List of African-American officeholders during Reconstruction
Many scholars have identified more than 1,500 African American officeholders during the Reconstruction Era (1863–1877). Historian Canter Brown, Jr. noted that in some states, such as Florida, the highest number of African Americans were elected or appointed to offices after 1876 and the end of Reconstruction. The following is a partial list some of the most notable of the officeholders pre-1900.
- 1 Federal Office
- 2 State Office
- 3 Local Office
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
- Joseph Carter Corbin, chief clerk of the Little Rock Post Office (1872), state superintendent of public schools (1873-1875)
- James T. White (politician), Arkansas House of Representatives, Arkansas Senate
- Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, Secretary of State and Secretary of Public Instruction of Florida.
- Thomas Van Renssalaer Gibbs, Florida House of Representatives, son of Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs.
- Robert Meacham, Florida Senator
- Charles H. Pearce, Florida Senate
- Tunis Campbell, State Senator from Georgia.
- James Ward Porter, Chatham, GA state legislature
- Henry McNeal Turner, state legislator from Bibb County
- Theophile T. Allain, Louisiana House of Representatives, Louisiana Senate
- Oscar James Dunn, Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana 1868–71, First African American elected to a state-level position in the United States.
- Pierre Caliste Landry, Louisiana House of Representatives
- Milton Morris, Louisiana House of Representatives, represented Ascension Parish.
- P.B.S. Pinchback, governor of Louisiana
- George Lewis Ruffin, Massachusetts Legislature, 1870
- Samuel C. Watson, State Board of Estimates, 1875
- Peter Barrow, State Senator from Mississippi.
- Jesse Freeman Boulden, Mississippi House of Representatives
- Blanche Bruce, Bolivar County sheriff, tax collector, supervisor of education; sergeant-at-arms for the Mississippi state senate in 1870; state senator in 1874 (U.S. Senate in 1875-1881)
- George W. Gayles, Mississippi House of Representatives
- James D. Lynch, Secretary of State of Mississippi
- John R. Lynch, Mississippi House of Representatives, elected to U.S. House of Representatives.
- James J. Spelman Mississippi House of Representatives, justice of the peace and alderman of the city of Canton, Mississippi
- John O. Crosby, 1875 delegate from Warren County, North Carolina to the North Carolina State Constitutional Convention.
- James Walker Hood, commissioner for the states public schools and assistant superintendent of public instruction in North Carolina, 1868-1871.
- John S. Leary, North Carolina State legislature, 1868-1871, alderman in Fayettevill, North Carolina 1876-1877
- Richard H. Cain, South Carolina Senate (1868-1870), later U.S. House and U.S. Senate.
- Francis Lewis Cardozo, Secretary of State of South Carolina (1868-1872), South Carolina State Treasurer (1872-1877)
- Robert B. Elliott, State House lawmaker, and U.S. Representative from South Carolina.
- Richard Theodore Greener, South Carolina school system commissioner, 1875.
- Robert Smalls, South Carolina Representative, South Carolina Senator, U.S. Representative
- D. Augustus Straker, South Carolina House of Representatives, also Inspector of Customs at the port of Charleston and clerk in the auditors office of the treasury in Washington.
- Alonzo J. Ransier, Lt. Governor of South Carolina (December 3, 1870- December 7, 1872) and later served as US Congressman (March 3, 1873- March 3, 1875)
- Jonathan J. Wright, Lawyer, SC State Senator (November 24, 1868 – January 30, 1870) and First Black Associate Justice of South Carolina Supreme Court (January 11, 1870- December 1, 1877)
- Samuel A. McElwee, member of the Tennessee General Assembly from 1883 to 1888.
- John Wesley Cromwell, Clerk of the Virginia Constitutional Convention (1867), Washington DC government clerk
- Solomon G. Brown, House of Delegates for Washington D.C. from 1871-1874, employee at the Smithsonian.
- John Mercer Langston, appointed member of the Board of Health of the District of Columbia.
- John H. Smythe, 1872, clerk in the U. S. Census, clerk in the Treasurey department, 1878 ambassador to Liberia
- Henry O. Wagoner, clerk in the first Colorado State Legislature in 1876
- Thomas Morris Chester 1875 superintendent of school district
- James Lewis (Louisiana politician), administrator of public improvements in New Orleans in 1872, appointed New Orleans naval officer in 1877
- Pierre Magloire, Avoyelles Parish Sheriff, Louisiana, 1872
- Alexander Noguez, Avoyelles Parish Sheriff, Louisiana, 1868–72
- William H. Day Baltimore Inspector of Schools, in 1878 he was elected to the school board of directors at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
- James Monroe Trotter, mail agent
- Edwin R. Overall, appointed mail carrier in 1869
- John Hudson Riddick, city council of Norfolk and appointed United States deputy marshal, 1872
- Jeremiah A. Brown, Cleveland, bailiff of the county probate court, deputy sheriff and county prison turnkey, then clerk of the City Boards of Equalization and Revision.
- Robert James Harlan, mail agent
- Harrison N. Bouey, probate judge in Edgefield County
- William E. Matthews, clerk in the United States Postal Service in Washington DC in 1870, the first black person to receive an appointment in that department.
- Josiah T. Settle, reading clerk of the Washington, DC House of Delegates (1872), clerk in the Board of Public Works, as an accountant in the Board of Audits, and as a trustee of the county schools for the district.
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p390-393
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p422-425
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p133-143
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p327-335
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p291-295
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p113-117
- Simmons, William J., and Henry McNeal Turner. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. GM Rewell & Company, 1887. p246-251
- A Brief Biography of John Willis Menard from Southern University's John B. Cade Library
- Bailey, Richard. Black Officeholders During the Reconstruction of Alabama, 1867-1878 (Pyramid Publishing) Available from author.
- Bailey, Richard. Neither Carpetbaggers Nor Scalawags: Black Officeholders During the Reconstruction of Alabama, 1867-1878. Montgomery: Richard Bailey Publishers, 1995.
- Canter Brown, Jr. Florida's Black Public Officials, 1867-1924. Tuscaloosa and London: The University of Alabama Press, 1998.
- Eric Foner ed., Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction Revised Edition. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996). ISBN 0-8071-2082-0. Between 1865 and 1877, about two thousand blacks held elective and appointive offices in the South. A few are relatively well-known, but most have been obscure and omitted from official state histories. Foner profiles more than 1,500 black legislators, state officials, sheriffs, justices of the peace, and constables in this volume.
- John Hope Franklin "John Roy Lynch: Republican Stalwart from Mississippi" in Howard Rabinowitz (ed.), Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era, (Urbana: 1982) and reprinted in John Hope Franklin, Race and History: Selected Essays, 1938-1988, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989
- Mifflin Wistar Gibbs Shadow and Light: An Autobiography Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Century, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
- Rabinowitz, Howard N. Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era (University of Illinois Press: 1982) Section on "Congressmen" includes profiles of "John R. Lynch: Republican Stalwart from Mississippi" by John Hope Franklin, "James T. Rapier of Alabama and the Noble Cause of Reconstruction" by Loren Schweninger, and "James O'Hara of North Carolina: Black Leadership and Local Government" by Eric Anderson.