List of African-American Greek and fraternal organizations
Prince Hall Freemasonry (PHA) is the first historically Black fraternal organization. It is worth mentioning that, Prince Hall Freemasonry does have an appendant order called CHI Rho Fraternity Inc., in which is also known as the original Black Skulls and Cross Bones Fraternity. This Ancient Masonic Greek Lettered Fraternity's roots can be trace as far back as 1792 in the United States. However, CHI Rho Fraternity Inc.(PHA) is an exclusive by invitation only appendant body of Freemasonry and not an independent fraternal organization. PHA is a special type of fraternal organization, separate and distinct from Greek fraternal organizations. The first of these was Alpha Kappa Nu at Indiana University in the year 1903. Wilberforce University is where Gamma Phi was established in 1905. Sixty miles away at Columbus, Ohio in March 1905, Pi Gamma Omicron was founded at Ohio State University (formation originally reported in the Chicago Defender in 1905). These organizations folded quickly without successfully establishing more than one college chapter each. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, established at Cornell University in December 1906, is the first Black intercollegiate fraternity (the first to have more than one college chapter). It still exists today.
Alpha Phi Alpha's success inspired founding of other Black Greek intercollegiate organizations. Today, these organizations (fraternities and sororities) are known collectively as the National Panhellenic Council (NPHC), and emphasize public service and civil rights. Some non-NPHC Black fraternal organizations, such as the Swing Phi Swing and Groove Phi Groove, don't solely use Greek letters in their names.
The first Black professional Greek fraternity, Sigma Pi Phi, was established in Pennsylvania in 1904.
Early formation (attempted or not existing today)
|Name||Year Formation Attempted||Incorporated||Collegiate||Greek Lettered|
|Alpha Kappa Nu||1903||No||Yes||Yes|
|Pi Gamma Omicron||1905||No||Yes||Yes|
|Gamma Phi ||1905||No||Yes||Yes|
|Prince Hall Freemasonry||1775||Yes||No||No||No|
|Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of the World||1897||Yes||No||No||No|
|Sigma Pi Phi||1904||Yes||No||Yes||No|
|Alpha Phi Alpha||1906||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kappa Alpha Psi||1911||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Omega Psi Phi||1911||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Phi Beta Sigma||1914||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Wine Psi Phi||1959||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Nu Gamma Alpha ||1962||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Iota Phi Theta||1963||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Malik Sigma Psi (Also known as MALIK Fraternity)||1977||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Phi Delta Psi||1977||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Sigma Phi Rho||1979||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Delta Psi Chi Swordsmen||1985||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Beta Phi Pi ||1986||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Megisté Areté (Christian) ||1989||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Phi Rho Eta||1994||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Alpha Kappa Alpha||1908||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Delta Sigma Theta||1913||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Zeta Phi Beta||1920||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Sigma Gamma Rho||1922||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Iota Phi Lambda||1929||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Eta Phi Beta||1942||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Gamma Phi Delta||1943||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Zeta Delta Phi :100||1962||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Rho Sigma Phi Sorority||1999||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Omega Epsilon Rho Service Sorority||2009||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Groove Phi Groove - Males||1962||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Swing Phi Swing - Females||1969||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Malika Kambe Umfazi - Females :107||1995||Yes||Yes||No||No|
- The History of Fraternities and Sororities in America
- Walter M. Kimbrough (2003). Black Greek 101: The Culture, Customs, and Challenges of Black Fraternities and Sororities. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3977-1.
- Elizabeth Calvert Fine (2003). Soulstepping: African American Step Shows. University of Illinois Press. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-252-02475-7.
- Black History Month the Divine Nine
- Sisterhood acts on foundations of Christianity, friendship
- Nina Mjagkij (13 May 2013). Organizing Black America. Routledge. pp. 195–. ISBN 1-135-58123-1.
- ECC holds panel discussion on racial profiling