein structure research|||
|Brooks, Charles||1865– ?||Inventor||Street sweeper truck and a type of paper punch|||
|Brooks, Phil||19xx–||Inventor||First US patent for a disposable syringe|
|Henry Brown||1832– ?||Inventor||Invented fire safe|||
|Brown, Oscar E.||18xx– ?||Inventor||Received a patent for an improved horseshoe|
|Brown, Marie Van Brittan||1922–1999||Inventor||Invented the home security system|||
|Burr, John Albert||18xx– ?||Inventor||Rotary-blade lawn mower patent|||
|Cannon, Thomas C.||1943–||Inventor||Led a group of engineers who developed the Tactical Optical Fiber Connector (TOFC), the first fiber optic connector deployed under battlefield conditions, and the ST Connector that helped make fiber optic communications affordable.|
|Cardozo, William Warrick||1905–1962||Pediatrician||Sickle cell anemia studies; in October 1937 he published "Immunologic Studies in Sickle Cell Anemia" in the Archives of Internal Medicine; many of the findings are still valid today|
|Carson, Ben||1951–||Pediatric neurosurgeon||Pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins University; first surgeon to successfully separate craniopagus twins|||
|Carruthers, George||1939–||Astrophysicist||Invented ultraviolet camera/spectograph, which was used by NASA when it launched Apollo 16 in 1972|||
|Carver, George Washington||1865–1943||Botanical researcher||Discovered hundreds of uses for previously useless vegetables and fruits, principally the peanut|||
|Charles W. Chappelle||1872–1941||Electrician, construction, international businessman, and aviation pioneer||Designed long-distance flight airplane; the only African-American to invent and display the airplane at the 1911 First Industrial Air Show held in conjunction with the Auto Show at Grand Central Palace in Manhattan in New York City; president of the African Union Company, Inc.|||
|Chappelle, Emmett||1925–2019||Scientist and researcher||Valuable contributions to several fields: medicine, biology, food science, and astrochemistry|
|Clark, Mamie||1914–2005||Psychologist||Conducted 1940s experiments using dolls to study children's attitudes about race|
|Clark, Kenneth||1917–1983||Psychologist||First Black president of the American Psychological Association|||
|Crosthwait, David, Jr.||1898–1976||Research engineer||Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; received some 40 US patents relating to HVAC systems|
|Curtis, James H (Nick)||1935–||Researcher, chemist (electronics/specialty chemicals)||Organic ionogen for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, cationic dialdehyde polysaccharides for wet strength paper and others, US Patent Office US Pat #3609467 US Pat #3547423 and others|
|Dabiri, John||1980–||Biophysicist||Expert on jellyfish hydrodynamics and designer of a vertical-axis wind farm adapted from schooling fish|
|Daly, Marie Maynard||1921–2003||Chemist||First black American woman with a PhD in chemistry|
|Dean, Mark||1957–||Computer scientist||Led the team that developed the ISA bus, and led the design team responsible for creating the first one-gigahertz computer processor chip|||
|Drew, Charles||1904–1950||Medical researcher||Developed improved techniques for blood storage|
|Du Chaillu, Paul||1831–1903||Zoologist
|Explorer; first modern European outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, and later the Pygmy people of central Africa; identified as white throughout life, but his mother was a Réunionnais mulatto; settled in America and considered it his country by adoption; the full aspects of his ancestry were not uncovered until 1979, and are still little known today|
|Easley, Annie||1933–2011||Computer scientist||Work at the Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics|||
|Ellis, Clarence "Skip"||1943–2014||Computer scientist||First African American with a PhD in computer science; software inventor including OfficeTalk at Xerox PARC|||
|Ezerioha, Bisi||1972–||Automotive engineer||Drag racing engineer and driver|
|Ferguson, Lloyd Noel||1918–2011||Chemist, educator||Chemistry doctorate, first received (1943, University of California, Berkeley)|||
|Fryer, Roland G., Jr.||1977–||Economist, social scientist, statistician||Inequality studies|
|Gates, Sylvester James||1950–||Theoretical physicist||Work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory|||
|Goode, Sarah E.||1855–1905||Inventor||Cabinet bed invention; first African-American woman to receive a patent in the United States|||
|Gilbert, Juan E.||1969–||Computer scientist||Awarded the first Presidential Endowed Chair at Clemson University in honor of his accomplishments|
|Grant, George F.||1846–1910||Dentist, professor||The first African-American professor at Harvard, Boston dentist, and inventor of a wooden golf tee.|||
|Graves, Joseph L.||1955–||Evolutionary biologist|||
|Green, Lisa||Linguist||Specializes in syntax and the study of African American English|
|Greenaugh, Kevin||1956–||Nuclear engineer|||
|Griffin, Bessie Blount||1914–2009||Physical therapist, inventor||Amputee self-feeding device|||
|Harris, James A.||1932–2000||Co-discovered Rutherfordium (element 104) and Dubnium (element 105) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory|||
|Hawkins, Walter Lincoln||1911–1992||Scientist||Inventor at Bell Laboratories|||
|Hodge, John E.||1914–1996||Chemist|
|Holley, Kerrie||1954–||Research computer scientist at IBM||Co-creator of Service-Oriented Modeling and Architecture, SOMA and the Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM)|
|Jackson, John W||1953–2007||Electrical Engineer, inventor||Co-inventor of imaging x-ray spectrometer.|
|Jackson, Mary||1921–2005||Mathematician, Aerospace engineer||NASA's first black female engineer|
|Jackson, Dr. Shirley||1946–||Physicist||Helped develop technologies leading to the invention of the touch-tone telephone, portable fax, solar cells, fiber optic cables, and the technology enabling caller ID and call waiting. However, in a recent article from MIT, there is no evidence that she helped to develop these technologies.|||
|Jarvis, Erich||1965–||Neurobiologist||Duke University neuroscience bird songs studies|||
|Jennings, Thomas L.||1791–1856||Inventor||First African American to be granted a patent (for a dry cleaning process called dry scouring)|||
|Johnson, Isaac||18xx– ?||Inventor||Held patent for improvements to the bicycle frame, specifically so it could be taken apart for compact storage|||
|Johnson, Lonnie||1949–||Mechanical engineer, nuclear engineer, inventor||Invented Super Soaker while researching thermal energy transfer engines; worked with NASA; holder of over 80 patents|||
|Isola, Oluwabusuyi||1965–||Professor, International Finance, inventor||Invented Double Sided Guitar|
|Johnson, Katherine||1918–||Physicist, mathematician||Made contributions to the United States' aeronautics and space programs with the early application of digital electronic computers at NASA.|
|Jones, Frederick McKinley||1893–1961||Inventor||Invented refrigerated truck systems|||
|Julian, Percy||1899–1975||Chemist||First to synthesize the natural product physostigmine; earned 130 chemical patents; lauded for humanitarian achievements|||
|Just, Ernest||1883–1941||Woods Hole Marine Biology Institute biologist||Provided basic and initial descriptions of the structure–function–property relationship of the plasma membrane of biological cells|||
|Kittles, Rick||1967–||Geneticist||Work in tracing the ancestry of African Americans via DNA testing|||
|Kountz, Samuel L.||1930–1981||Transplant surgeon, researcher||Organ transplantation pioneer, particularly renal transplant research and surgery; author or co-author of 172 articles in scientific publications|||
|Latimer, Lewis||1848–1928||Inventor, draftsman, expert witness||Worked as a draftsman for both Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison; became a member of Edison's Pioneers and served as an expert witness in many light bulb litigation lawsuits; said to have invented the water closet|||
|Lawson, Jerry||1940–2011||Computer engineer||Designer of Fairchild Channel F, the first programmable ROM cartridge-based video game console|||
|Lee, Raphael Carl||1949–||Surgeon, biomedical engineer||Paul and Aileen Russell Professor, Pritzker School of Medicine; MacArthur Fellow, Searle Scholar, founder and chairman, Avocet Polymer Technologies, Inc.; founder and chairman, Renacyte BioMolecular Technologies, Inc; discovered use of surfactant copolymers as molecular chaperones to augment endogenous injury repair mechanisms of living cells; holder of many patents covering scar treatment therapies, tissue engineered ligaments, brain trauma therapies, and protective garments|||
|Lynk, Beebe Steven||1872–1948||Chemist||Teacher at West Tennessee University|
|Mahoney, Mary||1845–1926||Nurse||First African American to study and work as a professionally trained nurse in the United States|
|Matzeliger, Jan||1852–1889||Inventor||Shoe assembly Machine|||
|McBay, Henry||1914–1995||Chemist||His discoveries allowed chemists around the world to create inexpensive peroxide compounds|||
|McCoy, Elijah||1844–1929||Inventor||Invented a version of the automatic lubricator for steam engines, McCoy learned a great deal of his skills from a mechanical apprenticeship when he was age fifteen .|||
|McWhorter, John||1965–||Linguist||Specializes in the study of creole language formation|
|Montgomery, Benjamin||1819–1877||Inventor||Designed a steam operated propeller to provide propulsion to boats in shallow water|
|Moore, Willie Hobbs||1934–1994||Physicist||First African American woman to earn a PhD in Physics (University of Michigan Ann Arbor 1972) on vibrational analysis of secondary chlorides|||
|Morgan, Garrett||1877–1963||Inventor||Invented an early version of a gas mask called a smoke hood, and created the first traffic light that included a third "warning" position which is standard today. Morgan also developed a chemical that was used in hair products for hair-straightening.|||
|Miles, Alexander||1838–1918||Inventor||Invented electric elevator doors that automatically open and close|||
|Nmezi, Murphy||1955–||Physician/biostatistician||Advances in path analysis and structural equation modeling|
|Nriagu, Jerome||1944–||Geochemist||Studies toxic metals in the environment; supporter of the lead poisoning thesis of the decline of the Roman Empire|
|Ogbu, John Uzo||1939–2003||Anthropologist||Ethnic studies in education and economics|||
|Olukotun, Kunle||19xx–||Computer scientist||Early advocate and researcher of multi-core processors|
|Oyekan, Soni||1946–||Chemical engineer||Inventions in oil refining|
|Parker, Alice H.||1895–||Inventor||Furnace for Central Heating|
|Poindexter, Hildrus||1901–1987||Bacteriologist, epidemiologist||Work on the epidemiology of tropical diseases, including malaria|
|Petters, Arlie||1964–||Physicist||Work on the mathematical physics of gravitational lensing|
|Quarterman, Lloyd Albert||1918–1982||Scientist, fluoride chemist||Manhattan Project, worked with Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi|
|Rillieux, Norbert||1806–1894||Engineer, inventor||Inventor of the multiple-effect evaporator|||
|Robinson, Larry||1957–||Environmental chemist||Investigated possible role of arsenic in the death of Zachary Taylor; interim president of Florida A&M University|
|Ross, Archia||Turn of 20th century||Inventor||A runner for stoops (1896), bag closure device (1898), a wrinkle-preventing trouser stretcher (1899), a garment-hanger (1903), and a holder for brooms and like articles.|||
|Russell, Jesse||1948–||Engineer, inventor||Wireless communications engineer|
|Sammons, Walter||1890–1973||Inventor||Patent for hot comb|||
|Sowell, Thomas||1930–||Economist, social scientist||Economist, social theorist and political philosopher|||
|Steele, Claude||1946–||Psychologist, social scientist||Stereotype threat studies|
|Stiff, Lee||1941–||Mathematician||President of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics from 2000 to 2002|||
|Snyder, Window||1976–||Computer engineer||Security engineer at Microsoft, Mozilla, and Apple|
|Temple, Lewis||1800–1854||Inventor, blacksmith, abolitionist||Inventor of the toggling whaling harpoon head|||
|Thomas, Vivien||1910–1985||Surgical technician||Blue baby syndrome treatment in the 1940s|||
|Turner, Charles Henry||1867–1923||Zoologist||First person to prove that insects can hear and can distinguish pitch, that cockroaches can learn by trial and error, and that honeybees can see color; first African-American to receive a PhD from the University of Chicago|||
|Tyree, G. Bernadette||19xx–||Biochemist||Program Director, Division of Musculoskeletal Diseases, at National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health|||
|Tyson, Neil deGrasse||1958–||Astronomer||Researcher and popular educator in astronomy and the sciences|||
|Vaughan, Dorothy||1910–2008||Mathematician||Worked for NACA and NASA at Langley Research Center|
|Valerino, Powtawche||1980||Engineer||Worked for JPL and NASA at Langley Research Center|
|Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.||1936–2001||Astronomer||Developed normal incidence multilayer XUV telescopes to photograph the solar corona|||
|Walker, C. J.||1867–1919||Inventor||Created black cosmetic products|||
|Washington, Warren M.||1936–||Atmospheric scientist||Former chair of the National Science Board|||
|West, James E.||1931–||Acoustician, inventor||Co-developed the foil electret microphone|||
|Wilkins, J. Ernest, Jr.||1923–2011||Mathematician, engineer, nuclear scientist||Entered University of Chicago at age 13; PhD at 19; worked on the Manhattan Project; wrote over 100 scientific papers; helped recruit minorities into the sciences|||
|Williams, Daniel||1856–1931||Surgeon||The first black person on record to have successfully performed pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart) surgery to repair a wound.||[circular reference]|
|Williams, Scott W.||1943–||Mathematician|
|Williams, Walter E.||1936–||Economist, social scientist|||
|Woods, Granville||1856–1910||Inventor||Invented the synchronous multiplex railway telegraph|||
|Wright, Jane C.||1919–2013||Cancer research and surgeon||Noted for her contributions to chemotherapy and for pioneering the use of the drug methotrexate to treat breast cancer and skin cancer|
|Wright, Louis T.||1891–1952||Surgeon||Led team that first used Aureomycin as a treatment on humans|||
|Young, Roger Arliner||1899–1964||Zoologist||First African-American woman to receive a doctorate degree in zoology|||
- Lists of African Americans
- List of inventors
- History of United States patent law
- Lemelson–MIT Prize
- NASA spinoff
- National Inventors Hall of Fame
- Science and technology in the United States
- Technological and industrial history of the United States
- Timeline of United States discoveries
- Timeline of United States inventions
- United States patent law
- United States Patent and Trademark Office
- Yankee ingenuity
- African American women in computer science
- African-American women in medicine
- List of African-American women in STEM fields
- List of African-American mathematicians
- List of African scientists, inventors, and scholars
- African-American dance
- Asian Americans in science and technology
- Carver, George Washington. 1916. "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption", Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31.
- "Interview wp'ith CNBC's "How I Made my Millions"". thelifefiles.com. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Roche, Timothy. Soaking In Success, Time, December 4, 2000.
- Products Created by Independent Inventors, April 2, 2009, Inventors Digest.
- "Dr. Harold Amos, 84; Mentor to Aspiring Minority Physicians". Los Angeles Times. March 8, 2003. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- "George Edward Alcorn, Jr". About.com. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
- "Alcorn exceled in missile research". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 20, 2002. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
George Edward Alcorn Jr. attended Occidental College in Los Angeles where he earned eight letters in basketball and football and was an honors student studying physics. He received his bachelor's degree in 1962 and a master's in nuclear physics from Howard University a year later. He attended Occidental College in Los Angeles where he earned eight letters in basketball and football and was an honors student studying physics. He received his bachelor's degree in 1962 and a master's in nuclear physics from Howard University a year later.
- Andrews, J. J.; Curtis, M. L. (1965), "Free groups and handlebodies", Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 16 (2): 192–195, doi:10.2307/2033843, JSTOR 2033843, MR 0173241.
- US RE11830, "Folding Bed"
- Mendheim, Beverly (September 2007). "Lost and Found: Alice Augusta Ball, an Extraordinary Woman of Hawai`i Nei". Northwest Hawaii Times. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1999). The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The First African-American Man of Science (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. ISBN 0-938420-59-3. LCCN 98022848. OCLC 894558859. Retrieved September 11, 2019 – via Internet Archive.
- Institute for Advanced Study: A Community of Scholars Archived January 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Janet Emerson Bashen, Retrieved from About.com website March 14, 2011.
- Henderson, Susan K. (March 1, 1998). African-American Inventors III. Capstone Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-56065-698-2.
- "Modern Black Inventors". Jet. 101 (7): 55. February 4, 2002. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Lambert, Laura (September 1, 2007). Inventors and Inventions. Marshall Cavendish. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7614-7763-1.
- Bellis, Mary (2008). "Andrew Beard (1849–1921)". About.com: Inventors. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
- Earl S. Bell, Retrieved from About.com website June 6, 2011.
- Earl S. Bell, Retrieved from uspto.gov website June 6, 2011.
- Earl S. Bell, Retrieved from atlantapost.com website June 6, 2011.
- Bellis, Mary. Inventors: Miriam Benjamin, Retrieved from About.com website, February 17, 2011.
- "Deaths, University of Chicago Magazine, April 96". magazine.uchicago.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Williams, Scott W. (2008). "Mathematicians of the African Diaspora: Albert Turner Bharucha-Reid". The Mathematics Department of the State University of New York at Buffalo. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- Keith Black; Arnold Mann (March 25, 2009). Brain Surgeon: A Doctor's Inspiring Encounters with Mortality and Miracles. Grand Central Life & Style. ISBN 978-0-446-58109-7.
- Michael D. Lemonick, "The Tumor War", Time, Heroes of Medicine special edition, Fall 1997 (retrieved May 15, 2009).
- Cattau, Daniel (July 2009). "David Blackwell 'Superstar'". Illinois Alumni. University of Illinois Alumni Association. pp. 32–34.
- Maryland's African American Heritage: Henry Blair Archived July 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, ThinkQuest.
- "African American Inventors You Should Know: Henry Blair". about.com. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Kwabena Boahen, PhD, Associate Professor of Bioengineering Archived June 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Stanford Bioengineering, Stanford School of Medicine, 2013.
- IBM Seeks to Build the Computer of the Future Based on Insights from the Brain: IBM Awarded DARPA Funding for Cognitive Computing Collaboration, IBM Alden, November 20, 2008.
- Sarah Boone, The Black Inventor On-Line Museum. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- "Ironing-board". Google. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Sarah Boone, 7th March 1878 ?". The History Woman. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Terry, Don (July 27, 2008). "Insider has Obama's ear: What's she telling him?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 29, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
- "The Bowman Society". Pritzker Pulse. Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. Spring 2005. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
- U.S. Department of Energy. Black Contributors to Science and Energy Technology (Biographical sketch: Otis Boykin), U.S. Department Of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979, pp. 8–9, DOE/OPA-0035(79)
- Mary Bellis, "Otis Boykin", About.com Guide.
- "Inventor of Heart Stimulator Honored at Memorial Service." Dallas Morning News, March 18, 1982, p. 88.
- University of Illinois biography Archived September 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, University of Illinois.
- "PNAS Classics – Protein Structure". pnas.org. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Einseberg, David (2003). "The discovery of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet, the principal structural features of proteins". PNAS. 100 (20): 11207–11210. doi:10.1073/pnas.2034522100. PMC 208735. PMID 12966187.
- US 558719A, "Street Sweeper", issued 1896-04-21
- US 507672A, "Punch", issued 1893-10-31
- "Henry Brown". blackinventor.com. Retrieved February 6, 2010."Henry Brown". blackinventor.com. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- "The History of Horseshoes". Inventors – About.com. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- "11 African American Inventors Who Changed the World". MSN. Archived from the original on August 10, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Bellis, Mary. "John Albert Burr". About.com. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- "Benjamin S. Carson Biography (1951–)". faqs.org. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Black Leonardo Book". Time. November 24, 1941. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
- Harlan, Volume 5, p. 481
- Special History Study from the National Park Service website
- The legacy of George Washington Carver-Friends & Colleagues (Henry Wallace) Archived April 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "A Successful Negro Aviator. Charles Ward Chappelle Invents and Aeroplane Which Attacks Attention." News/Opinion, Savannah Tribune, Page 1, February 11, 1911. Savannah, Georgia
- "Mr. C.W. Chappelle: The Man, His Life, His Work And His Aspirations." The Gold Coast Nation. Page 3. June 28, 1919. Ghana.
- The Crises: A Record of the Darker Races, "Social Uplift" (page 7), published by the National Association of Colored People (NAACP), May 11, 1911 in New York City.
- Bio. True Story, "Kenneth Bancroft Clark Biography." Accessed December 7, 2012. http://www.biography.com/people/kenneth-bancroft-clark-9249475.
- McCoy, Frank (December 26, 1999). "He refined the desktop PC. Now he wants to kill it". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
A year later, Dean led a team that built a 1,000-megahertz chip [...]
- Angel, Jonathan (August 10, 2011). "Thirty years later, the personal computer's obsolete, IBM PC designer says". linuxfordevices.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Dean, Mark (August 12, 2011). "IBM Leads the Way in the Post-PC Era". A Smarter Planet. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
I recently traded in my PC for a tablet computer [...]
- "ANNIE JEAN EASLEY's Obituary on The Plain Dealer". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "ANNIE JEAN EASLEY's Obituary on The Plain Dealer". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Interview code OHI0026830" (PDF). nasa.gov. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Skip Ellis, Retrieved from Computer Scientists of the African Diaspora web site March 6, 2012.
- Skip Ellis, Retrieved from howstuffworks Extraordinary People website, March 6, 2012.
- "Lloyd Ferguson, a pioneering African American professor/chemist from Cal State L.A., has died", Insight News, December 28, 2011, archived from the original on September 24, 2015
- "Lloyd Noel Ferguson". Biographical Snapshots of Famous Women and Minority Chemists. Journal of Chemical Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011..
- Kessler, J. H.; Kidd, J. S.; Kidd, R. A.; Morin, K. H. (1996), Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century, Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, pp. 94–99, ISBN 978-0-89774-955-8.
- "UMD PCAST announcement". University of Maryland. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- Gates, S. James; M. T. Grisaru; M. Rocek; W. Siegel (1983). "Superspace". American Institute of Physics.
- "Sarah Goode". Inventors. The Black Inventor On-Line Museum. 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Sarah E. Goode". Inventors. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Vrabel, Jim (2004). When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac. Northeastern University Press. p. 238. ISBN 9781555536213.
- Dr. Joseph L. Graves, Jr. Archived February 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Graves, Joseph L (January 1, 2002). "The Biological Case Against Race" (PDF). American Outlook. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Joseph L. Graves, Jr., Ph.D. Archived June 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Alumni Honored at Black Engineer Gala News and Current Events, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland". Engr.umd.edu. February 20, 2006. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- "Bessie Blount Griffin". csupomona.edu. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Virginia Women in History Past Honorees". lva.virginia.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "James A. Harris". Biographical Snapshots of Famous Women and Minority Chemists. Journal of Chemical Education. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- McMurray, Emily, ed. Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists. Gale Research, Inc.: Detroit, 1995.
- Schaffer, Amanda. "A cool-headed leader in social justice, nuclear policy, and academia". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- "10 African American Inventors Who Changed the World". mentalfloss.com. February 11, 2019. Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- Singing In The Brain Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Duke Magazine, November–December 2001.
- Duke News Archived June 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Erich Jarvis Named Howard Hughes Investigator Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Duke Medicine News & Communications. Retrieved from Dukehealth.org.
- "Diversity in Innovation: African-Americans' Impact is Forever Reaching – Inventors Digest". Inventors Digest. March 21, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Bicycle Frame, Patent number: 634823, Filing date: April 6, 1898, Issue date: October 10, 1899, United States Patent Office.
- Soaking In Success, By Timothy Roche, December 4, 2000, Time.
- Shooting for the Sun, By Logan Ward, October 2010, The Atlantic
- Lonni Johnson – Thermo-Electric Generator – articles, patent, The Rex Research Civilization Kit.
- Rebecca Goodman; Barrett J. Brunsman (February 28, 2005). This Day in Ohio History. Emmis Books. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-57860-191-2.
- "A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Percy Julian". pbs.org. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Percy Lavon Julian". Science History Institute. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- "Giants of the Past: Percy Lavon Julian (1899–1975) A Forgotten Pioneer in Soy". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- "Percy Lavon Julian (1899–1975)". Lipid Library. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- Kelsey, Elizabeth. "Expansive Vision, Ahead of His Time: Dartmouth celebrates biologist E. E. Just, Class of 1907". Dartmouth Life. Dartmouth College. Retrieved January 28, 2009.
- Manning, Kenneth R. (1984). Black Apollo of science : the life of Ernest Everett Just. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195034981.
- Lee, Edward (March 2006). "Ernest Everett Just". Blacfax: 15–16.
- Allen, Arthur (May 12, 2000). "Flesh and blood and DNA". Salon. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- "African American Lives 2, PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Samuel L. Kountz Diversity Fellowship – General Surgery – Stanford Medicine". med.stanford.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Organ, CH Jr. "The black surgeon in the twentieth century: a tribute to Samuel L. Kountz, MD". J Natl Med Assoc. 70: 683–4. PMC 2537148. PMID 359824.
- – Encyclopedia of Arkansas
- Altman, Lawrence K. "DR. SAMUEL KOUNTZ, 51, DIES; LEADER IN TRANSPLANT SURGERY". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Rayvon Fouché (2003). Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer, & Shelby J. Davidson. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7319-5.
- Clarke, John Henrik (1983). Ivan Van Sertima (ed.). Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction. pp. 230–233. ISBN 978-0-87855-941-1.
- "Lewis Howard Latimer". National Park Service. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- List of 2006 NIHF inductees Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Fairchild Channel F – The First ROM Cartridge Console". About.com.
- Weber, Bruce (April 13, 2011). "Gerald A. Lawson, Video Game Pioneer, Dies at 70". The New York Times.
- Mahoney, Mary. "Mary Eliza". American Experience, PBS.
- "Jan Matzeliger". The Black Inventor Online Museum.
- "Inventor of the Week / Jan Matzeliger". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. August 2002.
- Brown, Mitchell, [www.lib.lsu.edu/lib/chem/display/henry mcbay.html "Faces of Science: African-Americans in the Sciences,"] 1996.
- Kessler, James H., J.S. Kidd, Renee A. Kidd, and Katherine A. Morin. Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century. Oryx Press: Phoenix, AZ, 1996.
- "The not-so-real McCoy". Archived from the original on May 17, 2011.
- "Elijah McCoy, Inventor of the Week". Lemelson-MIT Program. May 1996. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- Article outlining McLurkin's "Innovative Lives" presentation for the Smithsonian's Lemelson Center Archived July 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Willie Hobbs Moore, first African American Woman Physicist". math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Garrett Morgan". Biography. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Currie, Stephen (2010). African American Inventors. Lucent Books. pp. 64–67. ISBN 978-1-4205-0121-6.
- "On this day in 1887: Alexander Miles patents electric elevator – theGrio". theGrio. October 11, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Tough, Paul (December 12, 2004). "'Acting White' Myth, The". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "Acting White manuscript" (PDF). harvard.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Bike, William S. "Essays on Earl Renfroe" . UIC College of Dentistry Press, 2001.
- Janega, James. Chicago Tribune. "Dr. Earl Renfroe Sr., 93, Pioneering Orthodontist." .
- Norbert Rillieux, invention of the multiple-effect evaporator, Inventions-license.com. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office. U.S. Patent Office. 1897. p. 736.
- "Bag closure device". U. S. Patent Office. June 7, 1898. Retrieved May 28, 2018 – via Google patents.
- "Trousers support or stretcher" (PDF), U.S. Patents and Trademark Office, August 23, 1899, retrieved May 28, 2018 – via Free Patents Online
- "Garment-hanger" (PDF), U.S. Patents and Trademark Office, March 17, 1903, retrieved May 28, 2018 – via Free Patents Online
- "Holder for brooms and like articles" (PDF), U.S. Patents and Trademark Office, March 18, 1913, retrieved May 28, 2018 – via Free Patents Online
- Bellis, Mary. "Walter Sammons". Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- "Townhall.com". Townhall.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- "Townhall.com". Townhall.com. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- Larry D. Nachman, "A Conflict of Visions, by Thomas Sowell", Commentary, March 1987
- "Thomas Sowell". Jewishworldreview.com. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
- NCTM past presidents. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- Lewis Temple, Black Inventor Online Museum. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- (1985) Pioneering Research in Surgical Shock and Cardiovascular Surgery: Vivien Thomas and His Work with Alfred Blalock, University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 9–13. ISBN 0-8122-7989-1.
- "Almost a Miracle". Hopkinsmedicine.org. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- OAH Award Winners Archived June 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, OAH Erik Barnouw Award Winners
- *Abramson, Charles I. (2009). "A study in inspiration: Charles Henry Turner (1867–1923) and the investigation of insect behavior". Annual Review of Entomology. United States. 54: 343–59. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.54.110807.090502. ISSN 0066-4170. PMID 18817509.
- Branch, Danny Heise, Scientific Information Technology. "Directory of phone and e-mail for all staff". niams.nih.gov. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Symposium Awards". National Space Symposium. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Neil deGrasse Tyson". The Great Courses. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- Blum, Matt (August 5, 2011). "Cosmos Will Get a Sequel Hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson". Wired. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- James Glanz, Arthur Walker, 64, Scientist and Mentor, Dies, The New York Times (May 9, 2001).
- Dawn Levy, Art Walker : 'favorite sun' of solar physics, Stanford Report (October 4, 2000).
- Dawn Levy, Solar physicist Art Walker dies at 64; pioneer in X-ray optics, Stanford Report (May 2, 2001).
- "Madam C.J. Walker". Biography. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- NCAR's Warren Washington elected chair of National Science Board May 10, 2002.
- Warren M. Washington Collection, National Center for Atmospheric Research.
- Warren Washington Receives National Science Medal, National Center for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, October 15, 2010.
- Warren M. Washington: Senior Scientist & Head of the Climate Change Research Section, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, The National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Academy of Sciences.
- "James B. West of WSE receives Benjamin Franklin Medal : Johns Hopkins University – The Gazette". Gazette.jhu.edu. May 10, 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
- "Ian Moss: America's Diversity Can Provide Prosperity". HuffPost. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
- "Invent Now | Inventor Profile". Invent.org. February 10, 1931. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
- "Services Update". ieee.org. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "University of Chicago to commemorate accomplishments of mathematics alumnus J. Ernest Wilkins Jr". www-news.uchicago.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Zerbonia, Ralph G. (contrib. by Alic, Margaret) (2005) Contemporary Black Biography, Gale Research Inc, 2005, Vol.49 (Original from the University of Michigan), Digitized September 17, 2008, ISBN 0-7876-6731-5, ISBN 978-0-7876-6731-3, (biography viewable via Answers.com);
- Daniel Hale Williams#cite note-Schumacker-3
- "Happy Birthday Walter Williams". Cato at Liberty. March 31, 2011.
- Williams, Walter (August 25, 1997). "Capitalism and the Common Man". Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Williams, Walter. "The Pursuit of Happiness – Economics for the Citizen". The Freeman. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- Bellis, Mary. Granville T. Woods, 1856–1910.
- Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates – Africana: Civil Rights: An A-to-Z Reference of the Movement that Changed America
- "Kenyon College". Northbysouth.kenyon.edu. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Medicine: Negro Fellow. Time Magazine, 29th October 1934". Time. October 29, 1934. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Merry Maisel & Laura Smart (1997). "Lifelong Struggle of a Zoologist". Women in Science: A selection of sixteen significant contributors. The San Diego Supercomputer Center.
- Young, R.A. (1924). "On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium". Science. 60 (1550): 244. doi:10.1126/science.60.1550.244. JSTOR 1649643. PMID 17814573.